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What is Diabetes Mellitus

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OF DIABETES. Symptoms of diabetes and Random Blood Sugar of 200 mg/dL. 100 ... SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES. Excessive urination. Increased thirst. Increased appetite ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What is Diabetes Mellitus


1
What is Diabetes Mellitus ?
2
What is Diabetes?
3
DIABETES Greek
MELLITUS Latin
Sweet as honey
To pass water like a siphon
4
Diabetes Mellitus
Sweet Urine
It is a longstanding disease
characterized by high blood sugar
levels. Elevated levels of blood glucose
(hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of
glucose into the urine.
5
What is glucose?
Glucose is an essential nutrient that provides
energy for the proper functioning of the body
cells.
FUEL
MAN needs glucose to work
CAR needs fuel to move
6
What is glucose?
Glucose in digested food is absorbed by the
intestines into the blood and carried to all the
cells in the body. Glucose needs insulin to enter
the cells.
7
What is Insulin?
Insulin is produced by the PANCREAS
especially during meals. Without insulin,
glucose cant enter the cells and remains in the
blood.
8
G
G
G
G
G
Glucose
G
Key Insulin
G
Keyhole Insulin Receptor
Cell Powerplant
9
Keyhole Insulin Receptor
G
G
G
G
G
CELL POWERPLANT
Key Insulin
10
G
Energy
G
G
G
G
CELL POWERPLANT
11
What causes it?
Insufficient production of insulin or the
inability of cells to use insulin (insulin
resistance).
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
Type 2 DM defective insulin receptor (keyhole)
with insufficient insulin
Type 1 DM insulin (key) absent
12
Do I have Diabetes?
13
CRITERIA FOR DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETES
14
GLUCOSE REGULATION
15
GLUCOSE REGULATION
GLUCOSE
INSULIN
16
ETIOLOGIC CLASSIFICATION OF DIABETES MELLITUS
  • TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS
  • ß-cell dysfunction leading to absolute insulin
    deficiency
  • TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
  • predominant insulin resistance with relative
    insulin deficiency or
  • predominant secretory defect with insulin
    resistance
  • OTHER SPECIFIC TYPES
  • GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

17
DM TYPE 1
18
DM TYPE 2
19
SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES
Increased thirst
Excessive urination
Increased appetite
20
SYMPTOMS OF ELEVATED BLOOD GLUCOSE
Excessive Urination
Frequent Thirst
21
POLYURIA -increased amount of daily urine
22
SYMPTOMS OF ELEVATED BLOOD GLUCOSE
POLYPHAGIA
ITCHINESS
23
SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES
Weakness and Fatigue
Weight Loss
Poor Wound Healing
Blurring of Vision
24
WHO GETS DIABETES MELLITUS?
AGE
RACE/ COLOR
SEX/ GENDER
RELIGION
25
TRIGGERING MECHANISM
26
CAUSES OF DIABETES MELLITUS
HEREDITY
OLD AGE
OBESITY
27
GENETICS OF DIABETES
28
PATTERN OF INHERITANCE
DM TYPE 2
DM TYPE 1
29
CAUSES OF DIABETES MELLITUS
PREGNANCY
ILLNESS
SURGERY
MEDICATIONS
30
COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES
  • MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS
  • DIABETIC RETINOAPTHY
  • DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY
  • DIABETIC NEUROPATHY
  • MACROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS
  • CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
  • CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE

31
DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
DM RETINOPATHY
NORMAL RETINA
32
DIABETES AND KIDNEY DISEASE
15
29
30-40
PEOPLE ON DIALYSIS
PEOPLE WITH KIDNEY DISEASE
PEOPLE RECEIVING KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION
33
DIABETIC NEUROPATHY
34
MACROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS
35
PEOPLE AFFLICTED WITH DIABETES MELLITUS
  • 25 times more prone to BLINDNESS
  • 17 times more prone to KIDNEY DISEASE
  • 5 times more prone to GANGRENE
  • 2 times more prone to HEART DISEASE
  • 90 times more prone to NEUROPATHY

36
MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES
37
MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES
Diet
38
MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS
Exercise
39
MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS
ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC DRUGS
INSULIN
40
MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS
Education
41
  • The Philippine College of Physicians wishes to
    acknowledge the following for their invaluable
    efforts in the preparation of this module
  • Elaine Matawaran, MD
  • Elaine Cunanan, MD
  • Rosa Allyn G. Sy, MD
  • Committee on Advocacy Public Relations
  • Philippine Society of Endocrinology and
    Metabolism
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