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Post War, Truman, and Eisenhower 1945-1958


Red- Hunters Conservative Republicans Joe McCarthy and Richard Nixon. Communist Hunted down ... Republicans offer Dwight D. 'Ike' Eisenhower and V.P. Richard Nixon ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Post War, Truman, and Eisenhower 1945-1958

Post War, Truman, and Eisenhower 1945-1958
  • Chapters 37 and 38

Post War Economic Activities
  • War Time Production Ends Great Depression
  • Scars of Joblessness remain
  • Marriage rate decline
  • Birthrate Decline
  • 1946-47 Economic Slump
  • Post war prices rise 33 during same time

Taft- Hartley Act
  • Out Law Union tool of a CLOSED SHOP
  • Followed by 1946 Employment Act
  • Fed. Gov.s policy to promote maximum employment,
    maximize production, and increase purchasing

G.I. Bill
  • towards post-secondary education
  • Creates Vet's Admin.
  • Makes available for mortgages and business
    loans at low rates
  • Sets up eventually a health care system for Vets

Economic BOOM begins
  • From 1948-1959 GNP Doubles
  • Doubles again in the 1960s
  • U.S.A. has 6 of worlds population
  • BUT!!!!!!!!!! Has 40 of worlds wealth

Roots of Prosperity
  • Colossal Military budget (10of GNP)
  • U.S.A. creates Technology Industry
  • invested in RD
  • Cheap Energy
  • Better Educated and Better Equipped
  • Agribusiness rather than Family Farms
  • Machinery and Rich New Fertilizers

Citizen Migration
  • Sunbelt Explodes
  • 15 States from VA to CA
  • FL, TX, AZ, CA lead the way
  • Growth of roads and Highways leads to suburbs
  • Fed loans guarantees by FHA/VA
  • Leads to White Flight
  • Construction Techniques Revolutionized

  • 50 million babies added to the population by 1958
  • War ends, Marriage Rate , Babies Follow
  • In the 60s and 70s this generation hits the
    economy with regards to schools
  • Now soon many will retire. What is the effect on
    our Economy?

Harry S. Truman
  • 58 Missouri native who takes over for FDR
  • Described as the Average Man's average Man
  • Personality evolves into confident almost cocky
    President when dealing with the Soviets
  • Some call it Moxie or some say he has IT
  • Uses phrases like the buck stops here

COLD WAR begins
  • Struggle between USA vs. USSR
  • Capitalism vs. Communism
  • Defined as COLD because it never truly goes
  • Defines tensions between the 2 super powers from

Foundations of tension
  • We kept A-Bomb plans a secret from Allies
    including USSR
  • Forces USSR to create sphere of Influence in
    Europe. Churchill calls it the Iron Curtain
  • U.N. created and Senate ratifies in 07/28/1945
  • Permanent Security Council consists of U.S.,
    USSR, France, Great Britain, and China
  • Placed in New York City

Post War Germany
  • Nuremberg Trials
  • Punish Nazis for Crimes against humanity
  • Divide Germany and Berlin into 4 quarters
  • Becomes the symbolic battle ground of Cold War

Truman and Containment Policy
  • Belief that the spread of communism can be
    stopped with Firm and vigilant containment
  • Greece 400 million dollars sent to help
    anti-communist government and to protect Turkey
    and the Mediterranean
  • Policy to support and protect free people

The Marshall Plan
  • Secretary of State Marshall calls for aide to be
    spent in Western Europe
  • 12.5 billion over 4 yrs. In 16 countries
  • Outstanding success
  • Revitalizes W. Euro.

Creation of Israel
  • U.N. creates Israel on 5/14/1948
  • Arab countries with their oil object
  • SA warns We will lay siege to it until it dies
    of famine
  • World sympathy B/C of Holocaust
  • US backing of Israel pre-empts Soviet influence
  • Complicates For. Policy in M.E. for decades to

American Re-arms
  • Nat. Sec. Act creates
  • Dept. of Def. and Nat. Sec. Council
  • Aimed at stopping communist expansion
  • Also securing our safety and economy
  • Pentagon Worlds largest office building
  • C.I.A. fact gathering agency
  • Creation of NATO 4/4/1949
  • Breaks tradition NO long term international
  • 15 Countries by 1955 including W. Germany
  • Cornerstone of Cold War

Post War Japan
  • Japanese reconstruction led by Gen. Macarthur
  • War trials 1100 convicted 18 imprisoned 7 hanged
  • Japanese realized good behavior and adoptation of
    democracy leads to the end of occupation
  • Allowed 4 Japan to become economic GIANT
  • IRAQ now ??????????????????????????

  • Bitter Civil War between nationalist and
  • Mao Zedong communist leader
  • Red Army swept over a corrupted Nationalist
  • Crushing defeat of containment policy
  • 1/4th of worlds population now communist

  • Nuclear Arms Race
  • View nuke power point!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Cold War _at_ Home
  • Loyalty Review Board
  • 3 million Fed employees Investigated
  • 3,000 resign or are dismissed
  • Teachers under microscope
  • Dennis v. U.S. 1951 (Anti-sedition)
  • Red- Hunters Conservative Republicans Joe
    McCarthy and Richard Nixon
  • Communist Hunted down
  • Other groups attacked alleged to be security
  • Modern day witch hunt

  • Read Election of 1948
  • Pages 881-883

Korea Erupts
  • After WWII Korea split in half at 38th parallel
  • Communist in North and U.S. in the South
  • Re-unification of Korea????????
  • 6/1950 N.K. w/ soviet tanks invade
  • S.K. retreat to Pusan
  • NSC doc.-68 U.S. should quadruple Def. Spending
  • U.N. condemn N.K. and Render assistance to S.K.
  • Gen. Mac Arthur invade _at_ Inchon within months
    38th parallel re-established
  • Mac Arthur fired for public insubordination

The Eisenhower Era
  • Election of 1952 Democrats position weak B/C of
    Korean War, Truman clash w/ Mac Arthur, fear of
  • Republicans offer Dwight D. Ike Eisenhower and
    V.P. Richard Nixon
  • Eisenhower war hero- Nixon red-hunter
  • Checkers speech to save
  • Republicans win 442 electoral votes landslide

Korea comes to an End
  • Ike wants to end War
  • Does not accomplish a peace treaty
  • Threatens use of A-bomb
  • Finally, after 3 yrs. Cease fire signed
    establishes DMZ

McCarthy hearings
  • Inept Senator from Wisconsin
  • Charged that communists were in the State Dept.
  • Televised Senate Hearings
  • Prayed on fears of citizens
  • Eisenhower loathed McCarthy but got out of his
    way I will not get into the gutter with this
  • McCarthy damaged state dept. might of led to
    weakness that led us into Vietnam
  • Went to far when he accused Army
  • Senate condemns McCarthy for conduct unbecoming
    of Senator
  • 3 yrs. Later McCarthy dies of alcoholism

  • Dangerous forces of unfairness and fear that a
    democratic society can unleash only at its peril.
  • Other examples???????????????

Desegregating the South
  • 15 million blacks in 1950 2/3rds in the South
  • Lived life bound by Jim Crow Laws
  • See top of Page 891
  • 20 of eligible black voters are registered
  • 5 in AL and Miss
  • An American Dilemma written 1944 by Gunnar
    Mydral contradiction in American Society All men
    equal and Segregation

  • Jackie Robinson
  • Thurgood Marshall
  • Sweatt v. Painter
  • Rosa Parks Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • MLK Jr.
  • Civil disobedience (Gandhi)
  • 1948 Truman ends segregation in Fed Civ Service

Warren Court
  • Chief Justice Earl Warren
  • Shocks most with Activist Bench
  • Critics call it Judicial Activism
  • Warren allies argue legislation by judiciary was
    better than no legislation at all

Brown v. Board of Education Topeka, KA 5/1954
  • Segregation in PUBLIC schools Inherently
  • Reverses Plessy v. Ferguson
  • DE-segregation must go ahead w/ all deliberate
  • SOUTH moves deliberately slow

Crisis _at_ Little Rock, ARK
  • ARK Gov. Orval Faubus mobilizes Nat. Grd. To
    prevent 9 black students from attending Little
    Rock Central High
  • Ike has to send in Fed. Troops to escort students
    to class

Activism and Action
  • 1957 Congress passes Civil Rights Act
  • 1st since Reconstruction
  • Focuses on voting rights
  • MLK Jr. founds SCLC- mobilization of black
  • SNCC founded in 4/1960

Eisenhower as President
  • Dynamic Conservatism
  • Events that deal w/ people be liberal, be human.
    When it comes to the peoples money, economy, or
    their government be conservative.
  • Critics call him the bland leading the bland
  • Middle of the road was harmony during the 1950s
  • 1956 Interstate Highway Act 27 Billion
  • 3 out of 8 yrs. Balanced budget

Trouble in S.E. Asia
  • Vietnam rebelling against French colonialists
  • U.S. gives aide to the French
  • Begins our involvement in Vietnam
  • Eventually country split in 2 like Korea
  • Diem regime is backed by us. Ike pledges
    and support as long as regime undertook social
    reforms. Ike backed a loosing horse but had no
    choice with communism and Ho Chi Minh to the

Middle East and Oil
  • Read bottom of page 900 to 902

Space Race
  • 10/4/1957 Soviets launch Sputnik I
  • Fear of Soviets developing ICBMs
  • Rocket Fever enters the Pentagon
  • NASA is established

Foreign Policy
  • J. Foster Dulles Policy of Boldness
  • S.A.C.
  • Thermonuclear SUICIDE !!!!!!!!??????????
  • Super bombers w/ nukes
  • More bang for your Buck
  • Spy planes and open skies

Castros Cuba
  • Latin American jealous of U.S. aide to Europe
    many look for new help
  • Dr. Fidel Castro leads revolution against the
    pro-US regime of Fulgencio Batista
  • Castro starts to confiscate property
  • US responds by sugar embargo
  • Castro confiscates more property and 1 million
    Cubans escape to US
  • In 1961 Washington breaks diplomatic relations w/
  • B/C of Castro US forms Organization of American
    States which condemns (unenthusiastically)
  • The rest they say is history

Election of 1960
  • JFK v. Nixon
  • Old School v. New School
  • Issues in 1960
  • Roman Catholicism
  • Soviets
  • Race Relations
  • Poverty
  • TV debate

Changing Economic Patterns
  • Technology
  • TV
  • Computers
  • white collar outnumbers blue collar
  • Transportation
  • Jet Passenger Service and Air Force One

Women in the Workforce
  • Many women go back to being MOMS Cult of
  • But surge in clerical and service jobs allows 30
    million women to go to work
  • Balance between career and motherhood
  • 1963 bestseller The Feminine Mystique by Betty
  • Challenges the idea of JUNE CLEAVER

Consumer Culture of the 50s
  • Expansion of the Middle Class
  • Diners Club introduces first plastic Credit Card
  • Disneyland in CA 1955
  • McDonalds 1955
  • Televangelists Rev. Billy Graham
  • 1946 6 TV stations 1956 442
  • By 1960 almost every home owned a TV

Pop Culture Icons of the 1950s
  • Elvis Pressley
  • Mickey Mantle and Joe DiMaggio
  • Marilyn Monroe
  • Playboy and Hugh Hefner
  • Read pages 913-915

  • Next Unit the 60s, 70s, and 80s
  • We are almost there!!!!!!!!!!!!