4. The Text of the Bible - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – 4. The Text of the Bible PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 37c3a-ZTEyO


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

4. The Text of the Bible


– PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:745
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 132
Provided by: DavidC7
Tags: bible | text


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: 4. The Text of the Bible

4. The Text of the Bible
  • BIB586 Biblical Introduction

4. The Text of the Old Testament
  • 3.1 Proto-Masoretic Masoretic Texts
  • 3.2 Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • 3.3 Septuagint
  • 3.4 Targumim
  • 3.5 Peshitta
  • 3.5 Vulgate

3.0 Introduction
  • R. Ishmael "My son, be careful, because your
    work is the work of heaven should you omit
    (even) one letter or add (even) one letter, the
    whole world would be destroyed" b. Sot. 20a

3.0 Introduction
  • There are many witnesses to the Old Testament
    (First Testament). The Hebrew is the easiest to
    deal with, while the translations are dealt with
    in a secondary manner, due to the problem of
  • Until the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls,
    however the earliest Hebrew witness to the
    Scriptures were the Nash Papyri (1st-2nd century

3.0 Introduction
  • "Interest in the text of the Bible began in the
    first centuries of the common era when learned
    church fathers compared the text of the Hebrew
    Bible and different Greek versions. In the third
    century Origen prepared a six-column edition
    (hence its name Hexapla) of the Hebrew Bible,
    which contained the Hebrew text, its
    transliteration into Greek characters, and four
    different Greek versions. Likewise, Jerome
    included in his commentaries various notes
    comparing words in the Hebrew text and their
    renderings in Greek and Latin translations."
    Tov, Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible, 16

3.1 Proto-Masoretic Masoretic Texts
  • "The name Masoretic Text refers to a group of
    manuscripts and other sources all of which are
    close to each other. Many of the elements of
    these manuscripts and even their final form were
    determined in the early Middle Ages, but they
    continue a much earlier tradition. The name
    Masoretic Text was given to this group because of
    the apparatus of the Masorah attached to it. This
    apparatus, which was added to the consonantal
    base, developed from earlier traditions in the
    seventh to the eleventh centuries the main
    developments occurring in the beginning of the
    tenth century with the activity of the Ben Asher
    family in Tiberias. Tov, Textual Criticism of
    the Hebrew Bible, 16

3.1 Proto-Masoretic Masoretic Texts
  • "The received consonantal text preceded the one
    that includes the vocalization and accents. Both
    of these circulated in many slightly deviating
    forms, and were finally stabilized only with the
    advent of the printed Rabbinic Bible toward the
    end of the 15th century. However, earlier forms
    of the MT come close to such a stabilization.
    The earliest attestations of the consonantal
    framework of the MT-found in many, but not all,
    Qumran texts - date to around 250 BC. Their
    resemblance (especially 1QIsab) to the medieval
    form of the MT is striking, showing how accurate
    the transmission of the MT was through the ages.
    These earliest attestations are called
    proto-Masoretic since their consonantal
    framework formed the basis for the later
    Masoretic mss. Tov, "Text Criticism (OT), ABD

3.1 Proto-Masoretic Masoretic Texts
  • The Masoretic Text (MT) Contains
  • The consonantal text found in the proto-Masoretic
    texts of the Second Temple era and the Masorah
    which developed later
  • The vocalization developed by the Masoretes
  • Para-textual elements
  • Accentuation
  • The apparatus of the Masorah

3.1.1 The Consonantal Text
  • The MT probably developed from the Pharisees (?),
    with possible Temple ties.
  • The History of the Consonantal Text of the MT
  • 1. The period of internal differences in the
    textual transmission.
  • This period comes to an end at the time of
    destruction of the Second Temple.
  • N.B. the Qumran material contains not only
    proto-Masoretic texts, but also pre-Samaritan,
    Hebrew source for the LXX, Qumran original, and a

3.1.1 The Consonantal Text
  • The differences in the proto-Masoretic group and
    the later MT tended to be limited to single words
    and phrases.
  • "Talmudic and later rabbinic literature have
    preserved other early variants. Still other
    early variants are found in the Masoretic
    madinh9a)e4 and ma(arba)e4 readings and in the
    Masoretic handbook Minh9at Shay." Tov

3.1.1 The Consonantal Text
  • 2. The Period of relatively high degree of
    textual consistency.
  • From the destruction of the Second Temple until
    the 8th century CE.
  • Documents from the Judean Desert (Wad4
    Murabba(at and Nah9al H9ever ) written before the
    Bar-Kochba rebellion (132-135 CE) . . . Cairo
    Genizah material.
  • "Non-Hebrew sources from this period include the
    Greek translations by Kaige-Theodotion, Aquila,
    and Symmachus, the Aramaic Targums, and the
    Vulgate." Tov

3.1.1 The Consonantal Text
  • "All textual evidence preserved from the second
    period reflects MT, but this fact does not
    necessarily imply the superiority of that textual
    tradition. The communities which fostered other
    textual traditions either ceased to exist (the
    Qumran) or dissociated themselves from Judaism
    (the Samaritans and Christians)." Tov

3.1.1 The Consonantal Text
  • 3. The Period of almost complete textual unity.
  • From the 8th century until the end of the Middle
  • "The earliest dated Masoretic mss proper are from
    the 9th century, and are characterized by the
    introduction of vocalization, cantillation signs,
    and the Masorah. The consonantal texts of the
    individual codices are virtually identical." Tov

3.1.2 Vocalization
  • "Vocalization and accents were added to the
    consonantal text of MT at a relatively late
    stage. This additional layer of information is
    known only from the MT, but is similar to the
    tradition of reading the Sam. Pent. During the
    Middle Ages the Samaritans developed a system of
    vocalization, but the mss of the Sam. Pent.
    remain without systematic vocalization."
  • Qumran used vowel letters matres lectionis
  • "The purpose of vocalization was to solidify the
    reading of the text in a fixed written form on
    the basis of the oral tradition which had been
    stable in antiquity. As with all other

3.1.2 Vocalization
  • forms of reading (vocalization), the Masoretic
    system reflects the exegesis of the Masoretes,
    although the greater part of it is based on
    earlier traditions." Tov
  • Three Systems of Vocalization
  • Tiberian (North-Palestinian)
  • Palestinian (South-Palestinian) vowel signs are
    placed above the consonants
  • Babylonian subdivided into simple and compound
    vowel signs are placed above the consonants.

3.1.2 Vocalization
  • "In the circles that occupied themselves with the
    vocalization of the biblical text from the 8th to
    the 10th century AD in Tiberias, the most
    prominent families were those of Ben-Asher and
    Ben-Naphtali. The Ben-Asher system was later
    accepted universally, while that of Ben-Naphtali
    came into disuse. It is not known whether any of
    the transmitted mss offer a purely Ben-Naphtali
    tradition hence not all details about this
    system of vocalization are known, even though one
    learns much from the variants between it and
    Ben-Asher." Tov

3.1.2 Vocalization
  • N.B. Moshe Goshen-Gottstein's discussion of the
    Ben Asher witness
  • Second Rabbinic Bible eclectic text (BH1-2)
  • codex Leningrad B 19a (AD 1009) (BH3-BHS)
  • But, the Aleppo Codex is considered the best
    (Hebrew University Library Project)

3.1.3 Para-Textual Elements
  • "Once it became unacceptable to make any more
    changes to the biblical text, the earliest
    generations of the sope6rm directed their
    activities toward accurately recording all the
    peculiarities in their mss." Tov
  • 1. Paragraph Divisions
  • "With painstaking care the Masoretes transmitted
    the division of the text into paragraphs (Heb
    pa4ra4sa, pl. pa4ra4siyyot), which resembled
    the system now also attested in most Qumran
    texts. They distinguished between small textual
    units separated from each other by open spaces
    between verses within the line (pa4ra4sa
    se6tuma, closed section, indicated with the
    letter samek), and

3.1.3 Para-Textual Elements
  • larger textual units separated from each other by
    spaces that leave the whole remaining line blank
    (pa4ra4sa pe6tuh9a, open section, indicated
    with the letter pe). The Masoretes also
    indirectly indicated versification (with the
    silluq accent), following an ancient tradition
    indicated (by spaces) in a few Qumran texts
    (1QLev, 4QDan a, c) and in several Greek texts
    such as 8H9evXll." Tov
  • 2. Inverted Nun
  • Num 10.35-36 and Ps 107.23-28, 40 (x7?)
  • Thus it is stated in Sifre on Numbers (section
    84) "the section wrah snb yhyw is naqud (dotted)
    before it and after it because this is not its

3.1.3 Para-Textual Elements
  • The opinion of Rabbi is that it forms a book
    itself." Israel Yeivin, Introduction to the
    Tiberian Masorah, 46
  • "That the Inverted Nun indicate here a
    dislocation of the text is also attested by the
    Septuagint. In the recension form which this
    Version was made, verses 35, 36 preceded verse
    34, so that the order of the verses in question
    is Numb X. 35, 36, 34 and this seems to be the
    proper place for the two verses." C. D.
    Ginsburg, Introduction to the Massoretico-Critical
    Edition of the Hebrew Bible, 343

3.1.3 Para-Textual Elements
  • 3. Extraordinary Points (Puncta Extraordinaria)
  • "Supralinear (occasionally in combination with
    infralinear) points are found in fifteen places
    in the OT (e.g., Gen 334 Ps 2713). While
    these points originated from scribal notations
    indicating that the elements thus highlighted
    should be deleted (a convention used in many
    Qumran texts), within the Masoretic corpus these
    symbols were reappropriated to indicate doubtful
    letters ." Tov

3.1.3 Para-Textual Elements
  • 'Abot R. Nat. "The words "unto us and to our
    children" (Deut 29.28) are dotted. Why is that? .
    . . This is what Ezra said If Elijah comes and
    says to me, "Why did you write in this fashion?"
    And if he says to me, "You have written well," I
    shall remove the dots from them.
  • De Lagarde used these dots as the bases to argue
    that all MT manuscripts were copied from a single

3.1.3 Para-Textual Elements
  • 4. Suspended Letters (Litterae Suspensae)
  • "In the mss some letters are intentionally placed
    higher than those around them (i.e.,
    superscripted between surrounding letters). A
    good example is the suspended nun in Judg 1830,
    where the text with the nun is read mnsh
    (Manasseh) or without the nun as msh (Moses).
    As in the Qumran texts, the suspended letters
    indicate later additions, which nevertheless were
    transmitted as such in the MT ." Tov

3.1.3 Para-Textual Elements
  • 5. Special Letters
  • "The special form of some letters directs the
    readers attention to details that were important
    for the Masoretes, such as the middle letter or
    word in a book. For a littera minuscule see Gen
    24 for a littera majuscule, see Lev 1333. In
    other instances imperfectly written letters are
    indicated especially. " Tov

3.1.3 Para-Textual Elements
  • 6. Ketib-Qere
  • "In a large number of instances ranging from
    848 to 1566 according to the different traditions
    the Masorah parva (smaller Masorah) notes that
    one should disregard the written text (Aramaic
    ketib, "what is written") and read instead a
    different word or words (Aramaic qere, "what
    is read")." Tov
  • "Opinions vary about whether the Qere represents
    a Masoretic correction, a textual variant, or
    something else."

3.1.3 Para-Textual Elements
  • "Opinions vary about whether the Qere represents
    a Masoretic correction, a textual variant, or
    something else." Tov
  • "Initially, the Qere was intended as a
    correction, particularly to discourage blasphemy,
    such as the Qere perpetuum (the constant Qere) of
    the written Tetragrammaton (YHWH) to be read as
    )a6do4na4y. Subsequently, the already existing
    system of incorporating corrections as marginal
    notes was also used to preserve for posterity
    deviant/variant readings. Still later, all these
    marginal notes came to be (mis)understood as
    corrections. Recently, Barr (1981) suggested
    that the Qere words originated in the reading
    tradition because there is never more than one
    Qere word." Tov

3.1.3 Para-Textual Elements
  • "The second group of notations associated with
    the Masorah parva is indicated by the notation
    se6brn, followed by an almost identical word
    (e.g., mmnw/mmnh in Judg 1134). The se6brn
    notations closely resemble those of the Qere
    indeed, various words indicated as Qere in some
    mss are indicated as se6brn in others. The
    term is an abbreviation of se6brn
    we6ma(tn, i.e., one might think (sbr) that x
    should be read instead of y, but that is a wrong
    assumption (ma(tn)." Tov

3.1.3 Para-Textual Elements
  • "Third, the Masorah parva mentions some 250
    consonantal variants between Palestinian
    (ma(arba4)e, or western) and Babylonian
    (ma4dnh9a4)e, or eastern) readings." Tov

3.1.3 Para-Textual Elements
  • 7. Corrections of the Scribes (Tiqqune
  • "The term refers to words (18 or 11 depending on
    the sources the oldest source is the Mekilta on
    Exod 157) that tradition says were changed by
    the sope6rm e.g., my wickedness (Num 1115
    MT) replaced an original reading your
    wickedness. All supposed emendations concern
    minor changes in words that the sope6rm deemed
    inappropriate for God or (in one instance) Moses
    (Num 1212). In some sources these corrections
    are called kinnuye sope6rm (euphemisms of
    the scribes), implying

3.1.3 Para-Textual Elements
  • that the sope6rm had a different understanding
    of these words without, however, changing the
    text itself. Many details in the list of
    tiqqunm are dubious. Nevertheless, it is
    considered likely that theological alterations
    have been made in the text, even though the
    specific tiqqune6 sope6rm which have been
    transmitted may not give the best examples of
    this process" Tov

3.1.4 Accentuation
  • "The accents, also named cantillation signs,
    which add an exegetical layer and musical
    dimension to the consonants and vowels, have
    three different functions
  • 1. To direct the biblical reading in the
    synagogue with musical guidelines
  • 2. To denote the stress in the word
  • 3. To denote the syntactical relation between the
    words as either disjunctive or conjunctive" Tov

3.1.5 The Apparatus of the Masorah
  • "The Masorah in the narrow and technical sense of
    the word refers to an apparatus of instructions
    for the writing of the biblical text and its
    reading. This apparatus was prepared by
    generations of Masoretes and was written around
    the text. The purpose of this apparatus was to
    ensure that special care would be exercised in
    the transmission of the text." Tov

3.1.5 The Apparatus of the Masorah
  • Two main parts to the Masorah
  • 1. Masorah parva Mp written as Aramaic notes
    in the side margins of the text. Includes
  • The number of specific occurrences of spellings
    or vocalizations.
  • The Qere, Sebirin, and all para-textual
  • Special details like shortest verse or the middle
    verse in the Torah, etc.

3.1.5 The Apparatus of the Masorah
  • 2. Masorah magna Mm written as Aramaic notes
    in the upper or lower margins of the text.
  • "This apparatus is closely connected with the Mp
    as its function is to list in detail the
    particulars mentioned by way of allusion in the
    Mp, especially the verses referred to by the
    apparatus." Tov

3.1.5 The Apparatus of the Masorah
  • Some Editions of the Masorah
  • C. D. Ginsburg, The Massorah Compiled from
    Manuscripts, Alphabetically and Lexically
    Arranged, vols. I-IV (London/Vienna, 1880-1905
    repr. Jerusalem 1971)
  • G. E. Weil, Massorah Gedolah manuscrit B.19a de
    Leningrad, vol. I (Rome, 1971).
  • D. S. Loewinger, Massorah Magna of the Aleppo
    Codex (Jerusalem, 1977).

3.1.6 MT Manuscripts
  • Qumran, Murabba'at, Masada
  • Nash Papyrus (Exod 20.2-17, partly Deut 5.6-21)
  • Geniza fragments
  • Ben Asher Manuscripts
  • Codex Cairensis (Former Latter Prophets, 895
  • Aleppo Codex (Shelomo ben Buya'a wrote the
    consonants, while Aaron Ben Asher vocalized and
    accentuated the codex, 925 CE) lost Gen
    1.1-Deut 28.26 SoS 3.12-the end, i.e., Qoheleth,
    Lamentation, Esther, Daniel, and Ezra.

3.1.6 MT Manuscripts
  • Ben Asher Manuscripts
  • A Tenth-century codex from the Karaite synagogue
    in Cairo containing the Pentateuch.
  • Codex Leningrad B 19A (from 1009)
  • Codex B.M. Or. 4445, indicated as B (significant
    sections of the Torah from the first half of the
    tenth century)
  • Codex Sassoon 507 of the Torah (tenth century)
  • Codex Sassoon 1053 of the Bible (tenth century)

3.1.6 MT Manuscripts
  • Printed Editions
  • "Earliest editions included portions (all with
    Rabbinic commentary and to some extent with
    Targum), e.g. Psalms, 1477 (Bologna?), Prophets,
    1485/86 (Soncino), Writings, 1486/87 (Naples),
    Pentateuch, 1491 (Lisbon), etc. and complete
    Bibles, e.g., Soncino, 1488, Naples, 1491/93,
    Brescia, 1494. The first Rabbinic Bible was
    edited by Felix Pratensis and was also published
    by Daniel Bomberg in 1516/17, a considerable
    critical achievement with in large measure served
    as a basis for the second Rabbinic

3.1.6 MT Manuscripts
  • Printed Editions
  • Bible of Jacob ben Chayyim." Würthwein, The Text
    of the Old Testament, 37
  • The Second Rabbinic Bible of Jacob ben Chayyim
    (published by Daniel Bomberg in Venice, 1524/25)
  • Hebrew texts Targum comments by Rashi, Ibn
    Ezra, Kimchi, etc.
  • 925 leaves in four folio volumes index
  • However this was an eclectic text, therefore not
    the best ben Asher representation.

3.1.6 MT Manuscripts
  • Printed Editions
  • "Particularly important for the advance in
    biblical research have been the so-called
    polyglots, multilingual editions that give the
    text of the Bible in parallel columns in Hebrew
    (MT and Sam. Pent.), Greek, Aramaic, Syriac,
    Latin, and Arabic, accompanied by Latin
    translations and introduced by grammars and
    lexicons. The first is the Complutensian
    Polyglot (1514-17), prepared by Cardinal Ximenes
    in Alcala (Latin Complutum). The second was
    published in Antwerp (1569-72), the third in
    Paris (1629-45), and the fourth, the most
    extensive, in London (1654-57), edited by B.
    Walton and E. Castell." Tov

3.1.6 MT Manuscripts
  • Printed Editions
  • Johann Heinrich Michaelis (1720)
  • Benjamin Kennicott Vetus Testamentum Hebraicum
    cum variis lectionibus, 2 vol. (Oxford,
    1776-1780) 600 mss, 52 editions of the Hebrew
    text and 16 mss of the Samaritan.
  • J. B. de Rossi collected variants 1,475
    manuscripts and editions.
  • S. Baer Franz Delitzsch (1869ff.) not

3.1.6 MT Manuscripts
  • Printed Editions
  • C. D. Ginsburg (British Foreign Bible Society,
    1908ff. 1926) Jacob ben Chayyim text.
  • Norman H. Snaith (British Foreign Bible
    Society, 1958) Ms. Or. 2626-2628.
  • BH1-2 used the Jacob ben Chayyim text.
  • BH3 and BHS have used the Codex Leningrad B 19A
  • Hebrew University Bible (HUB) using the Aleppo

The First Edition of the Psalter, 1477 Bologna,
with David Kimhi
Complutensian Polyglot (1514-17)
Codex Cairensis 827CE, Moshe ben Asher
Aleppo Codex Shelomo ben Buya(a, 930CE
Aleppo Codex Shelomo ben Buya(a, 930CE
Codex 17, Firkowitsch Collection 930CE
Codex Leningrad B19A 1008-9CE
Codex Leningrad B19A 1008-9CE
Benjamin Kennicott Vetus Testamentum Hebraicum
cum variis lectionibus, 2 vol. (Oxford, 1776-1780)
Benjamin Kennicott Vetus Testamentum Hebraicum
cum variis lectionibus, 2 vol. (Oxford, 1776-1780)
Benjamin Kennicott Vetus Testamentum Hebraicum
cum variis lectionibus, 2 vol. (Oxford, 1776-1780)
3.2 Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • "The Samaritan Pentateuch contains the text of
    the Torah, written in a special version of the
    "early" Hebrew script as preserved for centuries
    by the Samaritan community. This text is
    permeated with ideological elements which,
    however, form only a thin layer added to the
    text. Scholars are divided in their opinion on
    the date of this version, but it was probably
    based on an early, pre-Samaritan, text, similar
    to those found in Qumran." Tov

3.2 Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • 3.2.1 Origin Background
  • "The Samaritans themselves believe that the
    origin of their community goes back to the time
    of Eli (11th century BC), when the Jews
    withdrew from Shechem to establish a new cult in
    Shiloh, which was later brought to Jerusalem.
    According to this conception, the Jews split off
    from the Samaritans, not the other way around. A
    different view is reflected in 2 Kgs 1724-34,
    according to which the Samaritans were not
    originally Jews, but pagans brought to Samaria by
    the Assyrians after the fall of Samaria in the
    8th century BC. In accordance with this
    tradition, in the Talmud the Samaritans were
    indeed named Kythians (cf. 2 Kgs 1724). " Tov

3.2 Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • 3.2.2 Character of the Samaritan Pentateuch
  • ". . . it differs from MT in some six thousand
    instances. While it is true that a great number
    of these variant are merely orthographic, and
    many others are trivial and do not affect the
    meaning of the text, yet it is significant that
    in about 1,900 instances SP agrees with LXX
    against MT." Würthwein, 42-43

3.2 Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • 1. Harmonizing Alterations
  • "The Sam. Pent. contains various kinds of
    harmonizing alterations, especially additions (to
    one passage on the basis of another one) that, by
    definition, are secondary. These alterations
    appear inconsistently (i.e., features which have
    been harmonized in one place have been left in
    others). The Sam. Pent. was not sensitive to
    differences between parallel laws within the
    Pentateuch, which, as a rule, have remained
    intact, while differences between parallel
    narrative accounts, especially in the speeches in
    the first chapters of Deuteronomy and their
    sources, were closely scrutinized." Tov

3.2 Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • "Thus, in the MT the Fourth Commandment in Exod
    208 begins with za4kor (remember) and in
    Deut 512 with sa4mor (observe), but the Sam.
    Pent. reads sa4mor in both verses. " Tov
  • ". . . parallel verses from Deut 19-18 are added
    in Exodus (after 1824 and within v 25),
    resulting in a double account of the story of
    Moses appointing of the judges."
  • Addition of details

3.2 Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • 2. Linguistic Corrections this is found in both
    the Pre-Samaritan and SP in general.
  • 3. Sectarian Changes in the Samaritan Pentateuch
  • "This concerns the most important doctrinal
    difference between the Jews and the Samaritans
    the central place of worship (Jerusalem for the
    Jews, Mount Gerizim for the Samaritans)." Tov
  • ". . . the Samaritans added a commandment to the
    Decalog (after Exod 2014 and Deut 518) that
    secured the centrality of Mount Gerizim in the
    cult. This commandment is

3.2 Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • composed of a series of biblical pericopes that
    mention such a central cult in Shechem (Deut
    1129a 272b, 3a, 4-7 1130 in this
    sequence). The addition of this material as the
    Tenth Commandment was made possible by changing
    the First Commandment into an introductory
    clause." Tov
  • ". . . various alterations in Deuteronomy where
    the characteristic expression the place which
    the Lord your God will choose is changed to the
    place which the Lord your God has chosen (e.g.,
    Deut 1210, 11).

3.2 Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • From the Samaritan perspective, Shechem was
    already the chosen place in the time of Abraham,
    whereas from the historical perspective of
    Deuteronomy, the choice of Gods place
    (Jerusalem) yet lay in the future, after the
    conquest of the land and the election of David."
  • 4. Orthography in the SP
  • The use of matres lectionis
  • 5. Pre-Samaritan Texts
  • "There are large harmonizing additions from
    Deuteronomy in Exodus and Numbers

3.2 Pre-Samaritan Samaritan Pentateuch
  • (and in one case, vice versa), well attested in
    4QpaleoExm, 4Q158, 4Q364 (both biblical
    paraphrases), 4QNumb, 4QDeutn, and 4Q175
    (Test)." Tov
  • 6. Modern Editions of the SP
  • A. F. von Gall, Der hebräische Pentateuch der
    Samaritaner, (Giessen, 1914-18 repr. Berlin,
  • A R. Sadaqa, Jewish and Samaritan Version of
    the Pentateuch - With Particular Stress on the
    Differences between Both Texts, (Tel Aviv,

Samaritan Pentateuch 1215/6 - Num 34.26-35.8
A. F. von Gall, Der hebräische Pentateuch der
Samaritaner, (Giessen, 1914-18 repr. Berlin,
3.3 Septuagint
  • "LXX is a Jewish translation which was made
    mainly in Alexandria. Its Hebrew source differed
    greatly from the other textual witnesses (MT, T,
    S, V and many of the Qumran texts), and this
    accounts for its great significance in biblical
    studies. Moreover, LXX is important as a source
    for early exegesis, and this translation also
    forms the basis for many elements in the NT."

3.3 Septuagint
  • Date "According to the generally accepted
    explanation of the testimony of the Epistle of
    Aristeas, the translation of the Torah was
    carried out in Egypt in the third century BCE.
    This assumption is compatible with the early date
    of several papyrus and leather fragments of the
    Torah from Qumran and Egypt, some of which have
    been ascribed to the middle or end of the second
    century BCE (4QLXXLeva, 4QLXXNum, Pap. Pouad 266,
    Pap. Pylands Gk. 458)." Tov

3.3 Septuagint
  • Witnesses
  • 1. Early texts written on papyrus and leather
    including both scrolls and codices.
  • 2nd Century BCE onward, many fragments in
    Palestine Egypt.
  • Chester Beatty / Scheide Collection (Egypt, 1931)
    contained most of the books, even Daniel.
  • Also Qumran 4QLXXLeva
  • 2. Uncial (uncialis) or majuscule (majusculus)
    manuscripts from the fourth century onwards,
    written with "capital" letters.
  • 3. Minuscule (minusculus) or cursive manuscripts,
    written with small letters, from medieval times.

3.3 Septuagint
  • Witnesses
  • 2. Uncial (uncialis) or majuscule (majusculus)
    manuscripts from the fourth century onwards,
    written with "capital" letters.
  • B Vaticanus, dates from the 4th century and is
    considered the best complete manuscript of the
    LXX. Relatively free of corruption and influences
    of the revisions of LXX.
  • S or a Sinaiticus, dates from the 4th century
    and usually agrees with B, when the two reflect
    the Old Greek translation, but S

3.3 Septuagint
  • Witnesses
  • is influenced by the later revisions of the LXX.
  • A Alexandrinus dates from the 5th century and
    is greatly influenced by the Hexaplaric tradtion
    and in several books represents it faithfully.
  • 3. Minuscule (minusculus) or cursive manuscripts,
    written with small letters, from medieval times.

Codex Vaticanus LXX, - B Cod. Vat. Gr. 1209
3.3 Septuagint
  • Witnesses
  • 3. Minuscule (minusculus) or cursive
    manuscripts, written with small letters, from
    medieval times.
  • Many minuscule manuscripts from the ninth to the
    sixteenth centuries are known. N.B. Göttingen and
    Cambridge editions.

3.3 Septuagint
  • Critical Editions
  • 1. A. E. Brooke, N. McLean and H. St. J.
    Thackeray, The Old Testament in Greek according
    to the Text of Codex Vaticannus (Cambridge,
    1906-1940) known as "The Cambridge Septuagint".
  • Gen-Neh, Esther, Judith, Tobit according to B,
    and where that manuscript is lacking, ti has been
    supplemented by A or S.

"The Cambridge Septuagint"
3.3 Septuagint
  • Critical Editions
  • 2. Ziegler, ed., Göttingen Septuaginta, Vetus
    Testamentum Graecum auctoritate Societatis
    Litterarum Göttingensis editum.
  • This is the most precise and thorough critical
    edition of the LXX.

Göttingen Septuaginta
3.3 Septuagint
  • Importance of LXX for Biblical Studies
  • Gen genealogies, chronological data
  • Exod the second account of the building of the
    Tabernacle in chapters 35-40
  • Num sequence differences, pluses and minuses of
  • Josh significant transpositions, pluses, and
  • Sam-Kgs many major and minor differences,
    including pluses, minuses, and transpositions,
    involving different chronological and editorial

3.3 Septuagint
  • Jer differences in sequence, much shorter text
  • Eze slightly shorter text
  • Pro differences in sequence, different text
  • Dan Est completely different text, including
    the addition of large sections, treated as
  • Chr "synoptic" variants, that is, readings in
    the Greek translation of Chronicles agreeing with
    MT in the parallel texts.

3.3.1 Revisions of the Septuagint
  • General
  • LXX and the revisions share a common textual
  • The revision corrects the LXX in a certain
  • Kaige-Theodotion
  • The Greek scroll of the Minor Prophets found in
    Nahal Hever was identified as an early kaige
    revision of the LXX by Barthelemy (1952).
  • Also in 6th column of the Hexapla and in the
    Quinta (fifth) column of the Hexapla . . . .

3.3.1 Revisions of the Septuagint
  • Kaige-Theodotion
  • Supplanted the current Greek version of the Book
    of Daniel . . . ." Jellicoe, The Septuagint and
    Modern Study, 84
  • Corrected the LXX with a Hebrew text.
  • Aquila
  • Aquila prepared his revision in approximately 125
    CE. Some biblical books have two different
  • Student of R. Akiba
  • "Aquila . . . Made an attempt to represent
    accurately every word, particle, and even

3.3.1 Revisions of the Septuagint
  • Aquila
  • morpheme. For example, he translated the nota
    accusativi ta separately with su,n, "with,"
    apparently on the basis of the other meaning of
    ta, namely "with"." Tov
  • The Aquila Onqelos theory.
  • Symmacus
  • 2nd or 3rd century CE either an Samaritan who
    had become a proselyte or and Jewish-Christian
  • "Two diametrically opposed tendencies are

3.3.1 Revisions of the Septuagint
  • Symmacus
  • visible in Symmachus's revision. On the one hand
    he was very precise, while on the other hand, he
    very often translated ad sensum rather
    representing the Hebrew words with stereotyped
    renderings." Tov
  • Hexapla
  • Origen in the mid-3rd century CE.
  • Six columns
  • Obelos (?) elements in Greek, but not in Hebrew

3.3.1 Revisions of the Septuagint
  • Hexapla
  • Asteriskos (?) extant in Hebrew, but not in
    Greek, which were added in the fifth column from
    one of the other columns.
  • Post-Hexaplaric Revisions
  • Lucian (d. 312 CE). (b, o, c2, e2 in the
    Cambridge Septuagint).
  • Known from both Greek and Latin sources, now in
    Hebrew (4QSama).

3.4 Peshitta
  • Peshitta means "the simple translation or
  • "Peshitta is of Christian or Jewish-Christian
  • "The quality of the Peshitta (Syriac translation)
    varies from book to book, ranging from fairly
    accurate to paraphrastic. The Heb Vorlage of the
    Peshitta was more or less identical with MT. The
    Peshitta offers fewer variants than the LXX, but
    more than the Targums and the Vulgate." Tov

3.5 Targumim
  • Targum means explanation, commentary or
  • Both Jewish and Samaritan Targumim exist. However
    the Jewish Targumim had a higher status within
    their own community.
  • Jewish Targumim exist for all the books of the
    Hebrew Bible except Ezra, Nehemiah and Daniel.
  • The Targumim reflect a Hebrew text that is very
    close to the MT, except for the Job Targum from

3.5 Targumim
  • Targum Onqelos (Torah)
  • Translated by Onqelos the proselyte, "under the
    guidance of R. Eliezer and R. Joshua"
  • Date first, third or fifth century CE?
  • As a rule Onqelos follows the plain sense of
    Scripture, but in the poetical sections it
    contains many exegetical elements.
  • Sperber argues that there are 650 minor variants
    in the Targum Onqelos.

3.5 Targumim
  • Palestinian Targumim (Torah)
  • Jerusalem Targum I Targum Pseudo-Johnathan.
  • Jerusalem Targum II, III The Fragment(ary)
  • Targumim from the Cairo Genizah
  • Vatican Neophyti 1 discovered in 1956 in a
    manuscript dating 1504 1st/2nd century CE but
    others 4th/5th century CE.

3.5 Targumim
  • Targum to the Prophets
  • Targum Jonathan to the Prophets varies from book
    to book.
  • Targum to the Hagiographa

3.5 Targumim
  • "The quality of the translation of the Aramaic
    Targums varies from Targum to Targum and from
    book to book (see especially Komlosh 1973). As a
    rule, the Targums from Palestine are more
    paraphrastic in character than the Babylonian
    ones. The more literal translations of 11QtgJob
    and 4QtgLev, though found in Palestine, are an
    exception to this rule." Tov

3.5 Targumim
  • "The Targums usually reflect the MT deviations
    from it are based mainly on exegetical
    traditions, not on deviating texts. An exception
    must be made for 11QtgJob, which contains
    interesting variants and which possibly lacks
    some verses of the MT (4212-17), a fact which
    would be significant for the literary criticism
    of the book. It may perhaps be assumed that
    other Targums in an earlier stage of their
    development also contained more variants than in
    their present form. Targum Onqelos as a rule
    contains more variants than the Palestinian
    Targums." Tov

3.6 Vulgate
  • "Though occasionally reflecting variants, this
    Latin translation almost always reproduces MT."

3.2 The Text of the Second Testament
  • 3.2.1 The Text of the N.T.
  • 3.2.2 N.T. Text Criticism

93 Greek Manuscripts General
  • "Greek mss of the NT, now numbering more than
    5,300, customarily have been characterized in
    three differing ways (1) by the material upon
    which they are written (papyrus, parchment, or
    paper) (2) by their calligraphic type (uncial or
    minuscule handwriting) and (3) by the function
    of the document containing the text
    (continuous-text ms, lectionary, or patristic
    quotation). The traditional way of listing them,
    however, cuts across these categories (utilizing
    one or two from each) and follows the scheme of
    papyri, uncials, minuscules, lectionaries, and
    patristic quotations." Eldon Jay Epp, "Textual
    Criticism (NT)," ABD

94 Greek Manuscripts General
  • Statistics (as of 1989)
  • Papyri Catalogued (96)
  • Uncial MSS Catalogued (299)
  • Minuscule MSS Catalogued (2,812)
  • Lectionaries Catalogued (2,281)
  • Total (5,488)
  • Metzger, The Text of the New Testament Its
    Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration, 262

95 Transmission
  • 1. What is Required? ". . . knowledge of ancient
    writing materials, of paleography, of scribes and
    scribal habits, of scribal errors and
    transcriptional probabilities, of scriptoria and
    their procedures, and of the availability and
    mobility of literary texts in the early Christian
    world. In a broader context, it also requires
    knowledge of the nature, development, and spread
    of early Christianity, including details of the
    relevant geographical areas, the cultural and
    ecclesiastical milieu of Christianity in those
    various areas, and the theological and personal
    influences that shaped Christian faith. For the
    earliest times and even for some later periods,

96 Transmission
  • understanding of the NT text is inhibited by a
    lack of detailed knowledge just as often,
    perhaps, the neglect of data provided by Church
    history has prevented advances in the
  • 2. NT Textual Materials "As early as 1707, John
    Mill claimed that the (relatively few) NT mss
    examined by him contained about 30,000 variant
    readings 200 years later B. B. Warfield
    indicated that some 180,000 or 200,000 various
    readings had been counted in the then existing
    NT mss, and in more recent times M. M. Parvis
    reported that examination of only 150 Greek mss
    of Luke revealed about 30,000 readings there
    alone, and he suggested that the actual quantity
    of variant readings among all NT

97 Transmission
  • manuscripts was likely to be much higher than
    the 150,000 to 250,000 that had been estimated in
    modern times. Perhaps 300,000 differing readings
    is a fair figure for the 20th century."
  • 3. "It is not difficult to imagine how the NT
    writings were employed in the early decades of
    Christianity and how they were circulated in that
    initial period and in the succeeding decades. For
    instance, an apostolic letter or a portion of a
    gospel would be read in a worship service
    visiting Christians now and again would make or
    secure copies to take to their own congregations,
    or the church possessing it might send a copy to
    another congregation at its own initiative or
    even at the request of the writer (cf. Col 416)
    and quite rapidly numerous early Christian

98 Transmission
  • writings-predominantly those that eventually
    formed the NT-were to be found in church after
    church throughout the Roman world. Naturally, the
    quality of each copy depended very much on the
    circumstances of its production some copies must
    have been made in a rather casual manner under
    far less than ideal scribal conditions, while
    others, presumably, were made with a measure of
    ecclesiastical sanction and official solicitude,
    especially as time passed. Great Church centers,
    such as Antioch, Alexandria, Ephesus, Rome, Lyon,
    and Carthage, must have issued copies of the
    Scriptures, or parts thereof, for their
    constituent churches, and when the Christian
    Church gained the official favor of the Roman
    Empire under

99 Transmission
  • Constantine, the emperor himself commissioned 50
    copies of the Scripture on fine parchment. . .
    by professional scribes for new churches in
    Constantinople (Eusebius, Vita C. 4.36). This
    occurred about AD 331, some 280 years after Paul
    penned the first of his letters and about 260
    years after the first gospel, Mark, was written.
    Codices Sinaiticus and Vaticanus, the two oldest
    parchment manuscripts of the NT (except for
    fragments), are elegant copies of the kind that
    Constantine must have had in mind, and they come
    from precisely this period-the mid-4th century."

100 Manuscripts
  • 1. According to Types of Material
  • "Papyrus mss, in codex form, were used by
    Christians from the earliest times into the 8th
    century. They constitute only 3 of NT
    continuous-text mss and less than 2 of all NT
    mss, though, of course, far less than that in the
    amount of extant Greek NT text, since most of the
    papyri are highly fragmentary. Qualitatively,
    however, they enjoy an importance inversely
    proportionate to the small amount of text they
    presently preserve." Epp

101 Manuscripts
  • 1. According to Types of Material
  • "Parchment codices were standard for copies of
    the NT text until the very late Middle Ages when
    paper finally replaced parchment (14th-15th
    centuries) and when printing replaced hand
    copying (15th century). Roughly 75 of all Greek
    NT mss are on parchment (ca. 4,000, including
    some 2,400 continuous-text mss and some 1,600
    lectionaries). Paper mss, therefore, are more
    common than might be supposed, numbering roughly
    1,200 (somewhat evenly divided between the
    minuscules and lectionaries) and ranging in date
    from the 12th to the 19th centuries, with most
    originating in the latter part of this period."

102 Manuscripts
  • 1. According to Types of Material
  • ". . . around the turn of the 2d/3d century (AD
    200), NT mss began to be copied on parchment or
    vellum. . . . The stability of parchment also
    permitted its reuse, after scraping and washing
    the existing writing off the surface such a ms
    is called a palimpsest (i.e., scraped again).
    Some 50 NT mss prior to the 11th century are
    palimpsests, among which the most famous is Codex
    Ephraemi Syri Rescriptus (C), whose NT text dates
    to the 5th century. " Epp

103 Manuscripts
  • 2. Calligraphy
  • "As for calligraphy, until the 9th century Greek
    ms of the NT (both papyrus and parchment) were
    written exclusively in uncial script (using
    large-sized, unconnected capital letters), and
    uncials continued to be employed in the following
    century. Minuscule script (using lowercase,
    cursive or running - connected - letters) was
    used from the 9th century on. The earliest dated
    NT minuscule (no. 461) was copied in 835.
    Minuscule script, as its name implies, was
    smaller, requiring less space, and its connected
    style permitted more rapid writing. Minuscules,
    therefore, were easier and quicker to produce and
    less expensive than uncials, and the legacy of NT
    textual materials is likely to

104 Manuscripts
  • 2. Calligraphy
  • be larger than might have been the case had the
    uncial hand persisted. About 12 of NT mss are in
    uncial script (some 650) and 88 in minuscule
    (some 4,650). NT uncial mss are found on papyrus
    and parchment, minuscules on parchment and
    paper." Epp

105 Function Form
  • 1. Continuous-Text MS
  • ". . . a ms recording the text of at least one NT
    book (even if no longer fully preserved) in a
    continuous fashion without additional context
    (though occasionally an interlinear or separate
    commentary to the text may be part of the ms).
    These mss may be written on papyrus, parchment,
    or paper and may be either in uncial or minuscule
    hand. Continuous-text NT mss number about 3,125,
    including about 94 different papyri in uncial
    script, about 270 different uncial mss on
    parchment, and around 2,750 minuscules on
    parchment or paper (of which more than 2,100 are
    on parchment)." Epp

106 Function Form
  • 2. Lectionary
  • "Lectionaries are mss containing portions of
    biblical text for reading in church services. NT
    lessons from the Gospels and Epistles are
    arranged not in the order of the NT canon, but in
    accordance either with the Church year (called
    the synaxarion) . . . . Lections vary in length
    from a few verses to a few chapters, with a
    customary length of about ten verses." Epp
  • Carefully copied from an exemplar lectionary.
  • Basically Byzantine text type.

107 Function Form
  • 3. Lectionary
  • "NT lectionary mss in Greek number around 2,200,
    of which nearly 90 (more than 1,900) are
    minuscules and the rest uncials (about 270). Two
    uncial lectionaries date as early as the 4th and
    5th centuries, about seven more in the 6th and
    7th, with large numbers originating in the 9th
    and 10th, and with vast numbers of minuscule
    lectionaries stemming from the 11th and 12th
    centuries and thereafter. Over all, 75 are on
    parchment, with the rest on paper (dating from
    the 12th century on), and the majority of
    lectionaries consist of gospel readings." Epp

108 Function Form
  • 4. Helps
  • "Words and sentences usually were not separated
    from one another, occasionally leading the reader
    to divide words in alternate ways with differing
    meanings virtually no punctuation occurred until
    the 6th or 7th centuries similarly, breathing
    marks and accents are rare prior to the 7th
    century, though after this time they occasionally
    were added by a later hand to NT lectionary mss
    in Greek number around 2,200, of which nearly 90
    (more than 1,900) are minuscules and the rest
    uncials (about 270)." Epp

109 Function Form
  • 4. Helps
  • "To assist in locating parallel passages in the
    gospels, Eusebius (ca. 263-339) devised a system
    of ten canons or tables (known as the Eusebian
    Canons) that divided the gospel material into
    sections and identified those that were found in
    all four gospels (canon I), those in each
    combination of three gospels (canons II-IV)
    those in each combination of two gospels (canons
    V-IX), and finally those sections in only one of
    the gospels (canon X). Thus, all the possible
    combinations were exhausted. Each section in each
    gospel was then numbered consecutively, and these
    section numbers, along with their appropriate
    canons, were placed-in colored ink-in the margin
    of a ms.

110 Function Form
  • 4. Helps
  • The reader, by looking up the section number in
    the designated canon, could find the numbers of
    any parallel sections in other gospels. . . ."
  • N.B. Nestle-Aland27, 84-89

111 Papyri
  • 1. "Presently 96 NT papyri have been identified,
    though two of these are portions of others (P33
    P58 P64 P67), leaving a total of 94 different
    papyri. They range in date from the 2d century to
    the 8th, and all but four are from codices (the
    four, P12, P13, P18, P22, are from scrolls,
    though all are exceptional in that they are
    either written on both sides or are on reused
    papyrus). These 94 papyri range in extent of
    coverage from tiny fragments (like P52 of John)
    to extensive portions (in papyri like P66, P75,
    and P72)."

112 Papyri
  • 2. See
  • Metzger, The Text of the New Testament, 36-42.
  • Kurt Aland Barbara Aland, The Text of the New
    Testament, 83-102.
  • 3. "In Studying any New Testament text it is
    important to know in which papyri (and uncials)
    it is found. But a great amount of effort is
    required to find this information in the
    literature." Therefore see charts 5 6 in Aland

113 Uncials
  • 1. "As a classification of NT mss, uncials is
    not used to refer to all NT mss written in uncial
    characters (about 650), but only to
    continuous-text mss so written on parchment
    (about 270). Thus, the papyri and the more than
    270 lectionary mss written in uncials are
    classified under papyri and lectionaries,
    respectively, and not here." Epp
  • 2. "Continuous-text uncials total about 290, but
    the number of different uncials is closer to 270,
    due to the continuing process of uniting
    separated fragments with their original mss.
    Uncials date from the 2d/3d century through the
    10th century. Only 4 predate the early 4th
    century (0189, 0220, 0162, 0171) 14 stem from
    the 4th century including the two most famous
    uncials, Codices Sinaiticus and Vaticanus but 54

114 Uncials
  • survive from around AD 400 to 500 and uncials
    increase as one moves into the later 6th and
    through the 9th centuries, with the last 19
    originating in the 10th century. . . ." Epp
  • 3. ". . . in reality only 35 percent of all
    uncials survive in more than two leaves. To be
    more precise, only 59 uncials (about 22 percent)
    contain more than 30 leaves and only 44 uncials
    (about 16 percent) have more than 100 leaves. Of
    this latter group, 17 contain 100 to 199 leaves
    16 have 200 to 299 9 have 300 to 399 and only 2
    have more than 400 (Bezae 05 with 415 and
    Claromontanus 06 with 533 leaves)." Epp

115 Uncials
  • 4. "Codex Sinaiticus (a) is the only uncial
    presently containing the entire NT (though
    Alexandrinus still contains portions of every NT
    book). Sinaiticus also has virtually all of the
    OT, as well as the Epistle of Barnabas and the
    Shepherd of Hermas. It dates from the 4th century
    and its large pages contain four columns each-the
    only NT ms written in this fashion.

116 Uncials
  • 5. "Codex Alexandrinus (A) is of somewhat later
    date-in the 5th century-and lacks only portions
    of Matthew (up to 256), John (650-852), and 2
    Corinthians (413-126) from its NT, and it
    contains the OT, as well as 1-2 Clement. It is
    written in two columns and its text appears to
    have been copied from different exemplars, for
    its gospel text is akin to the Byzantine type,
    while the remainder of the NT has a text like
    that in Sinaiticus and Vaticanus."

117 Uncials
  • 6. "Codex Vaticanus (B), 4th century, is written
    in three columns and contains all of the NT
    except an extensive portion from Heb 914 through
    Revelation it also has the OT, though it begins
    with Gen 4628 and lacks Ps 105271376.
    Vaticanus would be regarded by all as the most
    valuable uncial ms of the NT, and by many as the
    most important of all NT mss, due to the
    combination of its early date, its broad coverage
    of the NT, and the excellent quality of its text,
    which-for the overlapping portions-is strikingly
    similar to that in P75."

118 Uncials
  • 7. "Codex Bezae Cantabrigiemis (D) contains, on
    Greek and Latin facing pages, the four gospels
    (in the order Matthew, John, Luke, Mark), Acts
    nearly complete, and a small portion of 3 John.
    Its date is 5th century, or possibly late 4th. It
    is written in one column, but in sense lines
    rather than in the usual fashion of simply
    filling the lines. Bezae, with many striking
    additions to the text (and some omissions), is
    the major Greek representative of the so-called
    Western type of text, which some have considered
    the earliest form of the NT text, but which
    others have viewed as a later, derivative

119 Uncials
  • 8. "Codex Washingtonianus (W), also known as the
    Freer Gospels, has the four gospels virtually
    complete (though in the order of Matthew, John,
    Luke, and Mark) and dates from the early 5th
    century. Its text is of mixed character, with
    various sections of varying length representing
    rather different textual types Byzantine in
    Matthew and most of Luke Alexandrian in the rest
    of Luke and most of John and so-called Western
    in Mark 11-530, but like the text of P45 in
    531-1620. It may be best known for the material
    it inserts into the

120 Uncials
  • already longer ending to Mark (169-20) that it
    shares with other witnesses it adds at 1614 a
    paragraph that includes an excuse by the
    disciples in response to the risen Christs
    chiding of them for unbelief."
  • 8. See also
  • Metzger, 42-61.
  • Aland Aland, 103-128.

121 Minuscules
  • 1. "Some 80 percent of the minuscules are solid
    representatives of the Majority text and to that
    extent at least they will contribute little to
    the establishment of the original text, for the
    Byzantine or Koine text (to use two other terms
    for the Majority text) is a text type that
    developed from the early 4th century on and
    became the well-established and official
    ecclesiastical text of the Byzantine Church."

122 Minuscules
  • 2. ". . . approximately 10 percent of them offer
    a valuable early text which can compete with even
    the best of the uncials." Aland Aland, 128
  • 3. See
  • Metzger, 61-66
  • Aland Aland, 128-158.

123 Lectionaries
  • 1. "Though the lectionary mss of the NT number
    2,200 or more, they are not often cited in the
    critical apparatus of Greek NT texts because they
    overwhelmingly preserve a Byzantine text and are
    not critical in establishing the original NT
    text. Greek lectionaries do not include the
    Apocalypse, for there were no readings from this
    book in the Church year the same applies to some
    passages of Acts and the Epistles." Epp
  • 2. See Aland Aland, 163-170.

124 Patristics
  • 1. "Passages of the NT quoted by writers in the
    early Church constitute an important body of data
    for textual criticism, for they provide narrowly
    dated and geographically located textual
    readings. That is, from them we have an
About PowerShow.com