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Intoduction To research

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Title: Intoduction To research


1
Introduction to Research
  • 14th September 2011
  • Bertariasohnata Hutauruk

2
Four Major Stages of Research Work
  • Preparing the Research Proposal
  • Organizing and Conducting the Research
  • Writing the Research Report
  • Evaluating the Research

3
  • A research can be undertaken for two different
    purposes
  • To solve a currently existing problem (applied
    research)
  • To contribute to the general body of knowledge in
    a particular area of interest (basic/fundamental
    research)

4
Ways to select a topic
  • Personal experience
  • Curiosity based on something in the media
  • The state of knowledge in a field
  • Social premiums
  • Personal values

5
  • Steps to formulating research topics
  • Determine the general topic area one is
    interested in. The general area can be derived
    from
  • ones own particular interests
  • ones experience in the field
  • reading widely
  • a combination of the above three

6
INTEREST
  • If you are going to commit yourself to a piece of
    educational research, then it is important that
    you are interested in the topic you are
    researching.
  • of interest to the researcher
  • of interest to others
  • By being interested, you are more likely
  • to read widely on the topic and
  • to have a more thorough knowledge of the
    situation.

Background reading is an essential requirement
for any person wanting to undertake a piece of
research.
7
SIZE
Here is where you need to exercise some
professional wisdom. Problems are usually macro
in size often too large for satisfactory
results to be obtained. Analysis of a problem
situation can reduce a large situation into a
smaller, manageable research problem.
8
ECONOMY
Researchers are often confronted with practical
constraints, such as time and money. At the
initial planning stages, it is wise to think
about the possibility of receiving some support,
both financial and non-financial, either from
within your institution or from outside sources.
This may not be realized by direct monetary
grants but could simply be in access to equipment
printing, stationery supplies, typing, etc.
9
RESEARCHERS CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS
  • A researcher must recognize his own capabilities
    and limitations.
  • Organize a Panel in your area of study to
    monitor your
  • progress.
  • Have people willing to support you throughout
    the
  • research to suggest alternative approaches,
    assist in
  • clarification of issues, etc.

10
Personal Practical Experiences
Critical Study of Literature
Problem
Data
Conclusions
Interaction with Others
11
  • Examples
  • Area Possible Topics
  • Pedagogy - Teaching English in
  • elementary schools
  • - Teaching writing for
  • academic purposes

12
  • Area Possible topics
  • Testing - Testing speaking
  • Assessment proficiency
  • - Assessing the language
  • proficiency of high school
  • students
  • - The predictive validity of
  • the TOEFL test

13
  • Refining your research topics (based on Wiersma
    1986)
  • The topic can first be broadly stated
  • Then it should be progressively refined and
    restricted through a review of the literature

14
  • Example 1
  • Original Fluency and teaching techniques
  • Restatement A study of the effects of three
  • teaching techniques on English
  • fluency of high school students
  • A Case Study of Third Year High
  • School Students of YYY

15
  • Practice 1
  • Original Teachers correction in writing
  • classes
  • Restatement

16
  • In a research proposal, the research topic is
    normally described and explained in a section
    called Background of the Study.
  • In a published research paper, the research topic
    is usually described in a section called
    Introduction (or sometimes without this heading).

17
Major Limitations in Conducting a Research
  • Time
  • Costs
  • Access to resources
  • Approval by authorities
  • Ethical concerns
  • Expertise

18
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Methodological
Assumption (Cresswell 1994 5)
Quantitative Qualitative
Deductive process Inductive process
Cause and effect Mutual simultaneous shaping of factors
Static design categories isolated before study Emerging design categories identified during research process
Generalization leading to prediction, explanation, and understanding Patterns, theories developed for understanding
Accurate and reliable through validity and reliability Accurate and reliable through verification
19
Six assumptions of qualitative designs (Merriam
1988 19-20)
  1. Qualitative researchers are concerned primarily
    with process, rather than outcomes or products.
  2. Qualitative researchers are interested in
    meaning.
  3. The qualitative researcher is the primary
    instrument for data collection and analysis. Data
    are mediated through this human instrument,
    rather than through inventories, questionnaires,
    or machines.
  4. Qualitative research involves fieldwork. The
    researcher physically goes to the people setting,
    site, or institution to observe or record
    behavior in its natural setting.
  5. Qualitative research is descriptive in that the
    researcher in interested in process, meaning and
    understanding gained through words or pictures.
  6. The process of qualitative research is inductive
    in that the researcher builds abstractions,
    concepts, hypotheses, and theories from details.

20
Quantitative Methods
  • Quantitative Descriptive
  • Descriptive statistics graphical and numerical
    techniques for summarizing data.
  • Quantitative Analytic
  • Inferential statistics procedures for making
    generalizations about characteristics of a
    population based on information obtained from a
    sample taken from that population

21
Population, Sample, Respondent, Informant, Corpus
  • Population any set of individuals (or objects)
    having some common observable characteristics.
  • Sample the subset of a population which
    represents the characteristics of the population.
  • A sample consists of respondents or subjects
  • An informant a person from whom a linguist
    obtains information about language, dialect, or
    culture.
  • A corpus is a collection of written or spoken
    material.

22
Types of Sampling
Non-probability
Probability
Simple Random
Cluster Random
Convenience
Quota
Stratified Random
Judgement / Purposive
Snowball
Systematic Random
23
  • Practice 4
  • Goal To be able to write the Background of the
    Study section for your research proposal
  • Your Tasks
  • - Describe and explain your research topic.
  • - Put your description and explanation in the
    section called Background of the Study.
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