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CONTRIBUTING TO RESEARCH ON MARKETING IN SOCIETY

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3. Humane: able to move beyond an obsession with self and a pervasive focus on ... of interest in Marketing in Society issues. ... Larger Impacts on Societies ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CONTRIBUTING TO RESEARCH ON MARKETING IN SOCIETY


1
"CONTRIBUTING TO RESEARCH ON MARKETING IN
SOCIETY"
  • William L. Wilkie
  • Nathe Professor of Marketing
  • University of Notre Dame
  • Sheth/AMA Doctoral Consortium
  • University of Maryland, July
    2006

2
OVERVIEW
  • I. Issues of Motivation and Perspective
  • II. Two Crucial Triangular Frameworks
  • III. Problems Today The AMAs 2004
    Definition
  • IV. Some Good Places to Start ...
  • VI. A Few Lessons I've Learned

3
I. SOME POINTS ON MOTIVATION AND PERSPECTIVE
  • A PH.D. IS A SPECIAL DEGREE, AND A UNIVERSITY IS
    A SPECIAL PLACE.
  • (Hodnett 1963) "THE CULTIVATED MIND" is one
    with 3 qualities
  • 1. Conceptual a mind that desires to know,
    and willing to speculate.
  • 2. Discriminating a mind that is aware of
    and sensitive to value.
  • 3. Humane able to move beyond an obsession
    with self and a pervasive focus on its personal
    day-to-day affairs..
  • Thus, a cultivated mind is capable of adopting a
    serious concern with mankind and the nature of
    the human existence.... this is a key
    underpinning of interest in Marketing in Society
    issues.
  • FINALLY, YOUR ACADEMIC CAREER CAN BE LONG ...
    PLAN ACCORDINGLY ! (4TH DECADE)

4
II. TWO CRUCIAL TRIANGULAR FRAMEWORKS
  • The "Aggregate Marketing System"
  • -- (described in Wilkie Moore, "Marketing's
    Contributions to Society," Journal of
    Marketing Millennium Issue, 1999)
  • -- 3 Key Sectors in the System Marketers,
  • Consumers, Government
  • The Brinberg/McGrath Research Analysis
  • -- Conceptual, Methodological,
    Substantive Domains

5
III. PROBLEM TODAY ACCEPTED LEVELS OF ANALYSIS
FOR MARKETING RESEARCH
  • E.G., The New AMA Definition of Marketing

6
AMAs Definition of Marketing Over Time
  • 1935 (Marketing is) the performance of
    business activities that direct the flow of goods
    and services from producers to consumers.
  • 1985 (Marketing is) the process of planning
    and executing the conception, pricing, promotion,
    and distribution of ideas, goods and services to
    create exchanges that satisfy individual and
    organizational objectives.
  • 2004 Marketing is an organizational function
    and a set of processes for creating,
    communicating and delivering value to customers
    and for managing customer relationships in ways
    that benefit the organization and its
    stakeholders.

7
OBSERVATIONS
  • Note That the Focus has Narrowed Over Time (in
    keeping with Eras 3 and 4 in Wilkie Moore
    2003).
  • Until 1985, definition was pluralistic easily
    translated to aggregate issues such as
    competition, system performance, and consumer
    welfare.
  • In 1985, a clear turn of focus to managers tasks
    as embodied in the 4Ps (making aggregate
    perspectives more difficult).
  • The new 2004 definition extends this spirit now
    a sole focus on the individual organization
  • What we (now) have is more strategic. Now it
    says marketing is really something that makes the
    organization run. (Greg Marshall, Head AMA
    Academic Division)

8
Implications
  • Maybe this should be the definition of Marketing
    Management. ?
  • But, what about Marketing Scholars and their
    work?
  • Notice that this new definition does not speak to
    the extremely numerous scholars who are focused
    on
  • Consumer Behavior
  • Research Methods and Models
  • Larger Impacts on Societies
  • ? There is a gap between the description in this
    definition and the reality of most of the
    academic work in this field.

9
  • My Major Concern Marketing in Society
  • Basic Position The AMA definition is not wrong,
    but instead is incomplete, in that its sole focus
    is on marketing within a single organization.
    This is too limiting for scholarship, in 6 ways
  • Limitation 1 Note that dangers exist in our
    field's blindly adopting the goals of all
    organizations who undertake marketing actions
  • Egregious examples in fraud, bid rigging, energy
    gouging, channel stuffing, etc. remind us that
    many organizations are highly imperfect.
  • Whose perceived interests are being served? Does
    it matter?
  • Also, the goals and policies of most are NOT run
    by marketers.
  • In essence, Im raising the issue, What is
    Marketing actually doing in our world?
  • Were risking a blanket approval of all
    marketing undertakings.
  • Organizational marketing doesnt represent all of
    marketing thought.

10
(Limitations, cont.)
  • The AMA definition cannot easily address the
    competitive nature of our marketing system.
  • When 8 or 12 firms are competing with one
    another, how do we assess the marketing that is
    occurring on all fronts? (e.g., inefficiencies
    are natural, but are not obvious from the single
    firm purview).
  • Is this why our field hasnt had more impact on
    antitrust enforcement?

11
  • The definition has limitations in addressing the
    marketing systems interactions with consumers
  • To illustrate, what if we ask ourselves, How
    well do marketers help consumers with their
    budget allocation decisions?
  • Honest Answer "Very poorly." In the aggregate,
    the marketing system proposes too much
    consumption for a person. (Wilkie 1994)
  • The system acts as if consumer wants and
    resources are infinite
  • And, within each product category, marketers are
    offering highly conflicting advice.
  • Therefore, to cope, consumers must ignore or
    resist most marketing programs.
  • Note that this makes it difficult to equate each
    marketers best interest with each consumers
    best interest.
  • (Note also These are not criticisms, but
    characteristics of the marketing system that are
    not sufficiently evident from adopting the
    managerial perspective on marketing.)

12
  • There are also major limitations in addressing
    major societal and public policy issues
  • Just two examples to make the point
  • Childhood Obesity Does anyone think that a
    single firm focus is best for addressing this
    issue?
  • DTC Advertising of Prescription Drugs How
    helpful have marketing academics been in devising
    or evaluating this public policy experiment?
  • Key Point There are issues in our world that
    are larger than the problems of a single firm.

13
  • The AMA definition also understates the actual
    scope and importance of the marketing field, even
    within firms
  • A key finding in our Marketings Contributions
    paper (Wilkie Moore 1999) flowed from a system
    illustration that included 75 marketing
    activities being carried out.
  • Of these, marketers control only about 30.
  • Marketers do influence most other activities, but
    are not in control.
  • These are not activities that were calling
    marketing given todays view of field.
  • This also calls for a perspective that reaches
    beyond controllable decisions of marketing
    managers
  • To reflect inclusive appreciation of
    organizational operations,
  • And appreciation of governments roles in
    facilitating system operations.
  • In summary, it calls for a Larger Conception of
    Marketing.

14
  • Finally, through its narrow focus, the new AMA
    definition could serve to further suppress the
    academic study of Marketing Society issues.
  • Our 1997 Doctoral Consortium survey is
    instructive in this regard (Wilkie and Moore,
    JMM, 1997)
  • Only 1 in 20 had taken a PhD course on the topic,
    and self-rated expertise was low.
  • But, 2/3 of these students reported a personal
    interest in learning about this topic.
  • This suggests that we're not reflecting the
    interests of young marketing scholars with our
    present Ph.D. curricula.

15
  • Overall Conclusion The new AMA definition is
    too narrow to capture the scholarship of
    marketing. It needs to be revised and broadened.

16
If Interested in Pursuing This Area, Some Good
Places to Start ...
  • Specific Reading "Marketing's Relationship
    to Society,"
  • (Chapter 1 in the Handbook of Marketing (Weitz
    Wensley, eds.), SAGE, 2002.
  • Wilkie and Moore, "Scholarly Research in
    MarketingExploring the 4 Eras of Thought
    Development," Journal of Public Policy and
    Marketing, Fall 2003.
  • General Reading The Handbook of Marketing
    Society (Bloom Gundlach, eds.), SAGE, 2001.
  • Specialized Journals to Check Out
  • -- Journal of Public Policy Marketing
  • -- Journal of Macromarketing
  • -- Journal of Consumer Affairs
  • -- Journal of Consumer Policy

17
Spring 2005 JPPM Special Issue on the Field of
Marketing and its Relationship to Society
  • Section I Dimensions of Marketings
    Relationship to Society
  • Editor's Statement William L. Wilkie
  • Op-Ed Commentary on DTC Advertising An
    Opportunity for Discourse Paul W. Farris and
    William L. Wilkie
  • Anti-Global Challenges to Marketing in Developing
    Nations Exploring the Ideological Divide
    Terrence H. Witkowski
  • When Policies and Marketing Systems Explode An
    Assessment of Food Marketing in the War-Ravaged
    Balkans and Implications for Recovery,
    Sustainable Peace, and Prosperity Clifford J.
    Shultz, II, Timothy J. Burkink, Bruno Grbac and
    Nataa Renko
  • What Goes Around Comes Around A Framework for
    Understanding Trust-Value Dilemmas of Market
    Relationships Jagdip Singh, Rama K. Jayanti,
    Jean E. Kilgore, Kokil Agarwal and Ramadesikan
    Gandarvakottai
  • Societal Regulation of the Marketing Function
    Does the Patchwork Create a Quilt? Ross D. Petty

18
Spring 2005 JPPM Articles (con't.)
  • LifeGoals The Development of a Decision-Making
    Curriculum for Education Thomas J. Reynolds
  • Developing a Market Orientation in a Transitional
    Economy Riliang Qu and Christine T. Ennew
  • Evolution vs. Tradition in Marketing Systems
    The Hong Kong Food Retailing Experience
    Suk-ching Ho
  • Customer-Orientation in the Context of
    Development Projects Insights from the World
    Bank Debabrata Talukdar, Sumila Gulyani, and
    Lawrence F. Salmen
  • Also, a special Section II "The Sages
    Speak..."
  • (Builds off of the "4 Eras" paper (Wilkie and
    Moore, JPPM, Fall 2003) ... 12 Invited Essays
    by Senior Thought Leaders re the history and
    status of the field of Marketing today)

19
Section II "The Sages Speak..." Invited Essays
on Scholarly Research in Marketing
  • Philip Kotler The Role Played by the Broadening
    of Marketing Movement in the History of
    Marketing Thought
  • Stanley J. Shapiro Looking Backward---and Ahead
  • Frederick E. Webster, Jr. A Perspective on the
    Evolution of Marketing Management
  • Robert A. Peterson Ruminations on Theory and
    Research Scholarship in Marketing
  • Leigh M. McAlister Toward Insight and Relevance
  • Alan R. Andreasen Marketing Scholarship,
    Intellectual Leadership and the Zeitgeist
  • Donald R. Lehmann Journal Evolution and the
    Development of Marketing
  • Morris B. Holbrook Marketing Education as Bad
    Medicine For Society The Gorilla Dances
  • Richard Staelin Era's 3 and 4 My Reflections
  • David B. Montgomery Asian Management Education
    Some 21st Century Issues
  • Glen L. Urban Customer Advocacy A New Era in
    Marketing?
  • Jagdish N. Sheth and Rajendra S. Sisodia A
    Dangerous Divergence Marketing and
    Society

20
Summary A Few Lessons I've Learned
  • -- Your career can be long ... plan for it and
    enjoy it!
  • -- Everyone is likely to face some key personal
    and professional decisions in one's career ... at
    times others can advise well, but sometimes a
    person just has to decide for himself/herself.
  • -- You can move around the Aggregate Marketing
    System in your research, at times reflecting a
    marketer perspective, at times a consumer
    perspective, and at times a public policy
    perspective. -- n.b., Level of analysis
    (aggregation) is important as well.

21
  • -- In contrast to prevailing research mores,
    public policy requires that the substantive
    domain be strongly reflected. Herein lies the
    challenge.
  • -- Brinberg and McGrath were right, and this
    presents special challenges for marketing in
    society research. The answer seems to be an
    extended, programmatic approach to public policy
    research.
  • -- Research idealism and lifelong learning are
    actually terrific approaches ... be honest with
    yourself about what you don't know, and strive to
    learn and improve throughout your career.
  • -- And remember, Your career can be long ...
    extend it and enjoy it!
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