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Stem Cell

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the research found a stem cell cure from many diseases and its ery important for pple to save them and realy its a very interesting topic i do it for high quality – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Stem Cell


1
Stem Cell Banking
STEM CELL BANKING
Done By
Abir Berro
2
Introduction
  • Stem cells are one of the more interesting yet
    controversial topics in the field of medical
    advancements. These days, most adult cells in the
    body are mature and their function cant be
    changed . Stem cells are different they are still
    at an early stage of development and retain the
    potential to turn into many different types of
    cells. Different types of stem cells possess
    these characteristics and can be used to treat
    many different disorders there are over 70
    diseases and disorders that can be treated by
    stem cells. Most of these disorders that can be
    ameliorated(improvement) or cured by a stem cells
    are in the field of blood disease and immunology.
    Today we have seen successful treatment using
    stem cells in the areas of bone and cartilage
    regeneration, lupus and heart disease. Some of
    the conditions which scientists believe may
    eventually be treated by stem cell therapy are
  • Parkinson's disease.
  • Alzheimer's disease.
  • Stroke, arthritis, diabetes.
  • burns and spinal cord damage.

3
stem cells is the most important therapies for
many diseases and conditions because of three
important characteristics that they possess
1) Stem cells are unspecialized Cells that can
replenish their Numbers for long periods
through Cell division. Unlike muscle cell ,nerve
cell which dont Normally replicate Themselves
.
2) after receiving certain chemical signals, they
can differentiate, or transform into specialized
cells with specific functions such as (heart cell
or nerve cell.  
3) stem cells have been shown to release and
respond to a number of tissue regenerating
proteins, including growth factors and cytokines.
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What are the unique properties of stem cell?
  • long-term self-renewal the ability to go
    through numerous cycles of cell division while
    maintaining the undifferentiated state.(starting
    population of stem cells that proliferates for
    many months in the laboratory can yield millions
    of cells. If the resulting cells continue to be
    unspecialized, like the parent stem cells, the
    cells are said to be capable of long-term
    self-renewal) .
  • Potency the capacity to differentiate into
    specialized cell types. In the strictest sense,
    this requires stem cells to be either totipotent
    or pluripotent - to be able to give rise to any
    mature cell type, although multipotent or
    unipotent progenitor cells are sometimes referred
    to as stem cells.
  • Zygote ( totipotent)
  • Embryonic stem cell (pluripotent)
  • Germ layer stem cell (multipotent)

6
Types of stem cell Stem cells are often
classified by the extent to which they can
differentiate into different mature cell types,
(but this classification does not specify what
the cell types are able to release and respond to
as signaling molecules)
  1. Totipotent (omnipotent) stem cells can
    differentiate into embryonic and extra embryonic
    cell types. Such cells can construct a complete,
    viable, organism .These cells are produced from
    the fusion of an egg and sperm cell. Cells
    produced by the first few divisions of the
    fertilized egg are also totipotent.
  2. Pluripotent stem cells are descendants of the
    Totipotent stem cells of the embryo. These cells,
    which develop about four days after
    fertilization, can differentiate into any cell
    type, except for Totipotent stem cells and the
    cells of the placenta.
  3. Multipotent(unipotent) stem cells are
    descendants of Pluripotent stem cells and
    antecedents of specialized cells in particular
    tissues stem cells can differentiate into a
    number of cells, but only those of a closely
    related family of cells.(For example,
    hematopoietic stem cells, found primarily in the
    bone marrow, give rise to all of the cells found
    in the blood, including red blood cells, white
    blood cells, and platelets).

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  • Stages of embryonic stem cells
  • Embryonic stem cell lines (ES cell lines) are
    cultures of cells derived from the epiblast
    tissue of the inner cell mass (ICM) of a
    blastocyst or earlier morula stage embryos.
  • A blastocyst is an early stage embryoapproximatel
    y four to five days old in humans and consisting
    of 50150 cells.
  • ES cells are pluripotent and give rise during
    development to all derivatives of the three
    primary germ layers ectoderm, endoderm and
    mesoderm.(they can develop into each of the more
    than 200 cell types of the adult body when given
    sufficient and necessary stimulation for a
    specific cell type.
  • Pluripotent, embryonic stem cells originate as
    inner mass cells within a blastocyst.
  • The stem cells can become any tissue in the body,
    excluding a placenta. Only the morula's cells are
    totipotent, able to become all tissues and a
    placenta.

9
How Stem cells Works Cultivation
Blood cells
Muscle cells
Neural cells
10
  • Stem cell differentiation

11
Potential treatments
  • Spinal cord
  • Embryonic stem cells switched to neurons
  • Researchers at the University of
    Wisconsin-Madison coaxed human embryonic stem
    cells into becoming neural stem cells, then into
    the beginnings of motor neurons before finally
    differentiating into spinal motor neuron cells,
    the cell type that, in the human body, transmits
    messages from the brain to the spinal cord. The
    newly generated motor neurons exhibited
    electrical activity, the signature action of
    neurons
  • Muscle damage
  • Adult stem cells are also apparently able to
    repair muscle damaged after heart attacks. Heart
    attacks are due to the coronary arterybeing
    blocked, starving tissue of oxygen and nutrients.
    Days after the attack is over, the cells try to
    remodel themselves in order to become able to
    pump harder. However, because of the decreased
    blood flow this attempt is futile and results in
    even more muscle cells weakening and dying.
    Researchers at Columbia-Presbyterian found that
    injecting bone-marrow stem cells, a form of adult
    stem cells, into mice which had had heart attacks
    induced resulted in an improvement of 33 percent
    in the functioning of the heart. The damaged
    tissue had regrown by 68 percent

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What are the advantages of stem cell ?
  • It provides medical benefits in the field of
    therapeutic cloning.
  • It provides great potential for discovering
    treatments including Parkinsons disease cancer
    spinal cord.
  • It helps treat illness.
  • It let the risks be quite reduced because patient
    bodies would not reject their own cell
  • It can develop into any cell types of the body.
    (muscle cells , neurons cells, heart cells.)

14
What are the disadvantages of stem cell ?
  • The use of embryonic stem cells for research
    involves the destruction of blastocysts formed
    from laboratory-fertilized human eggs..
  • Like any other new technology, it is also
    completely unknown what the long term effects of
    such an interference with nature could
    materialize.
  • Embryonic stem cells may not be the solution for
    all ailments.
  • According to a new research stem cell therapy was
    used on heart disease patients. It was found that
    it can make their coronary arteries become
    narrower.
  • A disadvantage of embryonic stem cells is that
    they are derived from embryos that are not a
    patients own and the patients body may reject
    them

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