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Publics Voters, Interests, Political Parties, and Media

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Interest Group Positions on Clinton's Health Security Act ... Source: Gary Jacobson, 'Public Opinion and the Impeachment of Bill Clinton,' 1999. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Publics Voters, Interests, Political Parties, and Media


1
Publics - Voters, Interests, Political Parties,
and Media
PS 202 -- American Political Institutions and
Processes
Fall 2000
2
Politics, the Media, and Public Opinion (Figure
2.6, p. 64)
Internal Media Incentives
Political and Institutional Conditions
Cycle of Crafted Talk
Interest Group Behavior
Media Coverage
Polarization Institutional Individualization Incum
bency Interbranch Relations
Strategy and Behavior of Politicians
Public Opinion
Proximity of Elections
Polling
Lawrence Jacobs and Robert Shapiro, Politicians
Dont Pander
3
Political Parties and Partisanship
? What is the role of political parties in
Politicians Dont Pander?
? Distinguishing Among Characteristics of
Partisanship
Responsible Parties ?Policy Innovation ?Policy
Accountability
Symbolic Politics ?Policy Stalemate ?Mutual
Vitriol
Common Good ?Constructive Compromise ?Mutual
Respect
Dysfunctional Parties ?Policy Muddle ?Special
Interest Power
4
Interest Group Mobilization
? What kind of organized interests were
mobilized?
Representing the Profit Sector
Representing the Non-Profit Sector
Citizen Groups
Labor Unions
? How did these groups try to influence policy
making?
5
Interest Groups, the Media, and Public Opinion
Internal Media Incentives
Political and Institutional Conditions
Cycle of Crafted Talk
Interest Group Behavior
Interest Group Behavior
Media Coverage
Polarization Institutional Individualization Incum
bency Interbranch Relations
Strategy and Behavior of Politicians
Public Opinion
Proximity of Elections
Polling
Lawrence Jacobs and Robert Shapiro, Politicians
Dont Pander
6
Interest Group Positions on Clintons Health
Security Act
7
Political Impact of Costs and Benefits of Policy
Distributive
Constituent
Redistributive
Regulatory
8
Representation
? How should elected officials be responsive to
the public? Their opinions or their overall
interests?
Trustee
Delegate
Edward Burke - 1774 Speech to Electors of
Bristol If government were a matter of will
upon any side, yours without question ought to be
superior. But government and legislation are
matters of reason and judgment.Parliament is not
a congress of ambassadors from different and
hostile interests, which interests each must
maintain, as an agent and advocate, against other
agents and advocates but Parliament is a
deliberative assembly of one nation, with one
interest, that of the whole -- where not local
prejudices ought to guide, but the general good,
resulting from the general reason of the whole.
You choose a member, indeed but when you have
chosen him he is not a member of Bristol, but he
is a member of Parliament.
Responsive Leadership
9
Set Up Legislatures
PS 202 -- American Political Institutions and
Processes
Fall 2000
10
Legislative Organization and Coalitions
Very Rare in the United States
Coalition Size (Party)
Majority
50
Minority
Coalition Unity (Party)
11
(No Transcript)
12
Ideological Positions on House Roll Call Votes,
93rd Congress (1973-74)
Source Gary Jacobson, Public Opinion and the
Impeachment of Bill Clinton, 1999.
13
Ideological Positions on House Roll Call Votes,
97th Congress (1981-82)
Source Gary Jacobson, Public Opinion and the
Impeachment of Bill Clinton, 1999.
14
Ideological Positions on House Roll Call Votes,
105th Congress (1997-98)
Source Gary Jacobson, Public Opinion and the
Impeachment of Bill Clinton, 1999.
15
Legislative Organization and Coalitions
Coalition Size (Party)
Coalition Unity (Party)
16
Legislative Organization and Coalitions
-Three Dimensions
Coalition Size (Party)
Structural Coherence
Coalition Size (Party)
Coalition Unity (Party)
Coalition Unity (Party)
17
Constitutional Design of Government
Attributes
Majoritarian
Consensus
Executive Power
Concentrated
Power Sharing
Executive-Legislative
Fused
Separation of Powers
Legislative Design
Asymmetric Bicameralism
Balanced Bicameralism
Legislative Design
Asymmetric Bicameralism
Balanced Bicameralism
Parties-Number
Two-Party System
Multi-Party System
Parties-Dimensions
One Dimensional
Multi-Dimensional
Elections
Plurality
Proportional Representation
Levels of Government
Unitary/Centralized
Federalism/Decentralized
Constitution
Unwritten
Written/Minority Veto
Source Arend Lijphart, 1984
18
Types of Legislative Organization -
Characteristics
Attributes
Centralized
Decentralized
Fragmented
Majoritarian (Median Member is Agent of Majority
Leadership)
Nature of Power
Oligarchical
Entrepreneurial
Primary Decision Arena
Electoral
Baronial
Fluid
19
Types of Legislative Organization - Policy Effects
Attributes
Centralized
Decentralized
Fragmented
Supportive Chairs and Committees as
Protocoalitions
Promotes Policy Change
Legislative Majority Favors Change
Multiple Coalition Strategies
Issue Complexity Reinforces Fragmentation
Antagonistic Chairs Exercise Baronial Veto
Legislative Majority Opposes Change
Threatens Policy Change
Additional Threats to Policy Change
Weakened Party Leadership
Divided Government
Agenda Overload
20
Selected Legislative Characteristics that
Differentiate Among Types of Legislative
Organization
  • Number of Legislative Subunits (Committees/Subcomm
    ittees)
  • Stability of Committee Membership Tenure
    (Property Rights)
  • Stability of Committee Leadership Tenure
    (Seniority)
  • Representativeness of Committees (Preference
    Outliers)
  • Allocation of Resources (Staff Support
    Services/Agencies)
  • Issue Jurisdictional Autonomy of Committees
    (Hearings)
  • Legislative Jurisdictional Autonomy of Committees
    (Bills)
  • Floor Agenda Control (Rules)

21
(No Transcript)
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