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ETX 20

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6 Seldin Application of DNA identification to human ethnic origin 13 ... Pill bottle, drug paraphernalia. Food, beverage leftovers. Symptoms. Acute. Chronic. Sampling ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ETX 20


1
ETX 20 Poisons, Contamination, Drugs of
Abuse Robert H. Rice Department of
Environmental Toxicology Office hours Fridays
130 230 or by appointment (rhrice_at_ucdavis.edu)
2
Introduction to Forensic Science (ETX
20) MW 210 4 pm in 216 Wellman 4
units CRN 73639 Content Basic principles of
forensic science and the types of information on
which investigations focus, how the information
is obtained and how it is used in criminal
investigations, types of scientific skills that
are required to practice forensic science as a
profession, guidance on future training. Grading
Term paper 40, Midterm 30, Final exam
30 Date Lecturer Topic
Chapter April 4 Howitt Overview of forensic
science 1 6 Tulleners The criminal
justice system 1 11 Tulleners Alcohol,
clandestine labs 10 13 Rice Poisons,
contamination, drugs of abuse 9,10 18 Springer
Crime scene analysis 2,3 20 Sensabaugh
Personal identification 12 25 Stanley
Sports doping, performance enhancers
5 27 Green Sexual assault 12 May
2 Imwinkelreid Evidentiary standards
4 Goodman Memory and child sexual abuse
9 Midterm 11 Howitt Fire and arson
11 16 Finkbeiner Forensic pathology 18 Kimsey
Forensic entomology 23 DeHaan
Fingerprints 14 25 Tulleners Firearms
15 June 1 Ernest Application of DNA evidence
to wildlife 13 Kanthaswamy DNA evidence in
veterinary forensics 13 6 Seldin
Application of DNA identification to human ethnic
origin 13 8 Orrego Forensic genetics in
the identification of the missing 13 from
war, civil conflict and disasters 14 Final Exam
1030 am 1230 pm Text Saferstein R
(2004) Criminalistics An Introduction to
Forensic Science, 8th Edition (in Bookstore)
3
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4
Library Resources in Forensics Ruth
Gustafson, Reference Librarian, Environmental
Toxicology Librarian Subject Specialist, Biologica
l Agricultural Sciences Reference Department,
http//www.lib.ucdavis.edu/bioag/index.html Shield
s Library, Tel (530)752-1883 FAX  (530)752-5251
 ragustafson_at_ucdavis.edu bioag_at_ucdavis.edu As
a substitute for students who are unable to make
this Monday's or Wednesday's sessions, we do
offer BIOSIS basics classes monthly, and the
next one just happens to be this Thursday from
3-430pm. Both PubMed and BIOSIS are important
databases for the biomedical sciences aspects of
forensic science.  Students may sign up online
for this class (and any other library sessions)
at http//libcf.ucdavis.edu/instruction/classes/
index.cfm?alistd2 I am also available to
assist students via e-mail or in person with
their questions/topics for their assignments. 
My BioAg Reference Desk hours (Shields Library,
3rd floor) this week are as follows Tue 4/12 
3-5pm Wed 4/13  11am-1pm Thu 4/14 
12noon-1pm Fri 4/15  10-11am 4-5pm
"Forensic Sciences" Subject Guide gtFrom the
library homepage         http//www.lib.ucdavis.e
du Look on the left column and click on        
"Subject Guides" Browse down the left column
under         "Biological Agricultural
Sciences" until you get alphabetically to
        "Forensic Sciences"
and click on this link. The
top subject database choices for biomedical
aspects of forensic sciences (which will lead
you to relevant journal articles or even book
chapters or conference papers) are        
PubMed         BIOSIS which are all listed under
"General Databases". At the very top of the
guide, note the online book collection available
via FORENSICnetBASE that should have useful
online full-text chapters on this topic, too. 
UCDavis libraries do not have many books in
forensic sciences, so this online book collection
is an excellent supplement funded by the
California Digital Library for all the UC
libraries to access and use. Feedback welcome.
5
ETX Major Preparatory Toxicology Biology
Principles (101) Calculus Environment chemistry
(102A) Chemistry Biological effects (103A)
General Labs Organic Quantitative
analysis (102B) Biochemistry Biological
effects (103B) Physics Legal aspects
(138) Statistics Electives Other Majors
Biochemistry, Biological Science, Chemistry,
Engineering, Genetics, Physics, etc.
6
Intentional Poisoning Advantages Gender Sil
ent Male 46 Precise targeting
Female 39 Depersonalized Unknown 16 Safe
for attacker Profile Background Caucasian
Public 71 Male Physician 8 Average or
above intelligence Political
4 Underachiever Nurse 4 Personality
defect Other 5 Cowardly,
nonconfrontational Unknown 9 Nonathletic Neat
and orderly, meticulous Careful
planner Source Criminal Poisoning
(2000) Loner J. H. Trestrail, Humana Press
7
Properties of Ideal Poison Undetectable by
senses Soluble Delayed effect Easily
obtained Not traceable Symptoms mimic
actual disease Chemically stable (?) Undetectable
by instrumentation Potent
8
The dose makes the poison Potencies
of Poisons Agent Lethal dose Botulinum toxin
0.05 mg Ricin 0.5 mg Strychnine
100 mg Sodium arsenite 200 mg Sodium cyanide
250 mg Thallium 1000 mg NB A dime is
2300 mg
9
Sources of Poisons Commercial Laboratories Unde
rground catalogs Antique drug collections Hobbie
s/natural sources (e.g., plants)
10
Pesticide Poisons of Note Synthetic
Organophosphates Carbamates Paraquat
Fluroacetate (1080 bait) Plant-derived
Oleander Poison hemlock
Mushroom Ricin
Atropine/belladonna Nicotine
Strychnine Cyanogenic glycosides
11
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12
Top 5 Homicidal Poisons Agent
Frequency Target Arsenic 31 Energy
generation Cyanide 9 Strychnine
6 Nervous system Morphine
3 Chloroform 2
13
Analysis Evidence in vicinity of victim Pill
bottle, drug paraphernalia Food, beverage
leftovers Symptoms Acute Chronic Sampling Organ
s, fluids Accessory material Detection Analytica
l instrumentation HPLC, GC, Mass
Spec Motivation Love, money, power Disguised as
random
14
Poison Symptoms Constricted/dilated pupils
(opioids, organophosphates) Breath odor (arsenic
garlic) Hair loss (thallium) Convulsions
(strychnine) Paralysis (botulism) Coma
(depressants, hypnotics) Skin color (CO cherry
red nitrites blue) Skin appearance (arsenic
hyperkeratosis, warts) (dioxin
chloracne)
15
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16
TCDD (dioxin) Chloracne Poisoning of Victor
Yushchenko just before Ukraine presidential
election
17
Dioxin (TCDD) Sensitivities Species LD50
(µg/kg) Guinea pig 2 Rat
40 Monkey 50 Human ? Mouse 130
Rabbit 200 Hamster 4000
18
Autopsy samples Organs (brain, liver, kidney,
muscle) Blood (heart, peripheral) Vitreous humor
Bile (insoluble metabolites) Urine
(soluble) Gastric contents (alkaloids) Hair Bone
Maggots
19
Environmental/Accidental Contamination Differenti
al diagnosis Accidental death or
homicide? Compensable injury or
carelessness? Background that could confound
interpretation Verify authenticity/natural
source or show adulteration How did the mass
poisoning occur? Substitution of
inferior/contaminated component? Track source of
environmental contamination Environmental
justice for underserved? Safeguards not
enforced Children often victims Which
companies are breaking the law?
20
Marine Toxins in Food Pufferfish Delicacy in
Japanese restaurants Gives tingling of lips when
properly prepared Tetrodotoxin concentrated in
liver and ovary (removed) Blocks sodium channel
in nerves Fatal in excess (lethal dose 1
mg) Shellfish Tainted by Red Tide (3
examples) Saxitoxin Paralytic shellfish poison
(blocks sodium channel), potentially fatal Domoic
acid Amnesic shellfish poison (glutamate
neurotransmitter analog) Disorientation, loss of
short term memory at moderate doses Fatal
excitotoxin activity at higher doses Okadaic acid
Diarrhetic shellfish poison (phosphatase
inhibitor), nonfatal Harmful Algal
Blooms Thought increasing due to coastal
pollution, ocean warming Of 4,400 known algal
species, gt1 produce toxins Known causes of
wildlife epidemics Marine mammal mortality off
California coast from domoic acid
21
Accidental Food Contamination Iraq 1972
5-6,000 people hospitalized, 10 died. Seed grain
donated with methyl mercury antifungal
agent. Distributed 100,000 tons to farmers,
improperly identified. Grain (wheat, barley)
mistakenly used to make bread. Michigan 1973
Nearly 2 million livestock destroyed. Several
hundred pounds PBBs mixed with dairy
feed. Coverup by company and state officials
compounded problem. Spain 1981 11,000 people
hospitalized, gt500 died. Industrial rapeseed oil
from France containing aniline refined. Refining
process produced toxic components. Resold
fraudulently as cooking oil (59 tons) after
mixing olive oil. Adulturation of vegetable oils
(soybean/canola in olive) frequent. Biochemical
components becoming available for detection.
22
Commercial Activity - Mercury
A woman holds a victim of "Minamata
Disease", or mercury poisoning, in Minamata,
Japan, in 1973. The girl has a malformed hand,
like many victims of the disease who suffer from
physical deformities and mental retardation.
Chisso Corporation, a Japanese fertilizer,
petrochemical and plastics company, dumped an
estimated 27 tons of mercury compounds into
Minamata Bay between 1932 and 1968. Up
to 10,000 people were affected by eating seafood
from the bay.
Many sources of mercury exist, either natural
(fish) or associated with human activity
(chloralkali plants, gold mines, effluent from
power plants). Elemental form is methylated by
micro-organisms in the environment.
23
Commercial Activity - Lead Targets Blood
cells (anemia), kidney (gout), sperm
(infertility) Nervous system most sensitive
target Adults Occupational exposures Lead
smelters, battery factories, lead additives
Painters got peripheral neuropathy (wrist
drop) Children Colic (acute) and mental
retardation (chronic) Legacy of leaded
paint and gasoline Eating peeling paint
(many inner cities) Playing in
contaminated yards (e.g., Oakland)
24
Commercial activity Acrylamide Sweden 1997
Hallandsas tunnel construction halted. Acrylamide
used in grouting to prevent water seepage. 20
workers experienced neurological symptoms
(reversible). Several cows grazing nearby showed
severe neural effects. Dead fish found in
hatchery supplied by water from
tunnel. Acrylamide found in ground water near
tunnel. Sensitive methods developed to detect
acrylamide showed high background levels in
humans. Surprisingly high levels found in fried
foods (potato chips). Potential exposures in
typical labs using acrylamide gels (including DNA
identification labs).
25
Intracellular Targets of Neurotoxins Ion
channels Signal conduction Sodium Potassium C
alcium Chloride Synaptic region
Neurotransmitter processing Release Reuptake of
excess Receptor response (stimulate,
block) Channels and receptors - multigene
families Located in different parts of the
nervous system Responsible for differential
effects
26
Drugs of Abuse Opioids, Amphetamines,
Cocaine Scope of problem in USA Half a
million heroin addicts Six million cocaine
users Personal tragedies common among
users Families adversely affected (vicious circle
of poverty, crime) 75 of crime lab evidence is
drug related Impurities always suspect
Features Stimulation of reward center Euphoria
(like endorphins) Increase dopamine in nucleus
accumbens Tolerance Require increasing doses
(100x, previously fatal) Continued use can lead
to psychoses (paranoid schizophrenia) Withdrawal
Dysphoria, depression, craving
27
Opioid Action as Analgesic Codeine not
attractive as street drug (low potency) Maintenan
ce Methadone prevents withdrawal, no
euphoria Said to obviate need for marijuana as
painkiller Research to find derivatives with
only analgesic action Only partially successful
Oxycontin used by 1 million patients with
chronic pain, 25 abuse use Illicit syntheses
often attempted, often consequences tragic. Poor
technique ? dangerous derivatives
(Parkinsons) Cocaine derivatives in clinical
use Lidocaine, procaine successful as local
anesthetics Result from blocking neuronal
sodium channels
28
Uses of Amphetamines and Derivatives Treatment
for narcolepsy - 1930s Maintaining military
alertness - 1940s Occupational alertness
(students, truckers) 1950s Appetite
suppressant Suppress childhood attention deficit
disorder Dietary supplement (ephedrine) as
natural energizer
29
Depressants Alcohol Responsible for about
half of traffic deaths Poor job performance and
disrupted family life Health problems Cirrhosis,
Fetal alcohol syndrome Barbiturates
(sedatives) Sleep inducing, can induce
dependence Especially dangerous when used with
alcohol Tranquilizers (anxiolytics) Benzodiazepi
nes (Valium, Librium) among most used Variants
not approved include Rohypnol Causes loss of
short term memory Used for personal attacks
30
Psychoactive/Psychedelic Marijuana Short term
use relaxation Long term loss of
motivation Loss of coordination, slow reaction
time, disordered thought Legalized for medical
use in some states (controversial) Sometimes
contaminated with herbicide paraquat LSD Strong
hallucinogen, vivid colors Flashbacks
common PCP/Ketamine At first, feelings of
strength, invulnerability, detachment Then
confusion, agitation, depression Long term
depression, suicide, schizophrenia Natural
sources Cacti (peyote) mescaline Mushrooms
psilocybin, ibotenic acid
31
Further Reading Feldman RS, Meyer JS, Quenzer
LF (1997) Principles of Neuropsychopharmacology,
Sinauer, Chaps 12-17 Hardman JG, Limbird LL,
Gilman AG (2001) Goodman and Gilmans
Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 10th ed,
McGraw-Hill Klaassen CD, Watkins JB (2003)
Essentials of Toxicology, McGraw-Hill, Chaps
22-27 Saferstein R (2004) Criminalistics,
Pearson Prentice Hall, Chaps 9, 10 Trestrail JH
(2001) Criminal Poisoning, Humana Press
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