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Influenza Infection Control

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Safer Healthier People. Influenza transmission ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Safer Healthier People ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Influenza Infection Control


1
Influenza Infection Control
  • Arjun Srinivasan, MD
  • Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion
  • National Center for Infectious Diseases

2
Influenza transmission
  • Occurs primarily by large respiratory droplets
    that are expelled from the respiratory tract
    during coughing or sneezing.
  • Close contact, within 3 feet, is usually
    required for transmission.

3
Influenza transmission
continued
  • Theoretically could occur when hands, or other
    objects, become contaminated with respiratory
    droplets or secretions and then come into contact
    with the mucous membranes.
  • Environmental transmission has not been
    demonstrated epidemiologically

4
Infection control should start at the point of
patient contact
  • The Hospital Infection Control Practices
    Advisory Committee (HICPAC) recommends that
    healthcare facilities implement a Respiratory
    Hygiene/ Cough Etiquette strategy in clinics
    and at points of entry to the facility as part
    of Standard Precautions.

5
Respiratory hygiene/ Cough etiquette
  • Post visual alerts at facility entrances
    instructing both patients and those who accompany
    them, to alert the staff if they have symptoms
    of a respiratory infection.
  • Signs should instruct those with symptoms to
    follow recommendations for respiratory
    hygiene/cough etiquette.

6
Respiratory hygiene/ Cough etiquette
continued
  • Signs should instruct patients to
  • Cover the nose and mouth when coughing or
    sneezing.
  • Use tissues to contain respiratory secretions.
  • Dispose of tissues after use.
  • Perform hand hygiene after contact with
    respiratory secretions or contaminated materials
    (e.g. tissues).

7
Respiratory hygiene/ Cough etiquette
continued
  • Healthcare facilities should ensure that there
    are adequate supplies of
  • Tissues
  • No-touch waste receptacles
  • Alcohol based hand rubs or hand washing supplies.

8
Respiratory hygiene/ Cough etiquette
continued
  • During periods of increased community respiratory
    infection activity, facilities should offer
    procedure or surgical masks to persons who are
    coughing.
  • When space permits, coughing patients should be
    encouraged to sit at least 3 feet away from other
    patients.
  • These measures can be implemented year round.

9
Droplet precautions for influenza
  • Healthcare personnel should observe Droplet
    Precautions in addition to Standard Precautions,
    when examining patients with symptoms of a
    respiratory infection, especially when fever is
    present.
  • Droplet Precautions include the use of a surgical
    or procedure mask for close patient contact

10
Hospital admission of patients with known or
suspect influenza
  • Place patient on Droplet Precautions
  • Place the patient in a private room. Patient
    cohorting can be used if private rooms are not
    available.
  • Wear a surgical mask and remove the mask when
    leaving the patients room.
  • If patient movement outside the room is
    necessary, have the patient wear a mask, if
    possible.

11
When to initiate and discontinue Droplet
Precautions for influenza
  • The decision to isolate patients for influenza
    should be made on clinical grounds.
  • Rapid antigen diagnostic tests for influenza can
    be falsely negative in up to 30 of cases.
  • In normal hosts, maintain Droplet Precautions for
    5 days from the onset of symptoms.
  • In immunocompromised hosts, maintain Droplet
    Precautions for the duration of illness.

12
Other considerations
  • Facilities should discourage persons with
    symptoms of a respiratory infection from visiting
    patients in the facility.
  • Healthcare workers who develop respiratory
    illness should be instructed not to report to
    work.
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