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Poison Ivy, Poison Oak,

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Urushiol is found in the sap of poison ivy, oak, and sumac. ... Poison Ivy Appearance ... Poison Ivy can be a variety of colors in the fall including yellow, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Poison Ivy, Poison Oak,


1
Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, Poison Sumac
  • Caroline McCammack
  • Spring 2008

2
Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, and Poison Sumac
  • Plants that can cause a highly allergic reaction
    if one comes in contact with them
  • All three contain the same poison
  • This presentation will teach you about the
    poison, treatment options, prevention methods,
    where these plants are found, and how to identify
    them

3
Urushiol
  • Urushiol is an oil that causes an allergic skin
    rash on contact. Urushiol is found in the sap of
    poison ivy, oak, and sumac.
  • It is a colorless or pale yellow oil that is in
    all parts of the plant, including roots, stems,
    and leaves
  • After about 15 minutes of exposure, the urushiol
    is chemically bonded to the skin and can no
    longer be washed off

4
Urushiol
  • Around 15 to 20 of people are immune to
    urushiol and have no allergic response to it
  • The reaction to urushiol is unique in that
  • Most times the allergy doesn't emerge unless
    you've been exposed before, but some people
    develop a rash after their very first exposure
  • Over time with repeated or more concentrated
    exposure to Urushiol, some people can become
    immune while others can lose their immunity
  • Urushiol oil can remain active for several years,
    so handling dead leaves or vines can still cause
    a reaction
  • Urushiol can also be found in the
  • nut shell of cashew fruit and on
  • the skin of the mango fruit

5
The Reaction
OUCH!
  • The symptoms begin with a severe itching of the
    skin that develops into reddish colored
    inflammation or non-colored bumps, and then
    blistering of the skin occurs

6
The Reaction
  • The oozing fluids, released by scratching the
    blisters, does not spread the poison
  • Larger amounts of exposure have an earlier onset
    and larger reaction, smaller amounts of exposure
    produce a delayed reaction.

7
The Reaction
If poison ivy, oak or sumac are burned and
inhaled or eaten, the allergic reaction will be
internal, causing extreme pain, internal
irritation or damage, and possibly death
8
Treatment
  • If you can wash the exposed area thoroughly with
    soap or rubbing alcohol within 15 minutes of
    initial exposure you are unlikely to develop the
    rash
  • After the rash has developed, treatment is based
    on relieving symptoms

9
TreatmentSelf-care treatments and
over-the-counter medications
Calamine lotion can help relieve itch and dry up
blisters
Compress with ice-cold whole milk helps dry the
rash and soothe the itch. Plain ice can
temporarily soothe the itch.
Over the counter oral medicines (antihistamines)
to control itching, such as Chlor-Trimeton
and Benadryl
Aveeno Oatmeal lotions, salve or bath forms help
relieve itch
10
Treatment
  • If the rash is widespread or results in a large
    number of blisters, your doctor may prescribe
  • Corticosteroids, such as prednisone
  • Antihistamines
  • Topical or oral steroids
  • If all else fails, remember that
  • time heals all
  • Most rashes clear within one to
  • three weeks
  • If you scratch your rash, it may
  • take longer to clear

11
Prevention
  • Use commercial products that can help keep the
    urushiol oil from getting into your skin.
  • Ivy Block is the only FDA approved product for
    preventing rashes for poison ivy, oak or sumac.
    This lotion forms a clay-like coating on the
    skin.
  • The U.S. Forestry Service spray themselves with
    deodorant!
  • Where protective clothing when dealing with these
    plants

12
Protective Clothing
  • Long pants
  • Long sleeves
  • Boots
  • Gloves
  • Make sure all clothing overlaps to prevent
    exposure

13
Prevention
  • Wash all tools, clothes, and other items that you
    will need to touch in the future that came in
    contact with the plants
  • Where protective clothing when dealing with these
    plants
  • Learn how to identify the plants and avoid
    contact with them
  • If your employees could be exposed to these
    plants, as their employer you have a
    responsibility to train them in identification
    and treatment practices

14
Poison Ivy
15
Poison Ivy Habitat and Range
  • Poison Ivy grows as a vine or shrub
  • It grows throughout most of North
    America, except Newfoundland and Alaska, and is
    normally found in wooded areas, rocky areas, open
    fields and disturbed areas
  • It can grow in a wide variety of soil types, but
    does not grow in desert or arid conditions
  • It rarely grows at altitudes above 5,000 ft

16
Poison Ivy Appearance
Have light green or light green berries and
greenish-white flowers
Have compound leaves made up of three
almond-shaped leaflets with pointed tips
The middle leaf is typically larger and has a
longer stem than the other two leaves
1
3
3
1
2
2
17
Through the Seasons the Look of Poison Ivy can
Change
  • SPRING
  • Leaves start out bright red, which helps to
    fend off insects
  • Keep in mind that new leaves can always be
    reddish even when they sprout in summer
  • SUMMER
  • Leaves are green
  • Newer leaves are shiny and still somewhat red
  • Older leaves are more dull

18
Through the Seasons the Look of Poison Ivy can
Change
  • FALL
  • Poison Ivy can be a variety of colors in the
    fall including yellow, red, and orange
  • WINTER
  • Poison Ivy is very hard to identify in the
    winter and therefore is even more dangerous

19
Poison Oak
20
Poison Oak
  • Poison oak grows as a vine or a shrub (up to 3
    feet tall), but never an actual tree
  • There are two types of poison oak
  • Western Poison Oak
  • Found only on the Pacific Coast of North America,
    ranging from southern Canada to Baja California
  • Found in damp, shady areas near running water and
    out of direct sunlight
  • Atlantic poison oak
  • Grows mostly in sandy soils in eastern parts of
    the United States
  • Found growing in forest, thickets, and dry, sandy
    fields

21
Poison Oak Identification
2
3
  • The leaves are divided into 3 leaflets
  • Middle leaf has longer stem like
    poison ivy
  • Leaves are scalloped, toothed, or lobed edges-
    generally resembling the leaves of a true oak,
    though the Western Poison-oak leaves will tend to
    be more glossy
  • Leaflets are usually hairy

1
Spring
Fall
Summer
Berries
22
Poison Sumac
23
Poison Sumac
  • Grows as woody shrub or small tree
    up to 20 feet tall
  • Grows exclusively in very wet or flooded soils,
    usually in swamps and peat bogs, in the eastern
    United States and Canada
  • In terms of its potential to cause a urushiol
    allergic reaction, poison sumac is far more
    dangerous than its relatives poison ivy and
    poison oak. According to many botanists, poison
    sumac is the most toxic plant species in the
    United States
  • Luckily poison sumac is not very common, although
    non-poisonous sumacs are very common

24
Poison Sumac
4
3
2
5
  • Leaflets are smooth
  • No hair on leaves or stems
  • 7-13 leaves
  • Leaves arranged in pairs with a single leaf on
    the end
  • Have small yellowish-green flowers that mature
    into berries resembling those of poison oak or
    poison ivy
  • In early fall, leaves turn to a red-orange or
    russet shade

1
6
7
25
The End!
  • References
  • Poison Ivy, Oak, Sumac Information Center,
    http//poisonivy.aesir.com/view
  • Treating Poison Ivy, Poison Oak, or Poison Sumac,
    http//www.drgreene.org/body.cfm?id21actiondeta
    ilref559
  • How Poison Ivy Works, http//science.howstuffworks
    .com/poison-ivy.htm
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