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Environmental Policies and Resulting Outcomes An Analysis of Transport Sector Case Studies in India

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Mumbai: A clear link evident between the court regulations and the increasing vehicles and sale ... New Delhi Mumbai. Specific policy measure Policy thrust ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environmental Policies and Resulting Outcomes An Analysis of Transport Sector Case Studies in India


1
Environmental Policies and Resulting Outcomes
An Analysis of Transport Sector Case Studies in
India
Mahesh Patankar (mpatankar_at_iitb.ac.in) Anand
Patwardhan (anand_at_cc.iitb.ac.in) Shailesh J
Mehta School of Management Indian Institute of
Technology Bombay CMU February 2004
2
Outline
  • Context
  • Indian transport policy / regulatory framework
  • Research questions and literature review
  • Framework outline
  • Environmental policy technology link
  • Technology hierarchy
  • Framework quantification
  • Case studies (description and analysis)
  • Going beyond..

3
Context Sharp increase in public and private
road transport, leading to higher energy use and
environmental impacts (Numbers in figure all
types and entire country) Deteriorating local
air quality is a matter of concern leads to
policy response for environmental control
Transport sector contributes to 29 to 35 GHG
emissions in India!
Source MoST, India, NEERI, India
4
Indian transport policy framework - structure
Ministry of Surface Transport (MoST)
Central Government
Ministry of Environment Forests (MoEF)
Ministry of Petroleum Natural Gas (MoPNG)
State Pollution Control Board
State Government
Regional Transport Office
5
Indian transport policy framework - functions
Ministry of Surface Transport (MoST)
(Designs new road projects, guidelines on vehicle
industry standards)
(Sets emission standards vehicular and ambient
air quality)
Central Government
Ministry of Environment Forests (MoEF)
(licensing and supply chain of petroleum products)
Ministry of Petroleum Natural Gas (MoPNG)
(Air quality monitoring, reports to the MoEF)
State Pollution Control Board
State Government
(Regulates tail-pipe emission permits)
Regional Transport Office
6
What determines the success of policy?
Research goal Understand process of policy
formation, effect of alternate fuel policies and
its success parameters Understand the differences
in success parameters using case
studies Questions Can the environmental
policies alone ensure diffusion of clean fuel in
India What are the compelling conditions that
ensure success rate of clean fuel policies Can
a framework be established that will act like a
policy tool
7
Summary and gaps
8
Components of framework
Technology diffusion, market response
Outcomes environmental benefits, market
development
9
Framework policy tech change
Requires and involves technology, systems and
regime
Decision making
Ancillary infrastructure
Public perception
Set of enablers (standards)
Stage 1
Stage 2
Policy stage
Use stage
Outcome (Environmental benefits, market,
technology)
Individual decision
Actors, responsible for use
Regulators
10
Framework explanation
Stage 1 Policy stage acts as the Policy-push
to facilitate change An enabling stage, may not
be sufficient Stage 2 Provides Market-pull
to implement and achieve results of the
policies Ensures availability of ancillary
infrastructure represented as a technology
regime with clearly defined determinants Determina
nts are complementary, interdependent Individual
decisions dependent on availability of ancillary
infrastructure
11
Technology hierarchy - ancillary infrastructure
New business, developing institutions, governing
organizations, involvement of banks, defined
market, complementing applications
Technology-based regime
Technology System
Increase in infrastructure, complementing
technologies, defined application area
Technology Product / Process
Changes in end-use, in one application area,
environmental benefits
(References Kemp 1997, Jacobsson, 2000)
12
Examples of technology - regimes
13
Components of regime changes
Technology and technology system
Policy and standardization
Indicators Complementary technologies, regimes
Indicators Directives and standards
Example Fuel use policy Inspection and
maintenance Retrofit standardization Interventio
ns by courts
Example Fuel availability Engine retrofit
techniques
Transport regime around a fuel
Developing institutions, markets
Societal benefits
Indicators Increase in indigenous mfg, ROI for
users and suppliers
Indicator Public health Mortality
Example Infrastructure companies, user benefits,
increasing businesses and investments
Example Lower vehicular pollution Health benefits
14
Framework variables - quantification
15
Outcome of environmental policy Case Studies
Mumbai A clear link evident between the court
regulations and the increasing vehicles and sale
16
Outcome of environmental policy Case Studies
Steady increase in the vehicles converted to CNG,
conversion of buses to CNG at a larger scale than
that in Mumbai
Distinct policy steps to ensure supply of CNG as
a fuel
17
Outcome of environmental policy Case Studies
Mumbai CNG sale increased many-folds, but not
sufficient to cater to the entire fleet
New Delhi CNG sale increased many-folds, but not
sufficient to cater to the entire fleet
18
Outcome of environmental policy Case Studies
Success rate of policy / implementation -
observations - Supply constraint resulted in
chaotic conditions in both the cities (media
reports, CNG demand forecast for the vehicle
fleet much more than the actual
supply) - Policies alone did not provide the
sufficiency condition for use, though it
resulted in conversion / engine
retrofits - Drivers pushing CNG sales up include
pricing policies resulting in economic benefits
to users, lesser queuing time at the filling
stations, availability of conversion kits,
financing
19
Outcome of environmental policy Case Studies
New Delhi Mumbai Specific policy
measure Policy thrust with Court
intervention Enabling condition Evolution of
technological system Shift from import to local
suppliers Evolving markets Evolution of
public-private partnerships User
benefits Economic benefits with fuel
switch-over Differences in fleet-management,
refueling time Evolving enterprises Corporat
ized public Foreign direct entities invest
ment in a joint venture company Technology
/ systems Similar supply chain in both cities,
higher level of quality assurance in
Mumbai Political will Political support in both
the cases
20
Discussion case studies
Case studies used in validation CNG use in
Mumbai and New Delhi, Unleaded gasoline in India
and Thailand, Multi-point fuel injection
Clear evidence of interaction with the policy and
a clearly identified technology regime
21
Limitations
  • - Proposed framework validated with qualitative
    data
  • - Case studies in other developing countries may
    show
  • different features
  • - Data gaps on the improvement in ambient air
    quality
  • - Other factors like industrial and commercial
    sector would have a bearing on improved air
    quality
  • - Case studies represent specific fuel
    switching options, for a comprehensive fuel
    switching policy, framework will have to be
    different

Other merits of the case studies Use in other
socio-technical experiments, learning for other
options in alternate fuel use
22
Going beyond.
  • Proposed case studies
  • 1. Passive solar in developing countries
  • 2. Rainwater harvesting in India
  • 3. Green buildings program in Asia
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