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Teaching Children with Learning Disabilities

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Title: Teaching Children with Learning Disabilities


1
Teaching Children with Learning Disabilities
  • NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS

2
LEARNING DISABILITIES
  • Examples
  • I. Introduction and Definition under IDEA
  • A. Information Processing Disorder
  • B. Difficulties in Learning
  • C. Exclusionary Rule
  • D. Discrepancy Controversy
  • II. Prevalence
  • III. Characteristics of Students with LD
  • IV. Teaching Strategies for Students with LD

3
I. Introduction to LD
  • The term learning disabilities was only founded
    in 1963 by Samuel Kirk. At that time, children
    with LD were referred to by such terms as
  • perceptually handicapped,
  • brain-injured, and
  • neurologically impaired
  • were served in classrooms for students with MR or
    in most cases, were not receiving any specialized
    services in the public schools.

4
Definition of a Learning Disability under IDEA
  • LEARNING DISABILITY
  • (1) a disorder in the processing of
    information
  • involved in understanding and using
    language (spoken or written)
  • (2) Difficulties in learning, particularly
    reading, writing, mathematics, and/or
    spelling
  • (3) The problem is not primarily due to other
    causes
  • (4) Special educational services needed to
    succeed in school
  • Severe discrepancy between potential and
    achievement

5
1. Disorder in the Processing of Information
  • First, having a learning disability means that
    the brain "processes" information differently
    than most other students.
  • Simply stated, certain kinds of information get
    stuck or lost while traveling through the brain
    of the student with LD.

6
1. Disorder in the Processing of Information
  • Information processing refers to how your
    brain
  • Takes in information,
  • Uses information,
  • Stores the information in memory,
  • Retrieves the information from memory,
  • and Expresses the information

7
1. Disorder in the Processing of Information
  • Students with LD struggle with certain kinds of
    learning because their brains have difficulty
    "processing" certain kinds of information.
  • It is like when you go on a car trip and get
    stuck in road construction and need to take a
    detour. It takes you a lot longer to get where
    you are going. Its the same with information
    going through the brain of a student with LD.

8
1. Disorder in the Processing of Information
  • Different kinds of information travel through
    different parts of the brain. That's why some
    information is learned quickly and easily while
    other information is much more difficult.

9
1. Visual Processing
  • Visual Processing involves how well a student can
    use visual information. When he sees something,
    especially something complex,
  • e.g., does he understand it quickly and easily?
    Can he "visualize" things (like pictures, shapes,
    words, etc.) in his head? Can he remember
    information that he sees?
  •  

10
Read this Story
  • Mhat I bib last snwwer
  • Wy frieub Roddie donght a bop frow the det shod
    for 148. His darents pave hiw the wouey pnt
    saip that he wonlp have to day half to thew over
    the snwwer dy poinp sbecial chores aronud the
    yarp. He fipnreb he conlp rebay his dareuts L4
    bollars.
  • Later that pay, I cawe over to share sih
    exciteweut. With the bops pip ears aup mappinb
    tail, we blayeb all bay. Roddie chose a dlne
    collar for hiw. The E of ns bassep onr snwwer
    pays dike ripinp, hikiup, and blayinp pall.

11
Answer these Questions
  • Mhat bib Roddie duy frow the det shod?
  • Mhat color bib Roddie choose for the bops
    collar?
  • Hom wnch wouey bib Roddie fipnre he conlp rebay
    his dareuts?

12
What I did last summer
  • My friend Robbie bought a dog from the pet shop
    for 148.
  • His parents gave him the money but said that he
    would have to pay half to them over the summer by
    doing special chores around the yard.
  • He figured he could repay his parents 74 dollars.
  • Later that day, I came over to share his
    excitement.
  • With the dogs big ears and wagging tail, we
    played all day.
  • Robbie chose a blue collar for him.
  • The 3 of us passed our summer days bike riding,
    hiking, and playing ball.

13
Answers to What I Did Last Summer
  • What did Robbie buy from the pet shop? A dog
  • What color did Robbie choose for the dogs
    collar? Blue
  • How much money did Robbie figure he could repay
    his parents? 74 dollars

14
1. Auditory Processing
  • Auditory Processing- involves how well a
    student can use auditory information.
  • When he hears something, especially something
    detailed, does he understand it quickly and
    easily? Can he hear" things (like sounds,
    numbers, words, etc.) in his head? Can he
    remember information that he hears?

15
1. Processing Speed
  • Processing Speed refers to how fast information
    travels through the brain.
  • All LD students experience some processing speed
    difficulty when required to process information
    through their weakest processing "channel" or
    "modality".
  • It is like having the brain work at 30 miles per
    hour when the rest of the world (and all the
    information) is going 55 miles per hour. Such
    students just can't keep up.

16
1. Processing Speed
  • Who was the first President of the United States?
  • Who a question
  • Was Past tense
  • First 1
  • President of United States-Leader of Nation

17
2. Difficulties in Learning
  • Dyslexia-Severe difficulty learning to read
  • Dysgraphia- Severe difficulty learning to write
  • Dyscalculia- Severe difficulty learning to do
    mathematical concepts and computation
  • Dysorthographia- Severe difficulty learning to
    spell

18
Object Orientation and Object Identification
  • p
  • d
  • b
  • q

19
Object Orientation and Object Identification
  • M
  • W
  • E
  • 3

20
Famous People with LD
  • Whoopi Goldberg
  • Tom Cruise
  • Henry Winkler
  • George Patton
  • Winston Churchill
  • Bruce Jenner
  • Nelson Rockefeller

21
3. Problem is NOT Primarily Due to Other Causes
  • Visual Disability
  • Hearing Disability
  • Motor Disability
  • Mental Retardation
  • Emotional Disturbance
  • Emotional, Cultural or Economic Disadvantage

22
4. Special Educational Services Needed to
Succeed in School
  • It is possible for a student to
    "technically" have a disability but not to
    "qualify" for special education services.
  • This happens when a student demonstrates the
    information processing difficulties associated
    with a LD but his or her academic skills are not
    found to be "severely discrepant" from their
    ability. This may indicate that the student has
    learned how to "cope" with his/her learning
    difficulties at least to some extent.

23
Severe Discrepancy Between Potential and
Achievement
  • Look for a discrepancy between potential and
    achievement ( Not mandated under
    reauthorization of IDEA but can still be used)
  • There is no one sign that shows a person has a
    learning disability.

24
II. Prevalence
  • Almost 3 million children (ages 6 through 21)
    have some form of a learning disability and
    receive special education in school.
  • LD form the largest category in special
    education.

25
II. Prevalence
  • In fact, approximately 50 of all children who
    receive special education have a learning
    disability
  • 31 ratio males to females

26
III. Characteristics
  • may have trouble learning the alphabet, or
    connecting letters to their sounds
  • may make many mistakes when reading aloud, and
    repeat and pause often
  • may not understand what he or she reads
  • may have real trouble with spelling
  • may confuse math symbols and misread numbers

27
III. Characteristics
  • may have very messy handwriting or hold a pencil
    awkwardly
  • may struggle to express ideas in writing
  • may learn language late and have a limited
    vocabulary
  • may not follow the social rules of conversation,
    such as taking turns, and may stand too close to
    the listener

28
III. Characteristics
  • may have trouble remembering the sounds that
    letters make or hearing slight differences
    between words
  • may have trouble following directions
  • may not be able to retell a story in order (what
    happened first, second, third)
  • may mispronounce words or use a wrong word that
    sounds similar
  • may have trouble organizing what he or she wants
    to say or not be able to think of the word he or
    she needs for writing or conversation

29
IV. Teaching Strategies
  • Provide high structure and clear expectations.
    Children who are LD tend to have difficulty
    focusing, getting started and setting priorities.
    Creating a clear structured program allows the
    student to be exposed to fewer distractions and
    possible avoidance and allow for greater focus on
    work related tasks.

30
IV. Teaching Strategies
  • Allow flexibility in classroom procedures (e.g.,
    allowing the use of tape recorders for note
    taking and test-taking when students have trouble
    with written language). Keep in mind that the
    greater the number of options in responding to a
    task, the greater chance that a particular
    students learning style will be useful and
    successful.

31
IV. Teaching Strategies
  • Learning materials should easily accessible, well
    organized and stored in the same place each day.
    The less the LD student has to worry about,
    comprehend or remember, the greater chance for
    success. Too many details can easily overwhelm
    this type of student.

32
IV. Teaching Strategies
  • All assignments should be presented on the
    blackboard as well as orally presented. This
    multilevel sensory approach will only enhance the
    chances of the child being able to bring home the
    correct assignment. This will also cut down on
    parent child frustration which often occurs when
    the child with learning disabilities brings home
    part of the assignment or and assumption of what
    needs to be done due to a lack of ability in
    copying quickly.

33
IV. Teaching Strategies
  • Make sure that the child's desk is free from all
    unnecessary materials. Children with learning
    disabilities tend to have organizational problems
    as well. The less chaos, the better the focus.
    Use small binders that hold fewer papers. Keep
    the desk free of most materials. Otherwise he may
    be embarrassed to get up to go to the pail and
    stuff it in his desk.

34
IV. Teaching Strategies
  • Correct the student's work as soon as possible to
    allow for immediate gratification and feedback.
    Students with learning disabilities do not often
    have foundations of success when it comes to
    schoolwork. Therefore, when they hand in work
    they begin to worry about how they did. If they
    do not receive it back quickly, some children may
    use a great deal of energy worrying about the
    reactions of others if they did not do well.

35
IV. Teaching Strategies
  • Try to separate him from students who may be
    distracting. Some children with learning
    disabilities are very distractible, while others
    may use any external situation to avoid a
    potential failure situation. Sitting a child with
    learning disabilities next to students who are
    self-motivated and internally controlled will
    provide extra structure and controls.

36
IV. Teaching Strategies
  • Use multi-sensory teaching methods whenever
    possible. This is a common sense issue since all
    the research indicates that the greater number of
    sense utilized to learn something, the greater
    chance for the information to be understood and
    retained. Using visual, auditory, kinesthetic or
    tactile input together is highly recommended for
    children with learning disabilities.

37
IV. Teaching Strategies
  • Respond to the childs comments praising whenever
    possible. Many children with learning
    disabilities tend to have secondary emotional
    issues as a result of frustration and lower sense
    of self worth due to academic failure and stress.
    Consequently, when he responds or initiates
    conversation, praise for the initiation of
    communication should be praised.

38
IV. Teaching Strategies
  • Give constant feedback. Many children with
    learning disabilities tend to write negative
    scripts about their ability and their
    performance. Feedback in any form reduces this
    negative energy pattern and offers reality, the
    only thing that breaks down fear.
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