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Electronic Navigational Charts and MIOs: Navigation Safety and Marine Environmental Protection

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Great Barrier Reef, Australia (1990) Sabana-Camaguey Archipelago, Cuba (1997) ... Great Barrier Reef. Ecuador. Galapagos Islands. Galapagos Islands. Goal for MIOs ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Electronic Navigational Charts and MIOs: Navigation Safety and Marine Environmental Protection


1
Electronic Navigational Charts and
MIOsNavigation Safety and Marine Environmental
Protection
Dr. Lee Alexander Chair, HGMIO
2
Marine Information Objects (MIOs)
  • - Chart and navigation-related information that
    supplement the minimum information required by
    IMO ECDIS
  • Additional, non-mandatory
  • Not covered by existing standards (e.g., IHO
    S-57, IHO S-52, or IEC 61174)
  • The everything else
  • Points, lines, areas, features, objects

3
(No Transcript)
4
IMO-compliant ECDIS
  • ENC Definition
  • all the chart information necessary for safe
    navigation and may contain supplementary
    information in addition to that contained in the
    paper chart which may be considered necessary for
    safe navigation.

5
Electronic Navigational Chart (ENC)
  • Database of chart features
  • Produced in conformance to IHO S-57 Standards
  • Displayed on ECDIS using IHO S-52 colors and
    symbols
  • Software provides indications, warnings,
    alarms by using intelligent data
  • chart is background for display of other
    navigation information, e.g.,
  • Ownship
  • Radar
  • AIS
  • MIOs

Indication/alarms 1. Crossing into
separation scheme 2. Crossing into inbound
lane 3. Crossing out of traffic scheme 4.
Crossing safety depth value
Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound, Alaska (site of
EXXON VALDEZ grounding)
6
MIOs
Marine Protection Areas Security Zones
7
Types of MIOs
  • Tides / water levels
  • Ice coverage
  • Meteorological
  • Oceanographic
  • Marine Habitats
  • Environmental Protection
  • Archeological
  • Vessel Traffic Services (VTS)
  • and others TBD

8
Foundation Data Layers for Marine GIS
  • Shoreline
  • Bathymetry
  • Cadastral (boundary)
  • Environmental Sensitivity Index
  • Habitat and species location
  • Benthic mapping (seagrass, corals, )
  • Ports and vessel traffic
  • Geo-regulations

9
NOAA Special ProjectProtecting Corals
Savings Ships
  • A pilot project in Florida Keys National Marine
    Sanctuary
  • Convert existing coral reef maps to format
    suitable for use with electronic charts (i.e.,
    MIOs)
  • MIOs to be based on international standards
  • Contribute to IHO and IMO initiatives to
    incorporate critical marine habitat information
    with paper/electronic charts
  • Can be a basis for what is done worldwide

10
Two Components
  • Biological
  • convert existing biological/ecological data into
    an S-57 format
  • Decide what level of information is appropriate
    (or needed)
  • Regulatory
  • - Determine what are the various types of marine
    protected areas (national international)
  • - develop suitable S-57 objects, attributes and
    attribute values

11
Benthic Mapping
www.csc.noaa.gov/crs/bhm/
12
Florida Keys Coral Reef Habitats (as a MIO layer)
Patch Reefs Barrier Reef
13
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14
Special Areas
  • IMO MARPOL 73/78 defined certain sea areas as
    special areas

Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSA) - An area
that needs special protection because on
ecological, socio-economic, or scientific
reasons - Has international importance/recognition
15
PSSAs
  • Great Barrier Reef, Australia (1990)
  • Sabana-Camaguey Archipelago, Cuba (1997)
  • Malpelo Island, Colombia (2002)
  • Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, USA
    (2002)
  • Wadden Sea, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands (2002)
  • Paracas National Reserve, Peru (2003)
  • Baltic Sea, except Russian water( 2003)
  • Galapagos Archipelago, Ecuador (2004)
  • Canary Isles Archipelago, Spain (2005)

16
Marine Protection Areas
  • National (USA, Canada, Australia, Cuba, Ecuador)
  • Marine Managed Area (MMA)
  • Marine Protection Area (MPA)
  • Particularly Sensitive Maritime Zones (ZMES)
  • International (IMO, IHO, IUCN, etc.)
  • Special Area / Particularly Sensitive Sea
    (PSSA)
  • Archipelagic Sea Lanes (ASL)
  • Environmentally Sensitive Sea Area (ESSA)
  • Protected Management Areas
  • Zona Marítima Especialmente Sensible

17
MPA Functional Classification Scheme
  • Functional Criteria
  • Primary conservation focus
  • Level of protection
  • Permanence of protection
  • Constancy of protection
  • Ecological scale of protection
  • Restrictions on extraction

Sub-Categories Conservation
areas Reserves Preserves Sanctuaries Parks Managem
ent areas Area to be Avoided (ATBA) etc.
Developed by NOAA (USA)
18
PSSA Boundary
Submerged Cables
Paper Chart or RNC
19
ENC
20
Coral Reefs
PSSA boundary
21
ENC with MIOs
22
Coral Reef/MPA Initiatives in other Regions
  • Gulf of Honduras Project
  • Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras
  • MesoAmerican Barrier Reef System
  • Cuba
  • Sabana-Camaguey Archipelago
  • Australia
  • Great Barrier Reef
  • Ecuador
  • Galapagos Islands

23
Galapagos Islands
24
Goal for MIOs
  • When used with Electronic Charts
  • Supplemental information for decision support
  • The right information for task-at-hand
  • For voyage planning and route monitoring
  • How displayed is less important than content and
    format.
  • Accurate, timely, and format (S-57/S-100)
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