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Pregnancy

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Sperm is viable for 12 24 hours (some 'super sperm' may be viable for up to 72 ... Numerous defective sperm. Uterine contractions. Phagocytes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pregnancy


1
Pregnancy Human Development
  • Chapter 29

2
Fertilization Its all in the timing!
  • Oocyte is only viable for 24 hours.
  • Sperm is viable for 12 24 hours (some super
    sperm may be viable for up to 72 so be careful!)
  • Therefore, usually, coitus must occur within a 24
    hour window on either side of ovulation.

3
Barriers to fertilization
  • Low vaginal pH
  • Getting lost (50/50 chance of getting the right
    uterine tube)
  • Numerous defective sperm
  • Uterine contractions
  • Phagocytes
  • By the time they get to the oocyte, there are
    only a few dozen to a couple hundred

4
Penetration
Secondaryoocyte
Head of sperm
1650X
5
No polyspermy!
6
Fusion Of the pronuclei
7
First cleavage to blastocyst
8
Whats this thing called, Love?
  • Zygote a the single cell after fusion of the
    pronuclei of the oocyte the sperm.
  • Conceptus covers the period of develop
    following first cleavage and differentiation of
    cells into an embryo.
  • Morula the conceptus as a solid ball of 16
    cells (about day 3).
  • Blastocyst a hollow ball of cells, from day 4.
    Hatching occurs at this stage, when the
    blastocyst emerges from the zona pellucida.

9
Development from zygote to implantation.
10
Then what ?
  • The blastocyst differentiates into
  • the trophoblast, the outer ball of cells that
    eventually becomes the placenta and
    extraembryonic membranes.
  • the inner cell mass (ICM) becomes the embryo.
  • The above occurs over the course of the second
    week following conception.
  • Implantation occurs on about day 6 or so, as
    the blastocyst burrows into the endometrium.

11
Implantation
Day 6
12
Implantation Day 8
13
ImplantationDays 9 - 13and early placentation
14
Hormone levels throughout pregnancy
15
Placental hormones
16
Placenta formation
17
Placenta embryo at 21 days
18
Detail of placenta and umbilical cord
19
Actual placenta
20
Embryonic Development
Differentiation of the three primary germ layers
21
Germ layer formation, Part II
22
Neuralation
23
Embryo at 16 days
24
Days 17 - 22
25
Days 22 - 28
26
Embryoat 28 days
27
The Primary Germ Layers
ECTODERM
MESODERM
ENDODERM
28
Fig. 29.14a
29
Fig. 29.14b
30
Fig. 29.14c
31
Fig. 29.14d
32
Fig. 29.14e
33
Fig. 29.14f
34
Fig. 29.14g
35
Fig. 29.14h
36
From embryo to fetus
37
Fetal circulation
38
Pregnancy from the mothers perspective
39
Hey Ma! Its getting crowded in here!
40
Laborthe beginning of the end
41
A Vertex Presentation
42
and welcome to the world!
43
The let-down reflexor, more fun with oxytocin
44
Feedback of nursing
45
Benefits of Breast-feeding
  • Acquired immune defenses
  • Neutrophils, macrophages, T and B cells
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Reduced incidence of later diseases in child
  • Lymphoma, heart disease, gastrointestinal
    disorders, diabetes mellitus meningitis
  • In mother
  • Reduced incidence of osteoporosis and breast
    cancer
  • Stronger bonding, less post-partum depression,
  • More rapid weight loss, uterine recovery
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