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CULTURE, CONFLICT, AND CHANGE

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Title: CULTURE, CONFLICT, AND CHANGE


1
CULTURE, CONFLICT, AND CHANGE
  • CHAPTER 6

2
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • There are two important factors that have
    contributed to the ethnic conflicts of
    Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • The cultural values that existed in pre-colonial
    Africa, and,
  • The infiltration of European culture.

3
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Almost every major problem in Sub-Saharan Africa,
    be it war, ethnic conflicts, land disputes,
    breakdown in the family, bribery and corruption
    in government, can be traced back to these two
    factors.
  • Cultural Geographers do study culture as it
    relates to physical and human landscapes.

4
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • They also look at the spatial variations that
    come as a result of human behavior and activity.
  • In studying peoples cultures, there are certain
    aspects that are evaluated.
  • The peoples ways of life i.e. how they dress
    (the clothes they wear).
  • Their meals (what do they eat?)

5
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Their customary habits
  • Their beliefs (what kind of gods they belief in
    and worship)
  • Their speech patterns and value systems.
  • Geographers also examine how these cultural
    traits manifest themselves in the physical
    landscape.
  • An example is how homes are arranged in a
    traditional family compound.

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10
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • These traits could be inherent in a patrilineal
    or matrilineal nature.
  • Patrilineal is tracing ones descent through the
    paternal or father side of your family.

11
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Matrilineal tracing once descent through the
    maternal or mother side of the family.
  • Another important aspect of culture is the
    spatial patterns of crops produced.

12
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • This cannot be explained solely by climate, but
    could be based on food preferences, taboos (based
    on religious beliefs) that in turn affect farming
    practices.
  • All of these factors influence crop production or
    the choice of the crops to be produced.

13
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Farming practices are influenced by a number of
    factors as well.
  • The system of land ownership
  • Land tenure which are accepted arrangements
    regarding land acquisition and use.
  • All of these activities leave an imprint on the
    landscape.

14
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Such an imprint is exploited by archeologists at
    some future date to learn how the people in that
    local lived at one point.
  • In most patrilineal and matrilineal societies the
    landscape always often portrays the impact of
    cumulative successive occupation.

15
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • How your g, g, g, grandfather lived to how you
    live today and your children in the future.
  • In cultural geography this successive occupation
    of a piece of land is known as Sequent Occupant.
  • In a broader sense Sequent Occupant refers to a
    succession of stages in the human occupancy of an
    area.

16
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • As a result, the cultural landscape would include
    and not limited to
  • Sounds, smells, attitudes and tastes and all the
    visual elements that reflect that culture.
  • Matrilineal and Patrilineal societies operate in
    an interesting way.

17
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • In a matrilineal society people trace their
    family tree through their mothers side of the
    family.
  • In such a society FAMILY inheritance is by ones
    sisters son.
  • The reason for this is to let the family wealth
    remain within the family blood line. (Explain).

18
MATRILINEAL INHERITANCE
FAMILY B
FAMILY A
FAMILY C
DAUGHTER WIFE
SON HUSBAND
DAUGHTER WIFE
DAUGHTER WIFE
SON HUSBAND
SON HUSBAND
CHILDREN
CHILDREN
INHERITANCE
DAUGHTER
SON
DAUGHTER
SON
19
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Cultural Geographers sometimes incorporate the
    term cultural integration into their analysis.
  • They try to identify the functional relationships
    that exist between cultural traits.

20
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • For example - relationship between land ownership
    and an ancestral spirit.
  • The believe in ancestral spirits is common in
    African beliefs.
  • The people believe that ancestral spirits are
    capable of giving you a healthy harvest and it
    can curse you if your activities are unacceptable
    to the spirits.

21
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • So cultural geographers do not ignore these kinds
    of relationships.
  • In cultural geography there is what is known as a
    cultural region or culture area.
  • Cultural region is a unit of geographic space
    occupied by people with one or more common
    cultural traits.

22
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • In countries like the DRC (Zaire), Zambia and
    Mozambique, these culture regions are defined
    based on multiple related traits such as
    religion, language and social organization.
  • Cultures do not exist in isolation.

23
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • They interact with other cultures and the
    physical environment.
  • Those geographers who study such
    interrelationships are known as cultural
    ecologists.
  • What are resources?
  • Resources are naturally occurring substances in
    the natural environment.

24
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Natural resources are culturally appraised.
  • This means that each culture evaluates natural
    resources differently.
  • What one culture might think of as a natural
    resource might not be considered a resource by
    another culture.

25
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Example
  • Green Grasshoppers are a delicacy in some African
    tribes.
  • However, in some countries Grasshoppers can be a
    nuisance.
  • ln Taiwan dogs are a delicacy, but in the United
    States, dogs are mans best friend.

26
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Taiwan/USA/INDIA COWS AND DOGS.
  • The relationship between cultures and the
    physical environment has been a topic of intense
    research.
  • Some geographers believe that the physical
    environment climate and terrain to be specific
    determines cultural development.

27
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • It is also assumed that culture is the product of
    the natural environment and that similar
    environmental circumstances will produce similar
    cultures.
  • This view point is known as Environmental
    Determinism which has been used as basis for
    explaining underdevelopment in Africa.

28
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • It has been said that the inhibition of
    technological advancement in Africa is as a
    result of warm climates, abundant wildlife and
    naturally occurring foods.
  • Alternatively, the extreme of climates in North
    America and other high latitude areas has led to
    technological advancement.

29
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • In contrast to Environmental Determinism is
    Possibilism.
  • Possibilism proposes that humans not the physical
    environment are primary determinants of cultural
    development.
  • So culture changes might result from the
    improvement in technology or through interaction
    with other cultures.

30
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Cultural Diffusion
  • This is the spread or the movement of a phenomena
    or innovation over space and through time.
  • The diffusion of culture in Africa can be placed
    in three categories generally known as the Triple
    Heritage Traditional African, Muslim, and
    European Influence.

31
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Cultural Hearths
  • These are source areas of innovations of a
    culture Origin of a culture.
  • Most areas in history where civilization started
    are cultural hearths.
  • Examples Nile valley, Tigris and Euphrates,
    Indus river valley, Huang He.

32
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • In Africa we mentioned the diffusion of
    innovation from the ancient Kingdoms of the Kush,
    Nubia, Axum to the Medieval Kingdoms of the
    Savanna regions.
  • The principal religions of Islam and Christianity
    spread throughout Africa through the process of
    diffusion from their hearths in the Middle East
    or Europe to their present location.

33
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Expansion or Expansive Diffusion
  • This is the process of transferring innovation
    from one place to another in the same neighboring
    location or decision points.
  • In expansion diffusion the phenomena being
    diffused remains and the number of people using
    such a phenomena increases.

34
EXPANSION LOCATION
Population
Language Hearth
Population
Population
Population
35
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • There are two forms of expansion diffusion.
  • Contagious which is an innovation that occurs as
    a result of personal contact.
  • The spread of a contagious disease is a good
    example.
  • AIDS/SARS is a good example of contagious
    diffusion.

36
CONTAGIOUS EXPANSION
37
CONTAGIOUS EXPANSION
38
CONTAGIOUS EXPANSION
39
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Relocation Diffusion
  • This is similar to expansion diffusion but the
    original location is evacuated as the innovation
    moves or relocates to new locations.
  • The Bantu migrations and language innovations are
    good examples of relocation diffusion.

40
RELOCATION DIFFUSION
41
RELOCATION DIFFUSION
42
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Hierarchical Diffusion
  • Involves the diffusion of information in a
    hierarchical manner either upward or downward
    Corporate gossips (Layoffs).
  • The acceptance of an innovation decreases, in
    some cases with distance from the source area
    (Hearth).

43
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • The areas located close to the hearth usually
    accept the innovation earlier and more thoroughly
    than distant areas (distance decay).
  • As a result, time and distance impacts diffusion.

44
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • This is known as the Time Distance Decay.
  • The diffusion of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa is a
    good example as the impact decreases with
    distance from the hearth area (Middle East).

45
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Obstacles to Cultural Diffusion
  • Cultural diffusion process can be inhibited or
    even retarded by Diffusion Barriers.
  • Contemporary means of communications have
    eliminated some of these barriers.

46
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Distance and Space is now being talked of in
    terms of time which has minimized diffusion
    barriers.
  • This is now known as Time Space Convergence.
  • In the past, barriers to diffusion were created
    by the physical landscapes, mountains, oceans,
    rivers and valleys.

47
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Even with the innovation in communication Air
    travel, water travel, internet, telephone, there
    are still certain places on our planet that are
    completely isolated from the outside world.
  • The Khoisans and the Pygmies of the Congo Basin
    and the Bushmen of the Kalahari are examples.

48
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • Political institutions have also in a way
    hindered cultural diffusion and advancement.
  • The previous Apartheid regime in South Africa had
    a detrimental effect on the majority of blacks in
    south Africa.
  • They were isolated and placed in homelands.

49
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • In Africa today cultures are blending with
    certain aspects of African Customs and
    Traditions.
  • A complete assimilation or acculturation is
    absent.

50
CULTURE, CONFLICT AND CHANGE
  • In many parts of Africa, Pidgin English An
    African Lingua Franca - is a blend of English and
    African local languages.
  • African dance forms and instruments have been
    modified to include African as well as western.

51
ELEMENTS OF AFRICAN CULTURE
52
Elements of African Culture
  • Elements of African Culture
  • It has been difficult to identify an authentic
    African culture because of the diffusion of
    European and Middle Eastern cultures.

53
Elements of African Culture
  • There is wide disparity in African Culture
    despite cultural unity in the aspects of ethnic
    linguistic and religious activities.

54
Elements of African Culture
  • An example is how Africans view their
    relationship with nature as opposed to some parts
    of the world.
  • Africans believe that spiritual forces do
    manifest themselves everywhere in the environment.

55
Elements of African Culture
  • Major elements of the physical environment such
    as mountains, lakes rocks or rivers are
    associated with gods and spirits (Pantheism).
  • Pantheism is a doctrine that equates god with
    forces of the universe.

56
Elements of African Culture
  • Sometimes misfortune or good fortune is
    associated with the wrath or generosity of these
    gods.
  • In the African society the religious landscape is
    varied.
  • The landscape is punctuated with shrines where
    traditional religious worship take place.

57
Elements of African Culture
  • There are also Christian Churches and Mosques.
  • The oldest religion in Sub-Saharan Africa is
    Christianity where it existed in Ethiopia around
    the 4th Century A.D. After the baptism of the
    Ethiopian Eunuch by Phillip (See Acts 827)

58
Elements of African Culture
  • Christianity has flourished in Ethiopia in the
    form of the Coptic Church.
  • The Coptic church served as a diffusion barrier
    to the spread of Islam
  • to the south.
  • Islam came to Africa after the death of Mohammad
    in 632 AD.

59
Elements of African Culture
  • Christianity in Africa is associated with
    Colonialism.
  • The Europeans on arrival in Africa educated the
    people in the 3Gs.
  • Gold, God and Glory but their main emphasis was
    on God.

60
Elements of African Culture
  • God was for the natives, Gold for the Europeans,
    and all of this done for the Greater Glory of
    Europe The Crown.
  • Christianity in Africa is made up of many
    different denominations.
  • Sometimes some of the denominations crash with
    each other.

61
Elements of African Culture
  • In Africa religious organizations include
    Catholics, Protestants such as Methodists,
    Presbyterians, Baptists Seventh Day Adventist,
    Pentecostal and a large amount of independent
    churches.
  • The way the churches are built resemble or mimic
    European style architecture.

62
Elements of African Culture
  • Characteristics of these churches are the Phallic
    symbols that characterizes Male Domination.
  • These models are in concrete or gothic.
  • Church decorations have been Africanized as well
    as ways of worship.

63
PHALLIC SYMBOL
64
OUR NATIONS PHALLIC SYMBOL
65
PHALLIC SYMBOL
66
PHALLIC SYMBOLS
67
Mares Favorite ride
68
Phallic Symbol, Wat Po, Bangkok
69
Elements of African Culture
  • In Cameroon and Uganda carvings have been
    substituted for church decorations.
  • During service there is a great deal of drumming
    and dancing.
  • In Catholic churches, church bells have been
    substituted with drums.

70
Elements of African Culture
  • Independent churches are different in that they
    are a fusion of more than one form of worship
    (syncretistic) a combination of different forms
    of beliefs.
  • Some of these independent churches permit
    polygamy, most of them use the bible and teach
    the Christian doctrine.

71
Elements of African Culture
  • Many are founded around a prophetic figure
    (somebody they belief was a prophet or is a
    prophet).
  • Many of these independent churches stress faith
    healing and baptism by immersion.

72
RELIGIONS
73
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Islam
  • A dominant religion in northern Africa and
    located to the northern sections of most West
    African Nations.
  • Islam has diffused to many large cities and towns
    in Sub-Saharan Africa.

74
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Evidence of this religion is spread over the
    landscape in the form of mosques and minarets.
  • A minaret is a small slender tower which is
    attached to a mosque.
  • A minaret resembles a Phallic Symbol.

75
A MOSQUE IN DJENNE MALI WEST AFRICA
76
MINARET IN IRAQ
77
GIRALDA TOWER
KUTUBIYYAA MINARET
78
Minaret and Fountain of IbnTulun Mosque - Egypt
79
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • In most of Africa, the type of Muslim religion is
    Sunni and the Koran is used as the only truthful
    word of Allah (God).
  • Traditional African Religions
  • Very common in both large cities and towns and
    villages throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.

80
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • In African Traditional religions, deities and
    Ancestral spirits are honored in Sacrificial
    Ceremonies.
  • Most of the worshiping occurs in Shrines where it
    is believed that the deities or ancestral spirits
    exist.

81
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • (Things Fall Apart Chinua Achebe).
  • These spirits and ancestors are represented by
    carvings such as stools or animals or human
    figures or sculptures.
  • These goods are placed in some kind of hierarchy
    from the highest to the lowest and are termed
    (Spiritual Beings).

82
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • A prominent activity with such a religion is
    Divination and fortune telling.
  • Priest in such religious settings do expose those
    who are actively involved in witchcraft.

83
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • They also claim to have powers to protect people
    from being cursed by witches and wizards and can
    cure people who have been bewitched.

84
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • The activities of witches have been characterized
    as having the capability of leaving their bodies
    under the cover of darkness to inflict pain and
    suffering on their victims.

85
Religions in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • This might lead to sickness and eventual death.
  • Most activities of these Sorcerers are to invoke
    the spirits to neutralize the impact of
    witchcraft on their victims.

86
KINSHIP
87
KINSHIP
  • An African family consist of a husband, wife or
    wives and Children.
  • The family goal is to work together in the
    maintenance of the household.
  • This can be termed an economic unit and it is the
    simplest form of the African Family.

88
KINSHIP
  • Quite frequently the family includes several
    other members usually called the (Extended
    Family).
  • All of these family members have ties to the main
    family.
  • So kinship in its simplest terms in sub-Saharan
    Africa relates to family ties or relations both
    dead and alive.

89
KINSHIP
  • As if the simple family form is not complicated
    enough, there is the bilateral kinship system.
  • In this system, family descent is traced through
    both the mother and father side of the family.

90
KINSHIP
  • In a unilineal system, family lines are traced
    through either mother or father side of the
    family.

91
KINSHIP
  • In north America, the bilateral system is used to
    trace family ties.
  • In Africa, the unilineal system is common in
    which kinship is either traced through the line
    of male parent (Patriliny) or female parent
    (Matriliny).

92
KINSHIP
  • In a patrilineal society lines of descent and
    authority are linked to husband or father.
  • The wife is gradually incorporated into her
    husbands descent group.
  • Examples are the Masai and Kikuyu in Kenya,
    Yoruba in Nigeria and Ganda of Uganda.

93
KINSHIP
  • In such a case wife and husband become like
    brother and sister.
  • Matriliny or matrilineal relationship which is
    descent through mother side is also common.
  • In matrilineal societies the link to father side
    of the family is secondary and inheritance
    through the father side is secondary as well.

94
MATRILINEAL INHERITANCE
FAMILY B
FAMILY A
FAMILY C
DAUGHTER WIFE
SON HUSBAND
DAUGHTER WIFE
DAUGHTER WIFE
SON HUSBAND
SON HUSBAND
CHILDREN
CHILDREN
INHERITANCE
DAUGHTER
SON
DAUGHTER
SON
95
PATRILINEAL INHERITANCE
FAMILY B
FAMILY A
FAMILY C
DAUGHTER WIFE
SON HUSBAND
DAUGHTER WIFE
DAUGHTER WIFE
SON HUSBAND
SON HUSBAND
CHILDREN
CHILDREN
INHERITANCE
DAUGHTER
SON
DAUGHTER
SON
96
KINSHIP
  • In addition to the types of kinship already
    mentioned is Patrilocality and Matrilocality.
  • After marriage a woman leaves her home and family
    to live NEAR her husbands family.
  • This is called Patrilocality.

97
KINSHIP
  • In Matrilocality, it is the husband that moves,
    his wife still living with her relatives.
  • The groom leaves his family to live with or near
    the wifes matrikin.

98
KINSHIP
  • After several years of the husband living and
    providing for his wife and children he may
    request permission to move to his maternal
    uncles village to establish residency there.
  • The practice is known as Avunculocality.

99
AVUNCOLOCALITY
Maternal Uncles Location
Before Marriage Husband of wife
Moves to new location
Husband moves to Maternal Uncles
Husband or wifes family
100
KINSHIP
  • As mentioned earlier, Marriage in Africa is not
    only a union between a man and a woman or women
    (Husband and Wife/wives) but a Union of two
    extended families.
  • Marriage becomes a contract which calls for the
    transfer of goods or money or both.

101
KINSHIP
  • This transfer in most cases is from the
    bridegrooms family to the brides.
  • This is contrary to western beliefs that women
    are sold.
  • This transfer of wealth is a recompense to the
    brides family for the loss of the services of
    their daughter.

102
KINSHIP
  • It could also be a validation of the legality of
    the marriage or a gift to seal this contract.
  • It could also be a goodwill gesture on behalf of
    the bridegrooms family to the brides family for
    their ability to bringing up his bride.

103
KINSHIP
  • In some cases, if the amount is not satisfactory
    to the bride and her family, the bride might give
    her husband-to-be a hard time.
  • The brides price/wealth as it is called could
    assumes various forms.
  • Firewood, Palm Wine, Cattle and Sheep or goats,
    Some money, food stuff etc. or all of the above.

104
KINSHIP
  • Dowry is usually paid by the brides family to
    the family of the bridegroom.
  • The price differs with the various cultures and
    wealth.
  • It varies from very little to very expensive
    depending on how wealthy the girls family is.
    (India a very good example).

105
KINSHIP
  • In some tribes there is no time limit as to when
    these gifts are going to end.
  • The bridegrooms family continues to bring the
    gifts until the brides family indicates that
    they have had enough.
  • It is important to note that paying bride price
    is an ongoing process.

106
KINSHIP
  • Polygamy is a permitted form of marriage accepted
    both traditionally and Legally.
  • However, some jealousies could occur when one of
    the wives is barren.La Vie est Belle.
  • In many cases there are more advantages than
    disadvantages.
  • Some benefits of Polygamy are

107
KINSHIP
  • The sick are always attended to
  • Orphaned children are often taken care of.
  • Single parenting is not a problem
  • Prostitution is rare
  • Divorces are infrequent and when they are
    unavoidable they can be granted for a number of
    reasons such as

108
KINSHIP
  • Adultery
  • Barrenness
  • Unharmonious relationship with a mother-in-law
  • Impotence (a case in which a women can seek a
    divorce)

109
KINSHIP
  • Divorce is only granted when attempts at
    counseling and family intervention has failed.
  • Because in these kinds of settings the girl is
    absorbed into her husbands family, if there is a
    problem with the marriage and the wife happens to
    run away, she runs to the house of her in-laws
    her husbands father and mother.

110
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
111
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
  • The geography of languages in Sub-Saharan Africa
    is intriguing.
  • It is estimated that more than 1,000 languages
    are spoken in Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Most of these languages do not have a written
    tradition.

112
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
  • About 40 of these languages are spoken by more
    than 1 million people.
  • There are 4 major language families that have
    been identified by linguists for Sub-Saharan
    Africa.
  • Niger Kordofanian
  • Nilo-Saharan
  • Khoisan
  • Afro-Asiatic

113
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
  • The Niger-Kordofanian is the largest language
    family group in Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • It falls within two distinct categories
  • Kordofanian
  • Niger-Congo
  • The Kordofanian is spoken by a small group in the
    Nuba hills of the Sudan.

114
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
  • It consists of about 20 languages.
  • The Niger-Congo is spoken by more than 150
    million people.
  • The spatial extent of this group is more than ½
    of Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Within the Niger-Congo language family the Bantu
    Sub-family constitute the largest.

115
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
  • This sub-group stretches through the equatorial
    region to South Africa.
  • The origins of the Bantu language has been traced
    to the southeast margins of the Congo rainforest.
  • Other linguistic studies suggest a linkage to the
    West African forest and savanna regions.

116
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
  • About 10 million people speak the subfamily Bantu
    language.
  • Among the Bantu language subfamily are
  • Lingala spoken in the Congo,
  • Swahili spoken in East Africa,
  • Bemba spoken in Zambia, and
  • Luba spoken in The Democratic Republic of the
    Congo (Zaire).

117
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
  • The Nilo-Saharan stretches from the Songhai area
    in West Africa to East Africa.
  • The Khoisan family group is confined to the
    Kalahari desert region.
  • Prominent within this group are
  • the Bushmen,
  • the Nama and
  • the Hottentots.

118
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
  • The Afro-Asiatic (Semitic-Hamitic) is found
    around Mauritania and the Horn of Africa.
  • Languages of non-African origin are the
    Malay-Polynesian family group that was introduced
    in Madagascar about 2,000 years ago.
  • The Afrikaans introduced by the Dutch in 1602.

119
LANGUAGES IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
120
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
  • It is of the Indo-European origin and was
    introduced by the Boers when they arrived South
    Africa.
  • In East Africa, Swahili is a Lingua Franca.

121
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
  • In West Africa, Hausa is a Lingua Franca and
    spoken by more than 50 million of the population.
  • The most common language spoken in Sub-Saharan
    Africa is Pidgin English.

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LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
  • Pidgin English is a mixture of European and
    African Languages.
  • In Cameroon, there are about 276 different
    languages and therefore the people use Pidgin
    English to communicate as a lingua-franca.

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LAND TENURE
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LAND TENURE
  • Land Tenure constitutes the rights and
    obligations that make up relationship between
    human customs land and society.
  • Land Tenure can be considered as a set of
    prescribed customary or procedural rules
    concerning peoples rights to land including the
    institutions that administer these rights be it
    social or political.

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LAND TENURE
  • Land tenure in Africa is broken into different
    categories depending on use.
  • There are at least 5 main categories
  • Family Land
  • Communal Land
  • Stool Land
  • State Land
  • Individual Land

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LAND TENURE
  • Family Land
  • This is land that is passed down through the
    lineage.
  • It could be passed down through either the
    matrilineal or patrilineal lineage.
  • The rights to this land is jointly held by a
    number of heirs (Brothers).

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LAND TENURE
  • The heirs have a right to this piece of land and
    is not sold to the heirs.
  • However, with the very high demand for land some
    family members have sold family land without
    consulting other heirs.
  • This has also led to excessive land fragmentation
    which is becoming a major problem.

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LAND TENURE
  • Fragmentation has led to congestion in villages.
  • Fragmentation occurs because of population
    expansion.
  • Another problem is the iniquities associated with
    matrilineal inheritance.
  • Communal Land
  • This land is owned by a following either a
    lineage, Village or Community (Park Land)

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LAND TENURE
  • Each of the members of the society has as much
    right to this land.
  • There is no landless class and selling the land
    is prohibited.
  • The village head or clan head is the sole person
    with the responsibilities and jurisdiction over
    the land.

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LAND TENURE
  • Stool Land
  • This is land held by the king, chief or skin in
    trust for the people.
  • In such an arrangement the subjects can use the
    land for building or farming.
  • In return they must pay homage to the Chief or
    King (Not Bribery).
  • They in addition have to provide customary
    services.

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LAND TENURE
  • Individual (Private Ownership)
  • This is land which is privately owned by
    individual families.
  • A piece of family is sometime sold to obtain cash
    to solve a pressing problem (Sickness, Education
    or the payment of Bride Price).
  • The decision to sell such land rest with the
    family or clan.

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LAND TENURE
  • If authorization is not given by the family head,
    the violator can expect the wrath of the gods or
    ancestral spirits.
  • Individuals are also allowed Freehold rights
    which is outright ownership or leasehold rights
    ranging from 49-99 years.
  • This type of an arrangement is discouraged
    because it reminds many people and governments of
    colonialism.

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ADORNMENT DRESS FORMS AND SYMBOLISM
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ADORNMENT DRESS FORMS AND SYMBOLISM
  • Dressing like in any culture is a form of
    expression.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa is not an exception.
  • Dress forms and symbolism vary through out the
    region and in most cases displayed in the form of
    dressing.

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ADORNMENT DRESS FORMS AND SYMBOLISM
  • From the way somebody dresses you can deduce the
    persons status in the society.
  • It is also possible to tell or fairly predict the
    persons role, age, and mood.
  • In some tribes in Ghana, colors are very symbolic
    of certain occasions.

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ADORNMENT DRESS FORMS AND SYMBOLISM
  • For example During mourning in the Akan tribe
    in Ghana, Red, Brown and Dark Brown is worn.
  • White dress symbolizes victory, joy and success.
  • In many tribes the chief portrays his authority
    by his regalia (emblems, Royal right and
    prerogatives, symbols or paraphernalia.

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ADORNMENT DRESS FORMS AND SYMBOLISM
  • His attendants clothing similarly portray
    subordination.
  • The symbols and designs in African fabrics are
    not just a random mix of colors.
  • They have certain significance.

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COLONIALISM AND THE DIFFUSION OF NON-AFRICAN
CULTURE
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COLONIALISM AND THE DIFFUSION OF Non-African
Culture
  • The greatest influence on African cultural
    development resulted from colonialism.
  • Most of European culture was imposed on Africans.

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COLONIALISM AND THE DIFFUSION OF Non-African
Culture
  • European languages, Religion, social
    organizations and their values.
  • Nowadays, indigenous African languages have been
    replaced by European languages such as English,
    French, Portuguese etc.

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COLONIALISM AND THE DIFFUSION OF Non-African
Culture
  • The two leading religions are foreign.
  • Another impact of colonialism was the fact that
    most of African culture was discouraged by the
    colonialist.
  • Such things as traditional names, music dance,
    art, religion, marriage and systems of
    inheritance.

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COLONIALISM AND THE DIFFUSION OF Non-African
Culture
  • When the Europeans instituted schools these
    facets of African culture were not taught and
    were absent.
  • Worst of all, dressing to work in African attires
    were unacceptable and even in some cases banned.

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COLONIALISM AND THE DIFFUSION OF Non-African
Culture
  • Colonial education viewed the African Culture as
    primitive and discourage such practices.
  • This has resulted in the loss of African Art,
    Dignity and Respect for African Culture.
  • There are some disparities between African and
    European cultures.

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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EUROPEANS AND AFRICANS
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COLONIALISM AND THE DIFFUSION OF Non-African
Culture
  • Today many westerners that have discovered these
    hidden talents in the African culture have
    excelled rapidly in their profession or have
    become recognized.
  • Examples Paul Simon Graceland
  • Hillary Clinton It Takes a Village to Raise a
    Child.

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COLONIALISM AND THE DIFFUSION OF Non-African
Culture
  • One of the legacies of colonialism in Sub-Saharan
    Africa has been the super-imposition of political
    boundaries over existing lineage and clan or
    tribal group boundaries.
  • The result has been ethnic and tribal disputes
    (ethnic cleansing).

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COLONIALISM AND THE DIFFUSION OF Non-African
Culture
  • In many cases these disputes have been deadly.
  • Bakongo is an area that is now divided by or
    shared by four countries Congo, DRC (Zaire),
    Angola, Gabon.
  • Hutus and Tutsis share Zaire, Burundi, Rwanda,
    Uganda, Tanzania.

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COLONIALISM AND THE DIFFUSION OF Non-African
Culture
  • In West Africa the Akan is shared by Ivory Coast
    and Ghana.
  • The Senufo live in three different countries
    Mali, Ivory Coast, and Burkina Faso.

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COLONIALISM AND THE DIFFUSION OF Non-African
Culture
  • In Eastern Africa, the Somalis live in Ethiopia,
    Kenya and Djibouti.
  • All of these distribution has led to conflicts
    such as those in Somalia Clan Warfare.

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COLONIALISM AND THE DIFFUSION OF Non-African
Culture
  • In Liberia a persistent problem is that of
    indigenous Africans and the Ex-slaves liberated
    by Abraham Lincoln.
  • They call themselves Americo-Liberians.
  • In the Sudan, the problem is religious Muslim
    North versus Christian South.

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MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
  • SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

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MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
  • The aged in Sub-Saharan Africa are viewed with
    dignity and respect.
  • It is assumed that old people form the foundation
    of village life.

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MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
  • It is also assumed that the older you are the
    wiser you become.
  • In Sub-Saharan Africa, old age is a desirable
    stage in the evolution of humans.

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MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
  • It is a time of honor and teaching.
  • The extended family in Africa becomes a very
    important source of care providing for the old or
    elderly.

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MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
  • The elderly in turn provide child-care (nannies)
    because your child with your mother is safe.
  • The elderly also help with other chores but still
    maintaining their status in society.

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MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
  • The elderly in return get food, clothing
    accommodation and above all love something
    which is very abstract in western societies.

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MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
  • The elderly feels that they belong, that they
    have security and that they are able to play an
    important function in the society even though
    they are old.
  • Unfortunately, modernization is rapidly changing
    all this.
  • Nursing homes are being constructed.

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MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
  • Many young men who get employed in the cities
    rarely return to the villages and those who go
    abroad rarely return home.
  • Their sense of responsibility has been
    interrupted by changing times and distance.
  • As a result, the elderly are left without any
    means of support.

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MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
  • Institutional care would have been the best
    alternative but it is not well accepted in
    Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Africans have constantly argued against
    institutionalization as a way of caring for the
    elderly.

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MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
  • A representative from Cameroon to the World
    Assembly on Aging argued that Africans should
    resist making the mistakes of the industrialized
    nations.
  • Despite resistance to institutionalization there
    are still some African countries that practice
    institutional care.

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MODERNIZATION AND THE AGED
  • Countries that are engaged in institutional care
    are Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, and Zambia.
  • In Kenya, a planned integrated community is being
    initiated.
  • In such an arrangement, elderly persons will live
    with persons of other age groups.

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AFRICAN CULTURAL VALUES
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CULTURAL VAUES
  • Another area of cultural conflict is Bribery,
    Corruption, nepotism and misappropriation
    (Theft).
  • In many African Societies, what is called bribery
    in the West, is actually prior-appreciation.

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CULTURAL VAUES
  • It is an act of reciprocity in the act of
    serving.
  • It is always assumed that the beneficiary of a
    favor should give something back in return.

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CULTURAL VAUES
  • Bribery is a gift in anticipation of asking for a
    favor later.
  • This is considered bribery and corruption in
    western tradition.
  • Nepotism occurs when people are hired for
    employment not through qualification but through
    relation (maybe the good old boys).

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CULTURAL VAUES
  • Finally theft or misappropriation of government
    funds is a common practice.
  • It was assumed that the colonial governments were
    not legitimate and therefore could not be
    respected or trusted.
  • They were a scam, scamming the countries that
    they colonized.

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CULTURAL VAUES
  • Scamming the scam was an act of heroism.
  • This activity has continued even into present day
    independent governments.
  • This has led to the kind of corruption which has
    almost bankrupted many African Nations.
  • Examples Mobutu of Zaire, Bokosa of Central
    African Republic.

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End of Lecture
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