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Native American History in 4th and 5th Grade


... year and how much do you teach the history of Indians in your classroom? ... today think about their history in the U.S. and the way in which that history is ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Native American History in 4th and 5th Grade

Native American History in 4th and 5th Grade
  • Using Oral History in the Classroom

In your table groups, please discuss
  • When during the year and how much do you teach
    the history of Indians in your classroom?
  • How do you teach Native American history? What
    materials and/or activities do you use?
  • Do you have Indian children in your classes?
  • Have you had a chance to talk with a Native
    American person about his or her heritage?
  • What goals do you have when you teach Indian
    history? (e.g. cover curriculum, cultural
    awareness, etc.)

Native American History in the 4th grade
  • 4.2 Major nations of California Indians
    lifeways Interactions among Indians, explorers,
    Spanish missionaries, and rancheros
  • 4.5 Systems of California governance including
    Indian rancherias

Native American History in the 5th grade
  • 5.1 Describe major pre-Columbian settlements
  • 5.3 Conflict cooperation among Indian nations
    and between Indian nations and European settlers,
    including competition to control North America,
    fur trade, cultural interchanges, broken
    treaties, resistance to encroachments
    assimilation, and significant leaders
  • 5.6 Impact of early U.S. land policies on Indian

Challenges to teaching Native American History
  • Vanishing Indian myth
  • Physical destruction (disease, warfare, etc.)
  • Cultural destruction
  • Lack of Good Information Resources
  • See handout
  • Not enough time/not covered in standards

Native Americans Today
  • Who are Native Americans today? Where do they
    live? What do they do for a living? Where do
    they go to school? In what ways do their
    cultural traditions shape their lives? How do
    Indian tribes govern themselves? What is their
    relationship with state federal governments?
    What do Native Americans today think about their
    history in the U.S. and the way in which that
    history is taught in the classroom?

Oral History is . . .
  • The recollections reminiscences of living
    persons about their past
  • Historical inquiry that is undertaken by
    interviewing individuals about the events they
    have personally experienced
  • A collaboration between the interviewer (who asks
    the questions) and the person being interviewed
    (who tells the stories).

Oral History is NOT . . .
  • Role-playing (answering questions in the personal
    of a historical character)
  • Oral tradition (carefully handed down stories
    traditions, according to strict rules, within an
    oral culture).

Benefits of Oral Histories in the Classroom
  • Brings the social studies curriculum alive
  • Involves active learning
  • Builds critical thinking skills
  • Suited to non-native English learners and young
  • Develops strong oral language skills

A Variety of Types of Data Collection related to
Oral History
  • Group Interview
  • Individual Interviews
  • Survey Sent Home
  • Object Interview
  • Field Trip Interview

Oral History Manners
  • Be on your best behavior
  • Be polite and friendly
  • Be on time
  • Be respectful
  • Make the interview a pleasant experience
  • Do not argue with the person you interview
  • Listen, listen, listen

Some Dos and Donts for Oral Interviewing
  • Come well prepared know your subject and your
  • Be polite friendly
  • Begin with simple, comfortable questions
  • Ask questions one at a time
  • Allow silences give interviewee time to think
  • Speak clearly so the narrator can understand and
    hear you
  • Ask clear, brief questions
  • Ask open-ended questions, not yes-or-no questions
  • Listen actively and ask follow-up questions
  • Do not contradict or correct the narrator keep
    personal opinions to yourself
  • Avoid asking leading questions
  • Do not rush the end of the interview. End on a
    positive note.

Practicing Oral Interviews Bloopers
  • Choose one of the items on the dos and donts
  • Interview a partner doing the opposite of what
    you should do.
  • For example, ask only yes-or-no questions, OR
    argue with the speaker

Practicing Oral Interviews Mock Interviews
  • Each take 3-5 minutes to interview the other on
    one of the following subjects. Practice as many
    good interviewing techniques as possible,
    especiallyactive listening and follow up
  • Topics
  • Why you became a teacher
  • Your first work experience
  • Your dream trip or vacation

Generating Questions for the Group Interview
  • Big Question Who are Native Americans today?
    How does their cultural heritage shape their
  • What do we know about Charlie Toledo? (Handouts)

Generating Questions for the Group Interview
  • In your group
  • What is your goalthe main topic you want to
  • Generate 1 question you want to have answered for
  • Generate 2-3 questions you would like to have
    answered if there is time
  • Imagine kinds of follow up questions you might
  • Decide Who will ask the first question? Who
    will ask follow up questions? Who will take

Assign Roles for the Group Interview
  • Greeters Greet our guest, escort her to her
    seat, provide her with water and anything she
  • Consent Form Go over the consent form with our
    guest and ask her to sign it
  • Recorders Operate the tape recorder, make sure
    it is working, make sure to flip the tape in the
  • Time Keepers Make sure each group gets a turn
    to ask questions make sure interview ends on
  • Escorts Thank our guest, escort her to lunch

Follow Up Options with Oral Interviews
  • Writinge.g. essays, research papers
  • Math exercisetally and graph findings
  • Poetrye.g. found poem
  • Visual Artsportraits, maps, posters
  • Theatermonologues, dramatizations, vignettes
  • Music/Dance
  • Class Book
  • And More!

Our Class Book
  • In your group
  • Divide into 3 working teams
  • Team 1 Using the handout, create a page on the
    early history of the Indian community you have
    been assigned.
  • Team 2 Using the handout, create a page on the
    more recent history of the Indian community.
  • Team 3 Choose one question and one quote from
    your tables section of todays interview to
    include in the book and copy it onto the book