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Phoenicians

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... a Subcontinent because the Hindu Kush, Karakorum, and Himalayan ranges separate ... Hindu religion dominates daily activities. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Phoenicians


1
Phoenicians
  • Who were they?
  • They were a group of powerful traders.
  • Where did they settle?
  • An area around modern day Lebanon
  • What are they known for?
  • Remarkable shipbuilders and seafarers, first
    people to go beyond the Strait of Gibraltar.

2
Phoenicians Cont
  • What did they trade?
  • Cedar wood, dyed red-purple cloth, oil wine,
    weapons, etc.
  • What legacy did the Phoenicians leave behind?
  • The Phoenician alphabet
  • Why did they develop this system?
  • They needed a way of recording transactions
    clearly and quickly.

3
Geography of India
  • Referred to as a Subcontinent because the Hindu
    Kush, Karakorum, and Himalayan ranges separate it
    from the rest of Asia - Geographically isolated
  • Having the tallest mountains in the world
    protects the Indus Valley (fertile plain formed
    by the Indus and Ganges rivers)

4
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5
Monsoons
  • Seasonal winds
  • October-February (winter monsoons from the
    northeast blow dry air westward across the
    country.
  • June-October (winds shift, blow eastward from the
    southwest, carries moisture from the ocean often
    resulting in flooding when it doesnt drought
    usually occurs)

6
Environmental Challenges
  • Yearly floods deposited rich soil over a wide
    area (unpredictable)
  • Rivers sometimes changed course
  • Cycle of wet and dry seasons brought by the
    monsoon winds was unpredictable (drought and
    floods)
  • Mountains and deserts

7
Major Indus Valley Cities
  • Kalibangan, Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa
  • Strong central government
  • Sophisticated city planning built on a grid
    (plumbing and sewage systems)
  • System of writing has not been deciphered
  • Religious (believe to be a theocracy)
  • Trade began around 2600 B.C. (gateway to the sea)
  • Earthquakes and floods ended the reign in the
    Indus Valley

8
Maurya Empire
  • Chandragupta Maurya was able to support his
    successful war efforts by levying high taxes
    against his citizens. Ie. Farmers had to pay ½
    the value of their crop to the king.
  • Used the Arthasastra rulers handbook
  • tough policies
  • spying on people
  • political assassinations

9
Chandragupta Maurya
  • Chandragupta created a highly bureaucratic
    government, divided the empire into 4 provinces,
    each headed by a royal prince. Each province was
    divided into local districts, whose officials
    assessed taxes and enforced the law.
  • Capital was a vast, lavish city

10
Asoka (Chandragupta Mauryas Grandson)
  • Asoka wages war early in his campaign in order to
    expand his empire
  • Converts to Buddhism (after a bloody conquest),
    so he treats his subjects fairly and humanely,
    nonviolently, engaged in religious toleration
  • Asokas death is the downfall of the Mauryan
    Empire (period of turmoil) because there is a
    power vacuum created from his absence. The
    different provinces split and rule themselves
    independently. Wars frequently fought b/w them
    in a struggle for power.
  • India is invaded by Greeks, Persians, and Central
    Asians.

11
Gupta Empire
  • Chandra Gupta emerges (c. 320 A.D.) and
    establishes the Gupta Empire
  • Most communities were farming, patriarchal
    societies. (northern India)
  • Southern India was organized into matriarchal
    societies.
  • Height of the empire includes territorial
    expansion, and achievements in the arts,
    sciences, and religious thought. Empire ends
    around 535 A.D.

12
Hinduism
  • Collection of religious beliefs that developed
    over time no founder
  • Beliefs include Interconnectedness of all life
    distinction between atman, soul of individuals,
    and Brahman, world soul reincarnation of soul or
    spirit good and bad karma ultimate goal of
    moksha, state of perfect understanding

13
Hinduism
  • Believed in Many gods including Brahma, the
    creator Vishnu, the protector Shiva, the
    destroyer later, many forms of a great Mother
    Goddess
  • Sacred texts Upanishads and Vedas
  • Effects on society Ideas of karma and
    reincarnation strengthened caste system. Hindu
    religion dominates daily activities.
  • Modern day traditons Freedom to choose among
    three paths for achieving moksha and the deity to
    worship

14
Buddhism
  • Founder Siddhartha Gautama
  • Key beliefs Four Noble Truths an Eightfold Path
    to attain enlightenment reincarnation, ultimate
    goal of nirvana, or release from selfishness and
    pain
  • Enlightenment in place of many gods
  • Sacred Lit Written teachings of Buddha,
    commentaries, rules about monastic life,
    how-to-meditate manuals, and Buddha legends
  • Effect on society Rejected caste system created
    religious communities of monks and nuns within
    society.
  • Modern day traditions Daily declaration of
    Three Jewels of Buddhism, pilgrimages to sites
    associated with Buddhas life, performing of
    Buddhist worship rituals

15
Buddhism
  • Founder Siddhartha Gautama
  • Key beliefs Four Noble Truths an Eightfold Path
    to attain enlightenment reincarnation, ultimate
    goal of nirvana, or release from selfishness and
    pain
  • Enlightenment in place of many gods
  • Sacred Lit Written teachings of Buddha,
    commentaries, rules about monastic life,
    how-to-meditate manuals, and Buddha legends
  • Effect on society Rejected caste system created
    religious communities of monks and nuns within
    society.
  • Modern day traditions Daily declaration of
    Three Jewels of Buddhism, pilgrimages to sites
    associated with Buddhas life, performing of
    Buddhist worship rituals

16
Indian Trade
  • Desire for Indian spice and precious stones
    fueled trade.
  • India connects to the Silk Road(s) and becomes a
    middleman for goods.
  • Sea trade routes allow Indian traders to travel
    along the Arabian Peninsula and up through the
    Persian Gulf bringing Indian goods to the Roman
    World.
  • Sea trade also allows India to connect with
    Southwest Asia as well as China
  • Trade leads to the rise of banking in India
  • Spread their religion to other cultures (cultural
    diffusion)

17
Geography of China
  • Two main rivers the Yangtze and the Yellow
    rivers.
  • Yellowish silt that is fertile soil called loess
    overflows the banks of the Yellow river.
  • First civilization developed in a river valley
  • Problems floods, geographic isolation (nobody
    to trade with), natural boundaries did not
    protect them from outside invasion
  • Only about 10 of Chinas land is suitable for
    farming and it is located b/w the Yangtze and
    yellow rivers in eastern China

18
Shang Dynasty (1700-1027 B.C.)
  • Higher classes lived in timber built homes in the
    city
  • Peasants lived in huts outside the city
  • City Walls (Constantly waging war)
  • Family central to society (men ruled the family)
  • Social classes were sharply divided (nobles owned
    the land and stayed w/in the city walls)

19
Chinese Religion
  • Oracle Bones (animal bones or tortoise shells
    used by Chinese priests to interpret messages
    from the Gods) Used by the Shang Dynasty

20
Zhou Dynasty takes over 1027 B.C.
  • Mandate of Heaven (divine approval thought to be
    the basis of royal authority)
  • Zhou used Mandate of Heaven to justify taking
    over China, saying that the Shangs rule was so
    poor that the gods had taken it away
  • Dynastic cycle- The historical patterns of rise,
    decline, and replacement of dynasties (p.54)

21
Zhou Technology
  • Roads and Canals built to stimulate trade and
    agriculture
  • Coined money introduced (furthered trading)
  • Blast furnaces were created, that produced cast
    iron

22
Shi Huangdi
  • Sets up an Autocracy- govt has unlimited power
    and uses it in an arbitrary manner
  • Built the Great Wall of China- To prevent
    invasions from the North and West. Enemies would
    have to gallop halfway to Tibet to get around it

23
Daoism
  • A philosophy based on the ideas of the Chinese
    thinker Laozi, who taught that people should be
    guided by a universal force called the Dao (way)
  • Dao guides all things
  • Find your path to righteousness
  • ying and yang- Like Daoism focuses on the natural
    order (good and bad sides to life)

24
Confucius
  • Confucianism was based on social relationships
  • Filial piety- respect for your elders (parents
    and ancestors)
  • Five basic relationships needed to restore social
    order
  • -Ruler and subject
  • - Father and son
  • - Husband and wife
  • - older brother and younger brother
  • - Friend and friend

25
Chinese Society
  • Look at diagram on page 202
  • Emperor
  • Kings and governors- appointed by the emperor
  • State officials, nobles and scholars- aided kings
    and governors
  • Peasant farmers
  • Merchants and artisans
  • Soldiers
  • Slaves

26
Silk Road
  • European Gold for Chinese Silk
  • Chinese had a monopoly on silk production
  • Chinese kept silk secret to protect their assets
  • No one traveled the entire length of the Silk
    road
  • Look at map on p.204-205

27
Royal Road
  • Road in the Persian Empire, stretching over 1,600
    miles from Susa in Persia to Sardis in Anatolia
  • Main purpose was to enhance communication
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