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Title: CULTURE,LANGUAGE,AND GLOBALIZATION


1
International Conference on Malayalam and
Globalization 25-27th Feb. 2008,
Thiruvananthapuram.
  • CULTURE,LANGUAGE
  • AND
  • GLOBALIZATION

SEYED HOSSEIN FAZELI Department of
Linguistics, University of Mysore,
Mysore. Emailfazeli78_at_yahoo.com
2
Outline
  • Introduction
  • 1. The history of vocabulary Culture
  • 2. Nature and reality of culture
  • 3. The categories of definitions of culture
  • 4. Language, thought and culture
  • 5. Language, Culture and Society
  • 6. Language learning
  • 7. Culture, learning and communication
  • 8. The analysis of the social content of language
    teaching and learning
  • 9.Globalization
  • 10. Results
  • English in Globalization
  • References

3
Introduction
  • Importance of relationship of language and
    culture
  • Culture and language are two unseperatable sides
    of human communication system
  • A language of one society reflects the culture of
    that society
  • Language and culture are inter-linked to each
    others in various ways
  • Language is human societys most precious
    possession not only because of its communicative
    values, but also because language is the vehicle
    of culture
  • Culture is the embodiment of all that a society
    believes produces
  • Language becomes an integral part of culture
  • Language and culture go hand in hand interacting
    with and shaping together CONTINUE

4
  • The acquisition of one language is done through
    or with culture
  • Society and culture are more than background and
    even more than context
  • Language and society are so inter-linked and
    so much apart each other that are cannot be
    thought of except in relation to the other
  • Language for the individual is his tool for
    interaction with community as well as the
    communitys tool for interaction with the
    individual
  • Language acquiring is just one aspect of
    acculturation
  • The two languages are not translation of each
    others
  • Globalization in a literal sense is international
    integration
  • Globalization can be described as a process by
    which the people of the world are unified into
    single society
  • The effects of globalization which work to
    linguistic homogenization and cultural
    homogenization is done through modernization,
    translation, standardization and the others.

5
1. The history of word Culture
  • Origin of concept culture
  • It is derived form the classical or may be
    pre-classical Latin (Cultura)
  • In 1750, it was used to describe the human
    society for the first time in Germany language
  • In 1871,Tylore defined it as a clear scientific
    definition
  • In 1926, Culture was added to Webster
    dictionary (for the same meaning)

6
2. Nature and reality of culture
  • It refers to some property of community
  • culture is something that everybody has
  • Material culture and Non-material culture
  • Culture is knowledge includes know-how and
    how-that (1957, Goodenough)
  • Cultural knowledge , Shared non-cultural
    knowledge , Non-shared non-cultural knowledge in
    one society
  • Culture
  • is general however, it is particular.
  • is dynamic, however, it is static.
  • is accepted through force, however, it is
    free will
  • Problems of the study of culture

7
3.The categories of definitions of culture
  • The Descriptive type- The factorial elements of
    culture -Tylor 1871
  • The Traditional type- The social heritage or
    tradition -Sapir 1921
  • The Normative type-
  • The rule or way -Young 1934
  • The values and ideas -Sorokin 1947
  • The Psychological type -
  • Culture as adjustment -Small 1905
  • The learning -Opler 1947
  • The habits -Murdock 1941
  • The structural type- The model, pattern or
    organization of culture


  • -Willey 1926
  • The Genetical type-
  • Culture is as a production - Falsom
    1928
  • The ideas in culture - Ward 1903
  • The symbols of culture - Whyite
    1943

8
4.Language, though and culture
  • In language acquisition, cognitive development
    and linguistic development, go hand in hand, each
    interacting with and shaping the other
  • Verbal labels can shape the way we store events
    for later recall
  • culture as socially acquired knowledge
  • culture is one part of memory
  • Culture is really an integral part of the
    interaction between language and thought
  • Meanings for every thing, are in the human

9
5. Language, Culture and Society
  • The facility of communication and interaction for
    social living, is as a result of social being and
    living in societies as characteristic of the
    human
  • Language does not develop in a vacuum
  • Language records the cultural history of a
    community
  • A language is part of the culture of a people and
    the chief means by which the members of a society
    communicate
  • Language is component of culture and central
    network through which the other components are
    expressed
  • Differences in cultural meanings across language
    are a problem in learning a new language
  • Contacting with people of another society,
    identifies some characteristics of the behavior
    ,that show they are as member of a different
    society

10
6. Language learning and teaching
  • Learning is as acquiring or getting of knowledge
    of a subject or skill by study, experience, or
    instruction
  • The concept of learning, as it is understood
    today, has been generally influenced by the
    psychological study of the learning process
  • Teaching is as" showing or helping someone to
    learn how to do something, giving instruction,
    guiding in the study of something, providing with
    knowledge, causing to know or understand
  • Your understanding of how the learner learns,
    will determine the philosophy of education

11
7. Culture, learning and communication
  • To understand some materials and subject in one
    language, we should understand the meanings of
    the culture expressed by the words of the
    language
  • There can be no real learning of a language,
    without understanding something of the patterns
    and values of the culture of which it is a part
  • To become truly educated in language, it is
    necessary to absorb the full cultural meaning of
    the target language
  • Breaking free of the elements meaning units of
    the learners native language, let him to achieve
    right communication through a second language
  • CONTINUE

12
  • If we suppose that
  • M Meaning which exists in the mind
    of sender of message during the specific
    communication, as it is called Communication A.
  • M' Meaning which consist in the mind
    of receiver of message during the specific
    communication, as it is called Communication A.
  • Among the two individuals communication, one
    of the below states, will occur
    CONTINUE

13
  • State one M'/M1, Two individuals communicate
    each others completely.
  • State two M'/M0, Two individuals do not
    communicate each each others.
  • State three M'/M lt1, Two individuals
    communicative each others, but not
    completely.
  • State four M'/M gt1, Two results will occur
  • A-Complete communication B - Self
    communication

14
8. The analysis of the social content of
language teaching and learning
  • The social content of language learning can be
    regarded as a set of factors that is likely to
    exercise a powerful influence on language
    learning
  • Socio-cultural factors that bear upon motivation
  • Sociolinguistic and socio cultural factors in
    learning environment
  • Importance to the influence of interethnic
    relations upon ethno-linguistic attitudes and on
    language learning
  • the social opportunities for contact with the
    second language
  • Educational frame work in which the teaching
    normally occurs

15
9.Globalization
  • Globalization (generally written with a Z) has
    been defined by Giddens as the intensification
    of worldwide social relations which link distant
    localities in such a way that local happenings
    are shaped by events occurring many miles away
    and vice versa (Giddens, 1990)
  • Globalization in a literal sense is international
    integration
  • Globalization can be described as a process by
    which the people of the world are unified into
    single society
  • Scholars from various disciplines such as
    sociology, political, science and geography have
    perceived globalization differently and tried to
    define it from various angles CONTI
    NUE

16
  • Commodity of chains whereby production is
    coordinated on a global scale
  • Diffusion of practice, values and technology that
    have an influence on peoples life world wide
  • Increasing technological scale and information
    flow
  • Increasing broader flow of goods, services,
    money, information and culture
  • we can find some of common concepts like mutual
    interdependence, exchange, and sharing the
    community around the world in all aspects such as
    social, economic, cultural and even linguistic
    aspects CONTINUE

17
  • Although there seems to be a consensus that we
    are living in increasingly globalized world,
    there is by no means agreement about related
    issues Compression of space and time, shrinking
    of world
  • Globalization has various aspects which affect
    the world in several different ways such as
  • 1.Industrial, 2) Financial, 3) Economic, 4)
    Political, 5) Informational, 6) Cultural, 7)
    Social and 8) Ecological
  • In cultural aspects, there are many international
    exchanges such as
  • 1. Spreading of multiculturalism, 2)
    International travel and tourism, 3) Immigration,
    4) formation or development of a set of universal
    values, 5) Development of a global
    telecommunications infrastructure, 6) Internet,
    Communication satellites and the other related
    tools, 7) Increase in the number of standards
    applied globally CONTINUE

18
  • Globalization is the emergence that is common
    cross-culturally and across national boundaries
  • The global communication leads to some extent
    functional homogenization of culture and language
  • Homogenization of culture and homogenization of
    language, are particularly relevant for
    translating globalization as a reality
  • The active responses of sub-national languages
    and cultures to the global force are also very
    important for their own survival and progress

19
10.Results
  • Language and culture go hand in hand, each
    interacting with and shaping together
  • Language and culture are inter-linked to each
    others in various ways
  • Language is an integral part of culture and the
    vehicle of culture
  • Effects on every one of them, leads to affect the
    other as it can to be called directly or
    indirectly
  • Globalization, through linguistic homogenization
    and cultural homogenization, affects on language
    and culture as modernization, translation,
    standardization and the others
    CONTINUE

20
  • Globalizations effects can be positive and
    negative effects
  • The homogenization of culture due to
    globalization process results in the
    marginalization of indigenous cultures
  • However, globalization through cultural
    homogenization, can be helpful in the progress
    and development of the cultures if .
  • The members of one culture community should try
    to maintain their positive aspects of culture and
    replace negative aspects of their culture through
    positive aspects of globalization
  • The members of one culture community should
    aware about outcomes of globalization
    CONTINUE

21
  • At the language level , globalization leads to
    growth of many countries
  • The technological and advanced communicational
    facilities make the world to shrink and pave way
    for homogenization
  • many who believe their mother tongue does not
    have universal role , they waste their time to
    use their mother tongue or teach it to their
    children
  • many others who believe such language (English)
    is as a language that can make the world as a
    peaceful unit world through understanding same
    language
  • CONTINUE

22
  • Some ideas as result of globalization and
    English or any language with such effect can be
    dangerous for national, local languages,
    specially endangered language which are
    understood to be moribund languages
  • The industrialists, traders and their marketing
    techniques play a major role in shaping the
    languages
  • It should be mentioned that, in fact the control
    over the language is not in the hands of scholar
    or academic institutions. It is shaped by the
    traders and marketing agencies

23
English in Globalization
  • English is as a language of communication and
    official language in many countries
  • English is not own language of particular
    community or country
  • Since 1945 (after second world war), English
    became a lingua France
  • More than 2/3 of scientists in the world, write
    their books and articles in English
  • 3/4 of letters in the world are written in
    English
  • 90 percent of all communications in Internet as
    international network, is in English
  • CONTINUE

24
  • The education English programs of English radios
    are used by more than 150 millions in the world
  • More than 500 millions of children in elementary
    schools and more than 800 hundreds in secondary
    and high school (without china) are familiar with
    English as a second or foreign language
  • However, there are some governments policies
    against English in countries such as France,
    German, Spain
  • There are three circles regarding to English
    first circle, such as U.S and England, the second
    circle such as India, which English has much
    dominance and it is applied as a second language
    and the third circle ,such as china and Russia
    which English has special importance as a
    international language and for such countries is
    as first foreign language CONTINUE

25
  • In 1994 , 1/3 of the press in the world, are
    printed in countries which English has special
    importance
  • In 1995, 110 from 160 of linguistics journals(70
    percent) were printed in English
  • In 1995, there were 5000 radio station that 45
    percent of them were in countries that English
    has special role
  • It is estimated that English film serials in U.S.
    and England are watched in more than 120
    countries
  • In 1996, 80 percent of produced films were in
    English CONTINUE

26
  • 85 percent of incomes of worlds cinemas are for
    English production of Hollywood
  • In countries such as German and France,
    although, there are governments policies against
    English, but only, 25 percent of their cinemas
    incomes are for non-English movies
  • In 1990, 549 from 557 of famous music groups act
    in English
  • 1156 from 1219 of famous singers, sing in English
    language
  • In 1998, U.S. had the first percentage of income
    of tourism (50 milliards dollars )
  • Around 80 percent of register of information in
    Internet, is in English .The users of Internet in
    1990 had been one million and in 1993,Tthey
    became 20 millions and 40 millions in 1995. It is
    estimated that in 2020, Such numbers will be one
    milliard

27
ACKONWLEDGMENT
  • I Acknowledge that I did main from work of
    the present work based on the work of Hossein
    Yaghobi.

28
References
  • 1.Ashori, D. 2002. Definitions and concept of
    culture. Tehran AAgah Publication.
  • 2. Avanguren, J.L.1970. Human communication.
    World University Library. New York McGraw Hill
    Book
  • Co.
  • 3.Bailey, C. 1982. English as a world language.
    London CUP.
  • 4.Basnett, s. 1990. Translation History and
    culture. London. Pinter publishuers.
  • 5..Brown, H.D.H. 1994. Principles of language
    learning and teaching. New Jersey Prentice Hall
    Regents.
  • 6.Crystal, D. 1997. The Cambridge Eneyclopedia of
    language. Newyork Cambridge university press.
  • 7.Crystal, D. 1998. English as a global
    language. Newyork Cambridge university press.
  • 8.Eco.U. 1997. The search for the perfect
    language. London Fontana press.
  • 9.Finaly, F. 1971. Translating. London Teach
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  • 10.Fisiak, J. 1985. Contrastive linguistics and
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    Press Ltd.
  • 11. Hilgard, E.R.1975.Introduction to Psychology.
    New York Harcourt Brace.
  • 12.Louis, D. 1915. Culture individuelle et
    culture de masse. (Translatd in Persian by
    Baageri, A. 2005. Tehran Ferouzan Publication).
  • 13.Lyons, J. 1990. Language and Linguistics.
    Cambridge Cambridge University Press.
  • 14.Pei, M. 1958. One language for the world.
    Newyork Dewn- Adaor.
  • 15.Mohesiniaan Raad, M. 2005.Communicology An
    innovative definition and model for communication
    process. Tehran Soroush press.
  • 16. Polman, R.1997.Behavioral Genetics.
    (Translated in Persian byNik KHo,M.R.2001.Tehran
    Mehtab publication).
  • 17.Roh Alamini, M. 2004. Background of
    Culturology. Tehran Payaam nour University Pres.
  • 18.Simmons, Tom. 1983. One language, one world.
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    Society and identity. Oxford Blackwell.

29
  • THANK
  • YOU
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