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The Wonderful Animal Kingdom


1. Invertebrates- No backbone, make up 96% of all animals, are considered the ' ... animals that have an outer covering for protection (usually invertebrates) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Wonderful Animal Kingdom

The Wonderful Animal Kingdom
Animals are consumers! What does it mean to be a
consumer? Organisms that cannot make their own fo
od and need to go out and find food that they can
ingest and digest
How do consumers find their food?
They use their senses! Smell- Giant pandas usuall
y live alone, but they can use their keen sense
of smell to find each other in thick bamboo
forests.Komodo dragons keen sense of smell helps
these lizards to zero in on rotting meat from
more than a mile (1.6 kilometers) away.
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Hearing-Many nocturnal animals rely on their
sense of hearing to function in a dark world.
Prey animals, such as rabbits, listen for
predators trying to sneak up on them. Predators,
such as owls, can hunt in total darkness just by
listening for prey.Rabbits must be able to
"sense" danger, and their sharp ears allow them
to detect a predator before they are in danger.
Touch-How about using your sense of touch to find
dinner? The walrus pokes around in the muddy
ocean bottom with its whiskers to feel for a crab
or a clam. Then, it uses its tusks to dig up the
food. Animals that live underground (such as
moles) do not need a well-developed sense of
sight, but do have sharp senses of smell and
touch (whiskers) to help them find their way
around and search for food.
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Sight-Hawks and other birds of prey have a keen
sense of sight, so they can detect movement of
animals such as mice while soaring high above the
ground. Did you ever wonder how a hawk can detect
a tiny mouse while soaring high above the tree
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One way that animals are classified by whether
they have a backbone or not There are two main gr
oups 1. Invertebrates- No backbone, make up 96
of all animals, are considered the lower
group-not very complex. 2. Vertebrates- Have bac
kbones, make up 4 of all animals, are considered
the higher group- more complex
Ho w do animals digest their food?
1. Some animals have a complete digestive system
(frogs, humans) Food is broken down mechanically
and chemically as it passes through different
parts of a specialized body tube.
2. Some animals do not have a complete digestive
system and use other methods (sponge filters
their food) or a (starfish pushes its stomach out
to grab food)
Invertebrates Mollusks Worms Arthropods Insect

Vertebrates Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals
Animals can also be classified by their
skeletons. There are 3 types of skeletons, the
two we will learn about are 1. Exoskeleton- anim
als that have an outer covering for protection
(usually invertebrates) 2. Endoskeleton- animals
that have skeletons on the inside of their
bodies. (usually vertebrates)
Exoskeleton -Effective against dehydration -Comb
ines strength and flexibility -Unable to be repai
red -Limited space for contraction -Cannot enla
rge -Must be shed which makes animal vulnerable
Endoskeleton -Strong support against gravity -Do
es not protect muscles -Heavy -May be flexible o
r strong

Body Structure/Plans A body plan is the animals
symmetry 1. Radial symmetry- no apparent left, r
ight, front or back. (hydra) 2. Bilateral symmet
ry- distinct left and right sides (butterfly)
3. Asymmetrical- no symmetry (sponges)
Scientists look at how animals reproduce in order
to further classify them. There are two types o
f reproduction 1. Sexual- Separate male and fema
le individuals, fertilization occurs,
2. Asexual- A new organism is formed from just
one parent, no fertilization, happens mostly with
What are two types of fertilization?
1. External- 1 or more new individuals formed
that are like their parents, dependent on water
to carry out fertilization (fish, frogs,
starfish) 2. Internal- Females eggs are kept in b
ody, smaller number of individuals produced, do
not depend on water (humans, dogs, tigers, cows)
-Budding -Regeneration
Development of a fertilized egg into an adult
varies in the animal world. 1. Young that look v
ery similar to the adult form- changes not very
dramatic (kittens, dogs, babies)
2. Young that look nothing like their parents-
changes are dramatic -Complete metamorphosis (Bu
tterfly) -Incomplete metamorphosis (Grasshopper)
Adaptations Characteristics that allow an animal
to survive in its environment. These
characteristics allow the animal to find food,
protect themselves, communicate, and mate.
Physical Adaptations Changes to the animals
body Blubber, Bird Beaks Camouflage,Thumbs, Ja
w structure, Eyes

Blubber Polar bears, whales, seals, and other arc
tic animals have a layer of fat under their skin
that keeps their heat in when it is cold,
especially when they dive into water thats just
about 0 degrees Celsius. Blubber may be up to 15
cm (6 in.) thick. During the winter, blubber may
account for one-third of an animals total body
mass. Blubber also streamlines the body and
functions as an excess energy reserve.
Why do some animals in cold water have fur
instead of only blubber? Some marine mammals (suc
h as seals, sea lions, and otters) use thick hair
as an insulator, while others use blubber. Hair
works by trapping air between the body and the
cold water, and air is a very good insulator.
Bird Beaks Nectar Hummingbirds suck out nectar
Robins dig and pull out worms Sparrows and
Finches crack open seeds Heron scoop out fish

Ducks, Geese, Swans carefully scoop out fine bits
of vegetation Swallows catch flying insects with
wide openings Woodpeckers pick and pry out sma
ll insects in tiny crevices. Owls and Hawks pul
l meat off of bones
Chisel-Woodpeckers have bills that are long and
chisel-like for boring into wood to eat insects.

Cracker-Seed eaters like sparrows and cardinals
have short, thick conical bills for cracking

Probe-Hummingbird bills are long and slender for
probing flowers for nectar.

Shredder-Birds of prey like hawks and owls have
sharp, curved bills for tearing meat.

Spear-Birds like herons and kingfishers have
spear-like bills adapted for fishing.

Strainer-Some ducks have long, flat bills that
strain small plants and animals from the water.
Swiss Army Knife-Crows have a multi-purpose bill
that allows them to eat fruit, seeds, insects,
fish, and other animals.

Tweeter-Insect eaters like warblers have thin,
pointed bills.

Camouflage Many animals that live in snowy areas
are white (like the polar bear),
Many animals that live on rocks match the
coloration of the rocks, and Many animals that l
ive near the soil are soil-colored. Patterns,
like stripes or spots, can also help camouflage
an animal.
Many animals that live in deserts are
sand-colored (like the Fennec fox),
Many animals that live in trees are green
(like the emerald tree boa),
A few animals are shaped like twigs (the walking
stick), leaves (the Australian leaf wing
butterfly), or even bird droppings (the
caterpillars of many butterflies, including the
viceroy and the red-spotted purple butterfly).
Some animals are not naturally camouflaged, but
are helped out by other organisms (for example,
the sloth lets green algae grow on its fur,
helping hide the sloth among the tree leaves).

Snake Jaws Snakes, however, have an additional bo
ne on each side of their mouths. These bones are
called quadrates, are long and movable, allowing
snakes to "unhinge" their jaws. Additionally, the
lower jaw of the snake is not one solid bone like
ours is. It is really two separate bones
connected by a ligament that can stretch from
side to side.
What would happen to a snake if its jaws broke?
Can snakes tear their food apart?
Snakes must be able to swallow their food whole
if they are to survive.
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Other types of adaptations Internal- Respiratio
n Breathing- Lungs, Gills, Openings in the side o
f an insects body Behavioral Mating Protective

Types of Communication adaptations
Mother penguin trying to find babies
Cat raising its tail