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Exam Review


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Title: Exam Review

Exam Review
  • Gender, Sex and Nature
  • An Environmental Sociological Approach
  • These slides will be posted this week.

When, Where, How Long?
  • Our final 2 ½ hour (150 minutes) examination will
    take place on Earth Day
  • Tuesday, April 22, 2008 Time 200-430
    p.m. Room Sobey 160

  • Artifact Presentations
  • Handouts
  • Overview of Exam
  • Questions
  • Course Evaluation last 10 minutes

  • I will help you keep track of time during the
    exam. Below, time allotted for each section is
    offered as a guideline, which includes time for
    checking over your work. There will be some
    choice in sections 4, 5, and 6 below, and there
    will be a short BONUS Question worth 2 points
    (added to the overall exam mark). Each exam
    includes attached artifacts.
  • 1 University of Victorias guidelines
  • Drawing from the University of Victorias (BC)
    sociology examination guideline, you will be
    expected to respond to what they call a 6-level
    learning style of exam.1 Likewise, here is how
    your exam will LIKELY be structured

  • 10 RECOGNITION (10-15 minutes)
  • DO ALL.
  • First, there are 10 multiple choice questions
    worth one-half point each. Choose the BEST
    response. Then, 1 matching question is worth 5
  • Taken from lectures 1, 2, 3, 4.

  • 10 RECALL (15-20 minutes)
  • DO ALL.
  • Use EACH of these 10 terms and concepts (in
    quotation marks) in one sentence to show me that
    you understand the sociological meaning and use
    of the term within the course readings listed
    below, even though you may or may not agree with
    the finding. Each sentence is worth one point.
    Use the reading title as a cue.
  • CONCENTRATIONS Strathern on menstruation rites
    and the problematics of western research in other
    cultures, Rousseau on the education of children
    and on gender, Calverley on the Voyageurs,
    Calgary Stampede videos on the background and on
  • Taken from lectures 5, 6, 7.

Section 3
  • 10 APPLICATION (15-20 minutes)
  • DO ALL.
  • Based on the quotes given, write YOUR OWN BRIEF
    ANALYSIS in a sentence or two showing an
    understanding of how one group of people may be
    disadvantaged given that finding or if that
    finding turns out to be the reality for some
    groups as they interface with the natural world.
    Each is response is worth two-and-a-half points.
  • CONCENTRATIONS Women and Farming during
    Depression, Lecture 10 section on Bell and
    Population, Louvs Last Child in the Woods
    video, Meston and Buss on Why Humans have Sex
  • Taken from lectures 8, 10.

Section 4
  • 20 ANALYSIS (20-25 minutes)
  • Goffman offers us the dramaturgical analysis as a
    starting point for re-ordering knowledge about a
    taken-for-granted social situation. Apply three
    of Goffmans dramaturgical analysis elements of
    your choice to unpack several social facts for
    both of the following social contexts which we
    have reviewed in class. Write 2 or 3 sentences or
    point forms for each element to briefly analyze
    the situation. Tie-up your data with a Bottom
    Line statement that could inspire future
    research. Each section is worth ten points.
  • CONCENTRATIONS Nude Beach, Botched Male
  • Taken from lectures 12, 13. Goffmans dramaturgy
    is outlined in Lecture 9.

Section 5
  • 25 SYNTHESIS (25-30 minutes
  • Choicedo 2 out of 3)
  • Foucault claimed that history is a genealogy of
    power the sane having control over the
    oppressed. As we have discovered, control over
    ones gender and sex and sexuality can impact how
    we interface with the natural world. Each of the
    choices contains questions related to specific
    readings do both questions in each of your
    choices. Worth 25 points.
  • CONCENTRATIONS Boy Scouts, Gay Tourism, Outback
  • Taken from lectures 14, 17, 18. Foucaults
    genealogy of truth is outlined in lecture 14.

Section 6
  • 25 EVALUATION (20-25 minutes)
  • Choice-do 1 out of 2
  • Michael Bell believes that as long as people have
    dominated the natural environment, other people
    have been concerned about it. This section
    relates to our lectures on activism. Choose one
    out of the two questions below. Worth 25 points.
  • Taken from lectures 19, 20, 21, 22.

  • On last page of exam you might want to work on
    this during responding to other parts of the exam
  • Takes 1-3 minutes
  • Optional
  • Worth up to 2 points on final percentage mark
  • You cannot study for this one.

Next Slides
    VIDEO CLIPS FOR EACH WEEK to get the spirit of

January The Ideal
  • It is impossible to agree on humans place in
    nature we are part of naturewe are not part of
    naturewe are sometimes part of nature(handouts)
  • Since historical reports are generally exclusive
    to some groups of people and their interests, we
    cannot conclusively trust that we know what
    happened in society until now
  • Like history, sociology has many shortcomings
    ethnocentric bends toward natural science in
    many respects did not question previous or other
    cultures relationships with nature has often
    considered success level or development level
    of societies according to a stereotyped gaze of
    overcoming the natural world around/in those
  • Nature, then, became to be socially constructed
    including mother nature.
  • Gender, sex, sexuality, nature, and even
    sociology are most often taken for granted. They
    have various definitions depending on in whose
    interest is the definition.
  • Sociology and its interest in the natural world
    (one explanation of many)
  • Comte (and Spencer) umbrella discipline we
    might understand society once we understand the
    wider natural laws seen through a positivist
    gaze society is like an organism
  • Durkheim disagreed we might understand society
    once we identify patterns and themes of social
    facts wider natural laws are inadequate to
    understand society, but it is important to
    understand how the natural world is mediated
    socially be familiar with slides 21 and 22
  • Marx took a critical look at industrialized
    European society and how natural materials
    figured into the production line, family
    dynamics, and city life
  • Robert E. Park Human Ecology School emerged in
    the 1920s out of U. of Chicago because it was now
    agreed that human can either have a competitive
    relationship with nature but also a communicative
    one within certain groups this began an official
    sociology of space
  • Environmental Sociology from a western
    perspective, has grown since the 1970s with most
    universities now offering related courses

  • Handout Lecture 3 on sex characteristics, Marx,
    and Smith expect a question from the bottom of
    the handout (or a similar one) Do not memorize
    High Heels presentation
  • Roughgarden
  • Diversity in society
  • Definition Gray areas in defining sex and gender
    is prevalent in both social definitions and
    scientific ones
  • Sex and gender are not inherent (at least in all
    social contexts) it is through INTERACTION that
    we construct how we understand sex and gender
  • Dozier Doing Sex
  • Social interpretation of male/masculine and
    female/feminine is easily distorted when looking
    at experiences of some people, such as
    transsexuals its not necessarily what we expect
  • The body plays a huge role in the social
    interpretation of masculinity and femininity
  • Slide 13 example of Joe there are more
    pressures once judged as male pressure to
    conform to misogyny at work, for example. This is
    compounded by homosexuality, effemininity, race
    or ethnicity.
  • West and Zimmerman Doing Gender
  • Doing gender simultaneously produces,
    reproduces, sustains and legitimates the social
    meanings accorded to gender This introduces the
    concept that we are ACCOUNTABLE for each act we
    perform that is appropriate to ones sex
  • Deutsch Undoing Gender
  • If interaction is the site of doing gender, it
    can be the site of undoing it.
  • Exam expect a question similar to those on Slide

  • Culture know definitions on Slide 12 place
    where interaction/
  • socialization of gender, sex, and sexuality
    takes place
  • Some claim that nature and culture are polar
    opposites that the first happens naturally
    outside of culture, and the second is constructed
    independent of nature
  • Recall your timeline on when you were in nature
    and the cultural punctuations that affected this
    on the final exam, you could be given a timeline
    and asked to identify ideal, material, and
    practical aspects that could have potentially
    affected ones relationship to the natural world
  • Strathern
  • Poses the idea that there are no such things as
    nature or culture that researching one in
    comparison to the other sets up a false dichotomy
  • Uses Hagen society to show that definitions and
    practices around culture and nature are not clear
    cut, but that they often are related to other
    perceived polar opposites female and male,
    domestic and wild
  • Womens sexuality is often viewed as something
    closer to nature/wild and in need of being
    controlled through cultural norms
  • Many researchers impose these dichotomous
    assumptions onto cultural research, based on
    their own interpretation of female/male,
    wild/domestic so, be careful and critically look
    at all research for biases
  • Be familiar with Slides 23-30 (know at least
    three of Stratherns nine points)
  • We begin to form our interpretations of gender,
    sex, sexuality, and nature as children as we
    gather social facts from out culture
  • Rousseau
  • Rousseau Father of Romanticisim Romantic
    notions of educating children involved heavy
    doses of the natural world, unlike the
    philosophies of many before him
  • Form a general idea of the challenges to Emile on
    Slides 15-23 one sex is superior to another
    females are natural pleasers of males and must
    accept this females and males should not receive
    the same education (this is a prevalent idea
    still today) females should enjoy the natural
    world, but in a different way from males females
    should focus on developing their charms and
    creative skills females need to learn how to be
    under the power of others from an early age
    females are the ones to be taught the artistic
    endeavors, such as music and dancing

February The Material
  • Ideas can be powerful things
  • The material aspects of Bells ecological
    dialogue help us understand how those ideas play
    out in the social world in ways that we can
    is, what can we sense?

Goffman believed that we could understand the
social world (macro) by assessing face-to-face
interaction (micro).
  • This meant that he believed we could take things
    we already knew and re-order them this would
    lead to sociological discoveries. He was said
    to have begged, borrowed, and stolen from
    existing theories! (multidisciplinarity)
  • This re-ordering is what Michael Bell is also
    asking us to do in order to raise new questions
    about how we use the natural world around us.

  • Persona a mask worn to project a particular
    image to an audience.
  • Performance the activity "given off" by an actor
    for their audience
  • Stage the makeup of the situation the location
    where a performance unfolds
  • Setting the physical layout or background where
    interaction occurs, including "props
  • Scene the action taking place within a specific
    setting (just like for a drama or play)
  • Actor/Character/Performer a person in a given
    role, performing the duties that are consistent
    with that role
  • Audience the people for whom we perform our
    roles-- note the audience members are also
    actors to each other
  • Scripts our internalized categories and "labels"
    that we project when interacting can be very
    explicit, like when people who have certain jobs
    are expected to literally say specific lines...
    or like when you are in a relationship and one
    person says "i love you," you're expected to
    reply, "i love you, too.
  • Backstage the "behind the scenes" (ex. in a
    restaurant, the kitchen is the "backstage")
  • Impression Management how a person manages their
    peers impressions of how we act in interactions
  • Dramatic Realization an attempt to make ones
    better qualities noticed when they might
    otherwise go unnoticed (ex. on a date, making
    sure to point out and talk about your
    achievements at school, sports, work, etc. to
    make a good impression.)
  • Idealization portraying yourself to others in
    order to closely resemble the values of society
    (emphasizing your positive qualities to make
    yourself look better)
  • Negotiation the process by which roles are
    established makes interaction possible
  • Mystification the air of superiority that occurs
    when you conceal parts of yourself to create
  • Accounts an explanation for ones actions or
    behaviors (aka excuses)

The Material World of Choosing Gender/Sex of Baby
  • Latest technology
  • Hollywood sign and famous people
  • Two genders represented
  • Reproductive medicine (PGD)
  • Requires years of training (university teaching
    hospitals laboratories equipment)
  • Fertility institutes
  • Example of couple who had success - testimony
  • Featured on many TV shows
  • Remarkable 100 success is in the mission
    statement never gone wrong
  • Based in beautiful Los Angeles
  • All records are extremely firewalled and under
    video surveillance
  • Travel and lodging arrangements in Mexico, USA
  • Flexible payment arrangements
  • Most/All parents shown/physicians represented as
    ideal white, SNAF (D. Smith)
  • We will lookwe will resolve commitment
  • world recognized/worlds largest/worlds most
  • Most advanced care with continued commitment
  • Board Certified procedure
  • Prevention from passing on undesirable genetic
  • Highly specialized techniques done by
    scientists PhD Scientists international
  • Choice is made available to parents, regardless
    of race, creed, sexual orientation, ethnicity
  • Reproductive choices
  • Most precious gift
  • All records are confidential
  • Long awaited boy or girl balances family

Shettles Method of Choosing Gender of Baby
  • What is the main message of the article? In whose
    interest is choosing the sex of a baby?
  • Is choosing your babys sex Pro-nature or
    Anti-nature? Neithersomething else? Playing
  • What are some social implications of the
    technology available that permit the choosing of
    babies sex? Think about religion, family as an
  • How could choosing the sex of babies impact on
    natural environments in the future if the gender
    role ideals continue as they are right now?

  • We can count peoplethat means we can sense them.
    Thats why we can look at population as a
    material representation in society.
  • What comes to your mind when you hear the words
    population or overpopulation?
  • What do natural populations look like? Do they
    exist only in the wild? (Here, I use the term
    wild loosely to point to non-human/non-artificial
    environments, though artificial as a concept is
    also problematic)
  • How close are the social aspects of population to
    the non-human/wild ones?
  • Much debate exists regarding population,
    overpopulation, population control,
    underpopulation, immigration...

  • So, since the world will never completely agree
    on whether to condone or condemn birth control,
    how will the natural environment be affected in
    the years to come?

Michael Bell 6 ways culture, sex, reproduction,
and population are related
  • 1. Misanthropy
  • 2. Demographic Competition
  • 3. Anti-Religious
  • 4. Sex is Taboo
  • 5. The Population Issue is a Gender Issue
  • 6. The family is extremely socially significant

Materials around Ideas and Practices relating to
the body and its changes and drives
  • Bean, M. Love Lessons from the Wild Kingdom
    Link to reading
  • Are men more connected to nature than women or
    other sexes or genders?
  • Are those love lessons or sex lessons? Is
    there a difference in the non-human animal world?
  • What would the animals for women be?
  • What would those animals mating habits be
  • What about animals and mating tips for gays and
    lesbians? For abstainers from sex? For
    transvestites? For divorced people? Widowers?
  • What about for priests who cannot marry?
  • So, is having sex natural?
  • Power and Watts The Woman with the Zebras
  • Segregation in western culture between boys and
  • Eland Bull Ritual for Girls and for Boys gender
    taboos similarities within the ritual for boys
    and girls
  • Circumcision in general

Do Nude BodiesNatural Bodies?
  • Is it possible for the body to escape social
    interpretations of gender, sex, and sexuality?
  • Just as we do gender in interaction, we do
    nuditywe are body watchers and body
    interpreters! Holmes, in Bare Bodies, looks at
    the types of discourses within those
  • Hence, the reading on Naked as Nature Intended
    demonstrates the scrutiny of the body in a
    different setting, such as how society perceives
    the body on Crystal Crescent Beach in a local
  • Consider the naked body in/as a material part of
    nature (though it can be considered much more
    than that), and presentations of masculinity and
    femininity in that interaction.

Consider how we constantly interpret nude bodies
in society -
  • The Arts
  • Myth
  • Beauty
  • Strength
  • Eroticism
  • Sexuality
  • Taboo underground
  • Religion
  • Academic texts and popular press covers
  • Health and medicine
  • There is a Federation of Canadian Nudists (FCN)
  • Famous Photo of ???? (photographer Annie

  • Definitions
  • naturism and nudism
  • Control and Resistance
  • Police and Legal organizations fight nudism at
    local Halifax area beach, Crystal Crescent
  • Bathing suits
  • Naturism and Nudism in Europe
  • How it became taboo

Jennifer Holmes articleBare Bodies, Beaches,
and Boundaries Abjected Outsiders and
Rearticululation at the Nude Beach
  • More men than women visit the beach
  • Swingers and gay men are generally not
    considered official naturists because of an
    assumed taboo around their sexuality practices
  • Sexual talk between the naturists was generally
  • Women naturists were generally more passive than
    the men
    American society, public nudity is used to
    explore others values around sexuality.
  • Plan on a couple of Goffman-dramaturgy questions
    as applied to the nude beachif you come in to
    the exam knowing his elements of dramaturgy,
    youll do fine in the Goffman section.

Sex Reassignment tampering with the natural
  • The Boy who was Raised as a Girl
  • Watch the video
  • Be able to discuss some of the nature and
    nurture problematics exposed in the video AND
    how Foucaults concepts could apply
  • Episteme
  • Legitimate Knowledge
  • Genealogy of Truth (The family tree of social
  • Institutions
  • Power/Knowledge
  • Control
  • Panopticon

Boy Scouts and Sexual Control
  • Contradiction Boy Scouts urged to seek nature,
    but not natural urges
  • Materials
  • Books/text/rules
  • Badges
  • Uniforms
  • Pryke, S. (2005). The control of sexuality in the
    early British Boy Scouts movement. Sex Education,
    5 (1), 15-28.
  • Scouting, among other things, functioned to
    control adolescent sexuality through repressing
    masturbation viewed as unnatural, though
    everyone was doing it.
  • This was carried out through ideals about what
    was natural and what was unnatural --- this was
    communicated through text, brotherhood and
    manhood, war, religion, nationhood, and sanity.
  • Baden-Powell how he controlled the boys the
    controversy around his own sexuality
  • Social Purity Movement How it affected not only
    the Boy Scouting movement, but society in

March The Practical
  • Murray on Sexuality and Tourism
  • Little and Pinelli on Outback Romance and
  • Tindall, D.B., Davies, S. and Maboules, C.
    (2003). Activism and conservation behaviour in an
    environmental movement The contradictory effects
    of gender,
  • Gender and Natural Disasters, such as Hurricane
  • Ecofeminism
  • Alaska Wolf Hunt and Tom Brown

  • Best of Luck!
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