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Spanish American War

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Title: Spanish American War


1
Spanish American War
  • SS7, Strand 1, Concept 7 Emergence of the Modern
    United States
  • PO 10 Analyze the United States expanding role
    in the world during the late 19th and early 20th
    centuries
  • a. Spanish American War

2
Monroe Doctrine of 1823
  • The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 defined United States
    foreign policy in the Americas for the rest of
    the 19th century and beyond.
  • It declared that the United States had an
    interest in the Western Hemisphere and that
    European powers must not interfere in the affairs
    of developing nations there.
  • The United States was a young nation in 1823 and
    did not really have the power to back up the
    Monroe Doctrine. However, the policy was used to
    justify the sending of U.S. troops into Mexico in
    1866 (to intimidate the French) and the purchase
    of Alaska in 1867.

3
America Becomes a World Power
  • http//www.unitedstreaming.com/search/assetDetail.
    cfm?guidAssetID7DA63659-26F6-439C-836A-0FA7FA13E3
    A3tabStartvideoSegments
  • United Streaming video America Becomes a World
    Power. 30min explanation of the U.S. rise to
    imperialism which includes a segment on the
    Spanish American War.

4
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5
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6
Cuba
7
Cuba
8
Imperialism Defined
  • Imperialism is a policy used by a nation to
    extend power or rule over foreign countries
    especially by taking over land or by gaining
    political and economic control of other areas.
    Because it always involves the use of power,
    whether military force or some subtler form,
    imperialism has often been considered morally
    wrong.
  • Imperialism has been used by powerful nations in
    order to take over land, labor, materials, and
    markets of another people.
  • Acquired lands are sometimes called
    commonwealths, territories, or dominions.

9
U.S. Imperialism
  • Militarily speaking, the Spanish-American War of
    1898 was brief and not very bloody, but its
    political consequences were enormous.
  • It led to United States imperialism and greater
    participation in world politics.

10
Cubans Rebel Against Spanish Rule
  • Cuban rebels started a violent revolution against
    Spanish rule in 1895.
  • These rebels were acting out, in part because of
    a depression caused by a decline in U.S. sugar
    purchases from Cuba.
  • Rebel violence led to more repressive actions by
    the Spanish.

11
Yellow Journalism
  • In the United States, newspaper accounts spread
    exaggerated tales of Spanish atrocities.
  • This sensationalist journalism, called yellow
    journalism, played a pivotal role in the war.
  • At the time, William Randolph Hearst's New York
    American and Joseph Pulitzer's New York World,
    were engaged in a fierce battle for circulation
    and they used yellow journalism to try to
    captivate audiences and sell more newspapers.
  • William Randolph Hearst believed that a war with
    Spain over Cuba would not only sell newspapers,
    but also make him a popular national figure.

12
Propaganda
  • Hearst launched a propaganda offensive, the first
    in modern media history, which demonized Spain
    for its brutal suppression of the Cuban rebellion
    and fueled pro-war feeling.
  • American newspapers across the country agitated
    for the United States to intervene in Cubas
    struggle to gain independence from Spain.
  • At first President Cleveland resisted the rising
    public demand for intervention, but by early 1898
    the pressure, then on his successor, President
    McKinley, was too great to be ignored.

13
Newspaper Headlines
  • 22 Feb Illinois State Journal
  • "SMALL CHILDREN SHOT DOWN AND WOMEN TREATED AS IF
    THEY WERE NO BETTER THAN BRUTES"
  • 24 Feb Illinois State Journal
  • "SENATE DECLARED THAT ONE THIRD OF CUBANS HAVE
    PERISHED UNDER SPANISH CRUELTY"
  • 25 March Illinois State Register
  • "CUBA MUST BE FREE"

14
Newspaper Headlines
  • 13 Jan Chicago Daily Tribune
  • "ALARM OVER CUBA...EUROPEAN FINANCIAL INTERESTS
    WANT THE WAR ENDED...ASK UNCLE SAM TO
    ACT...BONDHOLDERS WILL LOSE UNLESS AMERICA
    INTERVENES. STRONG INFLUENCES FELT"
  • "WILD MOBS RIOTING IN THE STREETS OF
    HAVANA...AMERICAN WARSHIP TO PROTECT THE
    CONSULATE...REPORT THAT BATTLESHIP MAINE HAS BEEN
    ORDERED TO CUBA AND THAT ADMIRAL BUNA'S SQUADRON
    IS BEING ASSEMBLED AT KEY WEST, FLA."

15
U.S.S. Maine
  • In January 1898, the US decided to send in the
    warship USS Maine to Havana, Cuba to protect US
    interests and to demonstrate an American presence
    in the Caribbean.

16
Photographic History of the Spanish-American War
New York Pearson Pub. Co., 1898
17
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18
Newspaper Headlines
  • 25 Jan Chicago Daily Tribune
  • "GUNS GO TO HAVANA...WARSHIP MAINE IS DISPATCHED
    TO CUBA...SAID TO INSURE PEACE...SECRETARY LONG
    AND GENERAL MILES CALLED INTO CONFERENCE"
  • 25 Jan Illinois State Journal
  • "WARSHIP TO HAVANA...BATTLESHIP MAINE DISPATCHED
    AND SENATORS SAY AMEN...OFFICIALS DECLARE THAT
    THIS MOVE IS A FRIENDLY ONE...The sending of the
    Maine to Havana means simply the resumption of
    friendly naval relations with Spain...The general
    belief here, however, is that in Madrid, rather
    than any Cuban town, is trouble to be looked for,
    if there should be any misapprehension of the
    purpose of our government in sending the Maine to
    Havana"
  • (Senor Quesada, Secretary of the Cuban Junta
    said) "The sending of the Maine to Cuba, whatever
    be the official version, is, in our opinion,
    proof that things are in such condition in the
    few Spanish strongholds that anarchy reigns and
    that American citizens and property, unable to
    find protection at the hands of the impotent
    Spanish government, have now the protection of
    their own vessels

19
Sinking of the Maine
  • On February 15, the USS Maine mysteriously sunk
    in the Havana Harbor.
  • Although, later, scientists attributed the
    incident to an internal and accidental explosion,
    at the time it was reported that the explosion
    was caused by Spanish forces in Cuba.
  • With the explosion of the USS Maine, and the loss
    of lives in the Havana harbor, events moved
    beyond the president's control.

20
Newspaper headlines
  • 15 Feb Chicago Daily Tribune
  • "EXTRA...330 A.M....MAINE IS BLOWN UP IN HAVANA
    HARBOR...AMERICAN BATTLESHIP DESTROYED AT A
    QUARTER OF 10 O'CLOCK LAST EVENING BY A TERRIFIC
    EXPLOSION SAID TO HAVE OCCURRED ON BOARD"
  • 16 Feb Illinois State Journal
  • "WARSHIP MAINE WAS BLOWN UP...HAVANA...FEB.
    15...BULLETIN...AT A QUARTER OF 10 O'CLOCK THIS
    EVENING A TERRIBLE EXPLOSION TOOK PLACE ON BOARD
    THE UNITED STATES CRUISER MAINE IN HAVANA HARBOR.
    MANY WERE KILLED OR WOUNDED. ALL THE BOATS OF THE
    SPANISH CRUISER ALFONZE XII ARE ASSISTING"

21
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22
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23
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24
War with Spain
  • The sinking of the U.S.S. Maine in Havana harbor
    in 1898 caused the death of about 266 men
    including 22 African American sailors.
  • Yellow journalism fueled American anger and
    editor Hearst continued to push that the US had a
    perfect pretext for war.
  • Although President William McKinley opposed
    growing public demand for war, the American cry
    of the hour became, Remember the Maine, To Hell
    with Spain!

25
Newspaper Headlines
  • 17 Feb Galesburg Republican-Register
  • "THE MAINE'S DISASTER...LATER ACCOUNTS ADD TO THE
    MAGNITUDE OF THE CATASTROPHE...ONE OF THE WORST
    HORRORS KNOWN"
  • 17 Feb Chicago Daily Tribune
  • "PLOT OR ACCIDENT?...SPAIN UNDER SUSPICION"

26
Newspaper Headlines
  • 27 March Illinois State Journal
  • "POSITION OF PRESIDENT...HE WILL RECOMMEND ARMED
    INTERVENTION IF NO OTHER CAUSE WILL AVAIL...IF
    SPAIN FAILS TO GIVE IT SHE WILL RECEIVE A LESSON
    IN HUMANITARIANISM...ONLY ABSOLUTE RIGHT AND
    HUMANITY WOULD JUSTIFY PLUNGING THE NATION IN
    STRIFE, AND POLITICS WILL WIELD NO INFLUENCE IN
    THE COURSE WHICH PRESIDENT WILL PURSUE"
  • 1 April Chicago Daily Tribune
  • "READY NOW TO FIGHT...STATEMENTS BASED ON SPAIN'S
    ALLEGED REFUSAL...WILL WAIT NO LONGER...NATIONAL
    HONOR DEMANDS OPENING OF HOSTILITIES"
  • 3 April Illinois State Journal
  • "YACHTS THAT MAY BE SHIPS OF WAR...AMERICA'S
    PRIVATE YACHTS COULD ALONE WIPE SPAIN'S NAVY OFF
    OF THE SEA...LUXURIOUS FLOATING PALACES THAT
    COULD EASILY BE CONVERTED INTO VERY FORMIDABLE
    FIGHTING MACHINES"

27
Remember the Maine
  • 15 July Illinois State Register
  • "REMEMBER THE MAINE
  • Flag o' the free heart's hope and home,
  • By angel's hand to valor given.
  • Thy stars have lit the welkindome,
  • And all thy hues were born in heaven.
  • Forever float that standard sheet,
  • Where breathes the foe but falls before us,
  • With Freedom's soil beneath our feet.
  • And Freedom's banner streaming o'er us."

28
A splendid little war.
  • Although Spain wanted to avoid war, it refused to
    withdraw from Cuba and recognize the islands
    independence.
  • By mid-April, Congress authorized McKinley to use
    the armed forces to expel the Spanish from Cuba.
  • For Americans it was, as Secretary of State John
    Hay put it in a letter to Theodore Roosevelt, a
    splendid little war.

29
Newspaper Headlines
  • 23 April Illinois State Register
  • "FREEDOM FOR CUBA...MAY THEY FLOAT VICTORIOUS FOR
    JUSTICE, LIBERTY, HUMANITY
  • 24 April Illinois State Register
  • "CALLS FOR VOLUNTEERS...PRESIDENT ISSUES A
    PROCLAMATION CALLING FOR 125,000 MORE
    TROOPS...REGULARS GO TO CUBA SOON...THE NATIONAL
    GUARD TO SERVE UNCLE SAM AS NOW
    ORGANIZED...QUOTAS WHICH EACH STATE WILL BE
    FURNISHED...Illinois...6,6668"

30
Newspaper Headlines
  • 27 April Chicago Daily Tribune
  • "SEVENTH LEAVES 'MID CHEERS...COL. MARENS
    KAVANAGH'S REGIMENT MARCHES THROUGH CROWD-LINED
    STREETS FROM ARMORY TO DEPOT"
  • "FIRST CAVALRY OFF...YOUNG MEN START FOR
    SPRINGFIELD AT MIDNIGHT...TROOPS IN HIGH
    GLEE...BRAWNY LOT, MANY OF WHOM HAVE SEEN
    SERVICE...FAREWELLS AT THE TRAIN"
  • "RALLY TO THE FLAG...CHICAGO'S SOLDIERS OFF TO
    THE SPRINGFIELD RENDEZVOUS AMID CHEERS AND TEARS"
  • "CROWDS SEE THE SECOND GO...ARMORY IS BESIEGED BY
    AN ENTHUSIASTIC THRONG"

31
Newspaper Headlines
  • 30 April Galesburg Republican-Register
  • "LEAVE FOR THE FRONT...GALESBURG SENT FORWARD
    TUESDAY NIGHT 100 OF HER BRAVE BOYS"
  • 10 July Illinois State Journal
  • "PATRIOTIC MOTHERS...THEY HAVE GIVEN THEIR ONLY
    SONS TO THE CAUSE OF THEIR COUNTRY AND OF
    HUMANITY...Mrs. John A. Logan- She has suffered
    enough, you will say -offers her son. He recently
    received his commission as army officer from
    President McKinley. John A. Logan jr., in all his
    prime has gone to war, and his mother bade him
    good-bye with brave face...(caption) Mrs. Logan,
    who would give her life to her country"

32
Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines
  • American forces, quickly overcame the Spaniards
    in Cuba.
  • They then turned against Spain's last island in
    the Caribbean, Puerto Rico.
  • Meanwhile, on May 1, 1898, the American captain
    George Dewey, with his Asiatic squadron,
    destroyed a small Spanish fleet in the harbor of
    Manila in the Philippines.

33
Conditions for Soldiers
  • Although the war was brief, soldiers still
    experienced terrible, war conditions.
  • Camp life was often unbearable. The men slept in
    leaky tents which caused their clothes and
    belongings to remain soaked for days at a time.
  • Poor sanitation, swampy campsites and spoiled
    food caused many of the men to suffer from
    diseases such as dysentery, malaria and typhoid.

34
Newspaper Headlines
  • 14 July Illinois State Journal
  • "YELLOW JACK...FEAR OF FEVER...MEN WORKING IN
    TRENCHES IN MUD, NOT BOILING WATER AND EATING
    LARGE QUANTITIES OF TROPICAL FRUIT
  • 24 August Illinois State Register (after the war)
  • "FIRST ILLINOIS BOYS TALK OF CAMP THOMAS...LACKED
    GOOD WATER, FOOD, SANITATION AND MEDICAL
    ATTENDANCE

35
Newspaper Headlines
  • 17 April Galesburg Republican-Register
  • "AMERICANS IN CUBA...MANY STARVED OR SLAUGHTERED
    BY THE SPANISH OFFICIALS
  • 2 July Illinois State Journal
  • "SPANISH OUTPOSTS CAPTURED...BLOODY VICTORY NEAR
    SANTIAGO...WITH BRILLIANT COURAGE THEY DRIVE THE
    SPANIARDS BEFORE THEM...WILL CELEBRATE THE
    GLORIOUS FOURTH IN THE DOOMED CITY"
  • 3 July Illinois State Journal
  • "SANTIAGO HILLS WET WITH PATRIOT BLOOD"

36
Third Nebraska Volunteer Camp Havana, Cuba 1898.
37
Uniforms and Equipment
  • Another shortfall was the uniforms and equipment
    issued to the soldiers.
  • Instead of modern rifles, Illinois troops, for
    example, were issued the outdated Springfield
    "Trapdoor" rifle.
  • Similarly, while the pattern 1898 khaki uniform
    was issued to regular troops, Illinois soldiers
    continued to wear a woolen uniform, inappropriate
    for the tropical environment of Cuba and Puerto
    Rico.

38
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39
African Americans
  • Although pro-war fever swept through the nation
    during the late 1890s, not all Americans
    supported the cause.
  • African-Americans, especially, were divided on
    the war.
  • Some African-Americans argued that an oppressed
    people should not take up arms on behalf of their
    oppressors.

40
African American Soldiers
  • Other African American soldiers believed that
    fighting for America would earn them respect and
    acceptance.
  • African Americans who answered the calls to duty
    and did enlist, found themselves among white
    racism in the Army and the victims of anti-black
    violence.
  • White Americans did not know how to react to the
    returning African American veterans. Some were
    met with speeches and parades while others were
    assaulted and lynched.

41
Women in the War
  • Women became officially recognized in the
    Spanish-American War as nurses for the medical
    departments of the Army and Navy.
  • The Daughters of the American Revolution served
    as an examining board for evaluating female
    nurses.

42
Peace Negotiations
  • The U.S. went to war with Spain in April 1898 and
    the fighting was over by August of that year,
    when the US and Spain signed a preliminary peace
    treaty in Washington, D.C.
  • Negotiators then met in Paris in October to draw
    up an agreement, and the Treaty of Paris was
    signed on December 10th.

43
Newspaper Headlines
  • 17 July Illinois State Journal
  • "SPANIARDS QUIT SANTIAGO TODAY...SPAIN'S COLORS
    WILL FALL AT NINE O'CLOCK THIS MORNING"
  • 18 July Illinois State Journal
  • "OLD GLORY NOW FLOATS OVER SANTIAGO
  • 13 August Illinois State Journal
  • "HOSTILE ARMIES LAY DOWN ARMS"

44
Treaty of Paris
  • As a result of the Treaty of Paris, Spain gave up
    its sovereignty over Cuba (granted its
    independence) and gave the US ownership of the
    former Spanish colonies of Puerto Rico, and Guam.
  • Business interests in the US also demanded the
    acquisition of the entire Philippine archipelago
    in the hope that Manila would become a trading
    post.
  • McKinley forced the Spanish to sell the
    Philippines to the United States for 20,000,000.

45
Cuba and Puerto Rico
46
The Philippines
47
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48
Results
  • Although, rebels in the Philippines and Cuba had
    looked to the Americans as saviors, the U.S.
    victory only replaced one imperial power with
    another.
  • Months after the Spanish surrender, America was
    fighting its own colonial war against Filipino
    rebels. Intervention in Cuban affairs lasted
    until 1934 and left a residue of anti-Americanism.

49
American Imperialism
  • The new territory promised markets, military
    bases, and influence overseas.
  • As a result of victory over Spain in the
    Spanish-America War, the United States emerged as
    a world power.
  • The war reinforced the tenets of the Monroe
    Doctrine, established in 1823, which declared
    that US regards Caribbean region as its sphere of
    influence and the US could use force to protect
    it.

50
Review-Reasons for the War Included
  • Protection of American business interests in Cuba
  • American support of Cuban rebels to gain
    independence from Spain
  • Rising tensions as a result of the sinking of the
    U.S.S. Maine in Havana Harbor
  • Exaggerated news reports of events (Yellow
    Journalism)

51
Review-Reasons for American Interest in Cuba
  • The U.S. was concerned about protection of
    American business interests in Cuba (specifically
    sugar).
  • The U.S. was concerned about human rights abuses
    by the Spanish in Cuba.
  • The U.S. supported Cuban rebels trying to gain
    Cuban independence from Spain.

52
Puerto Rico
  • Puerto Rico became a US Territory following the
    Spanish-American War in 1898 and its residents
    became US citizens in 1917.
  • It has been a US Commonwealth since 1952.
  • Commonwealths have their own constitutions and
    greater autonomy than "territories." Puerto
    Rico's constitution and government structure is
    similar to those of the 50 US states, and it
    participates in many US Federal government
    programs.

53
U.S. Power
  • The U.S. controls interstate trade, foreign
    relations and commerce, customs administration,
    control of air, land and sea, immigration and
    emigration, nationality and citizenship,
    currency, maritime laws, military service,
    military bases, army, navy and air force,
    declaration of war, constitutionality of laws,
    jurisdictions and legal procedures, treaties,
    radio and television--communications,
    agriculture, mining and minerals, highways,
    postal system Social Security, and other areas
    generally controlled by the federal government in
    the United States.

54
Puerto Rico Controls
  • Puerto Rican institutions control internal
    affairs unless U.S. law is involved, as in
    matters of public health and pollution.
  • The major differences between Puerto Rico and the
    50 states are its local taxation system and
    exemption from Internal Revenue Code, its lack of
    voting representation in either house of the U.S.
    Congress, the ineligibility of Puerto Ricans to
    vote in presidential elections, and its lack of
    assignation of some revenues reserved for the
    states.

55
Virtual Fieldtrip
  • To take a virtual fieldtrip to Puerto Rico visit
    http//www.geog.nau.edu/courses/alew/ggr346/ft/ove
    rseas/?epr

56
El Morro
  • Construction at El Morro started in 1539 by
    Spanish settlers to defend the port of San Juan.
  • By the late 18th century, El Morro's walls had
    grown to be 18 feet thick. Today El Morro has six
    levels that rise from sea level to 145 feet high.
  • El Morro successfully repelled attacks from
    foreign powers such as the English (1595 and
    1598) and Dutch (1625). The British invaded
    Puerto Rico again in 1797, but no action took
    place at El Morro during that particular siege.
  • El Morro's last active fight occurred during a
    naval bombardment by the United States Navy
    during the 1898 Spanish-American War.

57
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60
  • Sources
  • http//www.shsu.edu/his_ncp/AfrAmer.html
  • http//www.il.ngb.army.mil/museum/HistoricalEvents
    /SpanishWar.htm
  • http//www.il.ngb.army.mil/museum/HistoricalEvents
    /SpanishWar.htm
  • http//www.il.ngb.army.mil/museum/HistoricalEvents
    /SpanishWar.htm
  • http//www.smplanet.com/imperialism/teacher.html
  • http//us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/photos/html/108
    4.html
  • http//www.britannica.com/eb/article-77836/United-
    States
  • http//welcome.topuertorico.org/government.shtml
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_San_Felipe_del_M
    orro
  • Images
  • http//www.map-of-spain.co.uk/road_map_of_spain.ht
    m
  • http//www.travelblog.org/Europe/blogs-page-1.html
  • http//alai.cigb.edu.cu/images/Cuba/Cuba20Florida
    20map.gif
  • http//www.cubatravelusa.com/
  • http//lal.tulane.edu/programs/exhibits/caribbean2
    .htm
  • http//www.viewimages.com/Search.aspx?mid2864066
    epmid1partnerGoogle
  • http//www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html
  • http//www.spanamwar.com/maineexplodes.htm

61
Assignment
  • Create a political cartoon that describes the
    role of the US in world affairs after the Spanish
    American War.

62
Example
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