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Chapter 19

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Millard Fillmore ('Know-Nothing') 8; 871,731. James Buchanan. John C. Fremont. Former president Millard Fillmore. The Dred Scott Decision ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 19


1
 Chapter 19
  • Drifting Toward Disunion, 1854-1861

2
Literary Incendiaries
  • A number of books were written before the Civil
    War that served to further divide the nation
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), by Harriet Beecher
    Stowe, depicted the life of a slave (Tom) under a
    brutal southern master and the forced break up of
    his family. Stowe was ridiculed by the South for
    never having lived there nor having any real
    first hand experience with the slave-system.
    However, the book was widely read in the North
    and served to further the abolitionist cause.

3
Literary Incendiaries
  • Great Britain and France, who would likely have
    prospered by a split in the Union, did not play a
    significant role in the conflict for fear their
    populations would not support assisting slavery
  • The Impending Crisis of the South (1857), by
    Hinton Helper, attempted to prove that
    non-slaveholding southern whites were the ones
    who suffered economically from slavery.

Harriet Beecher Stowe
Hinton Helper
4
"Bleeding Kansas"
  • The people most likely to occupy Kansas were
    northerners (sometimes immigrants) with some
    money looking for land. Antislavery
    organizations often funded settlement of new
    people in both Nebraska and Kansas. Proslavery
    southerners responded by sending 1,000's from
    Missouri with the sole purpose of voting "early
    and often"
  • 1855 election - proslavery wins and a puppet
    government is set up at Shawnee Mission
  • Free-soilers declare the election a fraud and
    create their own government in Topeka.

5
"Bleeding Kansas"
  • May 22, 1856 - Charles Sumner gives his "The
    Crime against Kansas" speech in the Senate and is
    later beaten at his desk by House rep. Preston
    Brooks of South Carolina. Many representatives
    will now carry guns and knives with them at all
    times including in the chambers.

6
"Bleeding Kansas"
  • May 21, 1856 - Free-soil town of Lawrence is
    attacked and burned
  • County Sheriff Samuel Jones had been shot in
    April trying to make an arrest. He led the
    pro-slavery group that sacked the city
  • May 24-25, 1856 - Pottawatomie Creek
  • Late in the night John Brown, upset by Lawrence
    and the Sumner beating, leads a group that
    attacks and kills five slavery men most of whom
    were hacked to death by broad swords.

7
"Bleeding Kansas"
  • Late 1857 - Kansas applies for statehood under
    the Lecompton Constitution allowing slavery.
    President Buchanan favored it, but Douglas
    Democrats would not allow Lecompton without a
    true popular vote. Kansas won't become a state
    until 1861.

8
Election of 1856
  • Both major parties needed to stay away from
    candidates stained by Kansas such as the
    Republican Seward and Democrats Pierce
    (incumbent) and Douglas
  • James Buchanan (Democrat) 174 1,832,955 less
    than 50
  • John C. Fremont (Republican) 114 1,339,932
  • Millard Fillmore ("Know-Nothing") 8 871,731.

James Buchanan
John C. Fremont
Former president Millard Fillmore
9
The Dred Scott Decision
Dred Scott v. Sanford March 6, 1857
Chief Justice Roger B. Taney
Dred Scott
  • Scott was a black slave who sued for his freedom
    based on the fact that his master had brought him
    to Illinois and Wisconsin for five years.
    Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, a
    southerner, ruled that because Scott was not a
    citizen he had no right to sue. The court went
    further
  • Because a slave was private property, protected
    under the 5th Amendment, he or she could be taken
    to ANY territory
  • The Missouri Compromise of 1820 (36 30') was
    thus unconstitutional
  • Therefore, Congress and state (also territorial)
    legislatures could not ban slavery from their
    territories, killing the idea of popular
    sovereignty.

10
Economic Crisis of 1857
  • It probably wasn't as bad as the one in 1837, but
    the division of the nation led people to believe
    it would be difficult to recover
  • Reasons
  • 1) Gold from California deflated American
    currency
  • 2) An overabundance of grain was grown for the
    Crimean War in Europe
  • 3) Land speculation anticipating railroads
  • The North was hardest hit giving the false
    impression that the South was economically
    stronger. Cotton prices remained stable through
    most of the crisis and Congress had passed the
    Tariff of 1857 just months before reducing duties
    to 20, the lowest since 1812
  • The crisis gave the new Republican party two
    campaign issues for the next election protection
    for Northern business and farms for the farmless.
    Buchanan had vetoed a homestead act.

11
Lincoln versus Douglas
  • In the summer of 1858, Abraham Lincoln challenged
    Stephen Douglas to a series of debates prior to
    the Senatorial election of that year. There were
    seven debates in all. Lincoln lost the election,
    but may have set himself up for the presidential
    race two years later
  • Lincoln posed the question, if a territory should
    vote slavery down and the Supreme Court with Dred
    Scott says they can't, who would prevail?
  • Douglas maintained that popular will would
    always win out, an idea which became known as the
    "Freeport Doctrine". The Southern democrats were
    furious that Douglas suggested ignoring the laws.

12
John Brown
  • Debate rages as to what exactly he was martyr,
    psychopath, killer. He made news again by
    briefly seizing control of a federal arsenal at
    Harpers Ferry in Virginia
  • Several people were killed and Brown received the
    death penalty for the incident
  • Many southerners called this the beginning of the
    Civil War
  • The North, largely unaware of most of Brown's
    actions and listening to propaganda, elevated
    Brown to martyr status.

13
Election of 1860
  • The Democrats were in turmoil providing the
    Republicans with their opportunity
  • Lincoln (Republican) 180 - 1,865,593 40
  • Douglas (Democrat - North) 12 -
    1,382,713 30
  • Breckinridge (Demo. - South) 72 - 848,356 18
  • Bell (Constitutional Union) 39 -
    592,906 12
  • The Democrats held their first convention in
    Charleston with no nominee. They reconvened in
    Baltimore this time choosing Douglas after
    southerners had left the convention again. They
    held their own convention in Baltimore and
    nominated John C. Breckinridge
  • John Bell won Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky
  • Stephen Douglas won Missouri and got three of New
    Jerseys votes
  • Lincoln won all of the highly populated Northern
    states and west coast.

14
Election of 1860
  • The Republican platform was appealing to most
    non-southerners
  • Non-extension of slavery for the free-soilers
  • Protective tariffs for northern manufacturers
  • Rights for immigrants
  • The transcontinental railroad for the Northwest
  • Internal improvements at federal expense for the
    west
  • Free homesteads for poor farmers.

15
Last chance to save the Union
  • Seven states voted to secede from the Union
    before Lincoln could be sworn in beginning with
    South Carolina. President Buchanan did nothing.
    He didn't think the South had a right to secede
    but could not find anything in the Constitution
    to use force in order to prevent it. In February
    1861, the seven states formed the Confederate
    States of America with Jefferson Davis as their
    president
  • The Crittenden Amendments
  • A final desperate attempt at compromise. It
    stated that slavery could continue anywhere below
    the 3630' line, then and in the future
  • Essentially this would open all of Latin America
    up for slavery
  • Lincoln vetoed it ending any hope of
    reconciliation.

16
Secession map of the former United States
  • Before Lincoln could be inaugurated as president
    seven states voted to leave the Union
  • South Carolina
  • Alabama
  • Mississippi
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Louisiana
  • Texas
  • Four more would later join the Confederate States
    of America.
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