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China and Japan in the Early 20th Century

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Japan began a crash program of reform and industrialization ... Why did Japan's representative government lose political initiative to the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: China and Japan in the Early 20th Century


1
China and Japan in the Early 20th Century
2
Review
  • During the course of the 19th century, China and
    Japan both had to cope with pressure from the
    industrialized nations of the west
  • Japan began a crash program of reform and
    industrialization
  • As the Japanese economy grew, its military became
    more powerful
  • China was torn apart by revolts and pressure from
    outside governments. As the government proved
    less and less capable of dealing with external
    and internal problems, the Qing government
    received less and less support from the Chinese
    people

3
Questions
  • How did nationalism influence the political
    development of China and Japan in the early 20th
    century?
  • Why did Chinas political situation grow more and
    more chaotic?
  • Why did Japans representative government lose
    political initiative to the Japanese military,
    and what consequences did this have for the Far
    East?

4
The Collapse of Qing Power
  • Empress Dowager Cixi (d. 1908)
  • The failure of the Hundred Days Reforms (1898)
  • The Boxer Rebellion 1900
  • Late Qing reforms and the 1911 revolution

Cixi
5
Rebellion and Anarchy
  • 1911 Last Qing emperor deprived of power
  • Sun Zhongshan (1866-1925) and the Revolutionary
    alliance
  • Yuan Shikai (d. 1916and the Army
  • World War I, China, and Japan
  • Twenty-one demands
  • After Yuan Shikais death various military
    commanders seized control and much of China was
    ruled by these warlords

Yuan Shikai
6
Reactions to Crisis
  • The May 4th Movement
  • Strikes in Shanghai 1925-1926
  • Sun Zhongang, Jiang Jieshi, and the Guomindang
  • Mao Zedong and the CCP
  • 1928-1937 The Nanjing Decade
  • 1934-1935 The Long March

Jiang Jieshi (1887-1975)
7
(No Transcript)
8
Japan Flexes its Muscles
  • 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War
  • Political tensions in Japan
  • 1915 The Twenty-One Demands
  • Japan and the World
  • League of Nations and the Equality of Races
  • 1921-1922 Washington Naval Conference
  • 1924 U.S. Immigration Law
  • 1926 Hirohito (r. 1926-1989) assumes throne

Hirohito
9
Toward Military Government
  • Incidents in Manchuria
  • 1928 and 1931 attacks on Chinese rail stations
  • Japan takes Manchuria
  • Assassination of Prime ministers
  • Kokutai no Hongi

Hamaguchi Osachi (d. 1931)
10
Conclusions
  • Nationalism in Japan and a desire for imperial
    greatness led to Japanese expansion into China
  • The collapse of the Qing Dynasty led to a period
    of chaos in Chinese politics, as China was
    divided among warlords, the Guomindang, the CCP,
    European spheres of influence, and
    Japanese-controlled territories
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