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AGRI 101 Introduction to Agriculture

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Title: AGRI 101 Introduction to Agriculture


1
AGRI 101Introduction to Agriculture
  • Dr. Martin Stone

2
Agriculture
  • Science, art, or practice of cultivating soil
    producing crops, and raising livestock, and the
    preparation and marketing of the resulting
    products

3
Agriculture
  • Horticulture
  • most diverse and interesting field
  • Landscape Design
  • Landscape Construction
  • Landscape Maintenance
  • Nursery Production field and container
  • Greenhouse Production Tropical Foliage,
    flowering potted plants, cut flowers

4
Agriculture
  • Horticulture (contd)
  • Pomology
  • Small fruits
  • Tree fruits and nuts
  • Olericulture
  • Turf/Golf Course

5
Agriculture
  • Agronomy Field Crops
  • Corn, soybeans, wheat, tobacco
  • Fiber crops
  • Forages
  • Forestry
  • Soils erosion and fertility
  • Harvesting Production of timber
  • Management of Wild Areas
  • Urban Forestry (horticulture)

6
Agriculture
  • Animal Sciences
  • Cattle
  • Dairy, beef
  • Poultry
  • Sheep/Goats
  • Horse
  • Swine

7
Textbooks
  • Have been ordered and will appear in the
    bookstore in a few days!

8
What do humans need?
  • Food
  • Shelter
  • Clothing
  • Medicine
  • Love

9
Agriculture
  • Plant sciences
  • Animal sciences
  • Economic Sciences
  • Mechanical/Engineering Sciences
  • Soil Sciences

10
World Wide
  • Worlds surface area 112 billion A
  • Cropland is 3-4
  • Remainder is ice, water, mountains, etc.
  • World Land Area 32 b A
  • 29 of entire planets surface

11
The most popular photograph in history, taken
from Apollo 17.
12
World Wide
  • World Land Area 32 b A (29 of World Total)
  • 11.5 b A Agricultural - 36 of Land Total
  • 3.5 b A Cropland - 11 of Land Total
  • 8 b A grazing - 25 of Land Total
  • 10.6 b A forest 33 of Land Total
  • Remainder Desert or Ice or Mountains

13
United States
  • 2.265 b A 7 of worlds land area
  • 413 m A Cropland
  • Remainder forest, pasture, range

14
United States, Number of Farms (1000)
15
United States,Average Farm Size (A)
16
United States,Land in Farms (1000)
17
KentuckyNumber of Farms (1000)
18
Kentucky,Avg. Farm Size (A)
19
KentuckyLand in Farms (1000 A)
20
Kentucky Farmland Prices ()
KY
US
21
Kentucky Agriculture 2004
  • 4th behind TX, MO, IA, tied w/ TN

22
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Kentucky Agriculture 2005
27
Kentucky Agriculture 2005
28
Kentucky Agriculture 2005
29
Kentucky Agriculture 2004
  • What was the cash leader for the entire state?

30
Sales of horses including stud fees,
2,300,000,000
31
KY Horses
  • 2.3 Billion KY horse industry
  • Almost 200,000 persons involved in KY horses
  • 320,000 horses in KY

32
Top Cattle Counties?
  • Barren
  • Warren
  • Pulaski
  • Madison
  • Monroe
  • Largest Beef State East of Mississippi
  • 8th Largest in Nation

33
Kentucky Agriculture
34
Kentucky Crops Know the Big 4
35
World Population
36
Thomas Malthus
  • Essay on the Principle of Population in 1798
  • Human population increases geometrically
  • Resources increase arithmetically
  • Therefore, POPULATIONS WILL GROW UNTIL THEY CRASH

37
Population Growth and Resources
  • Yeast
  • Fungi that live on sugar
  • Thought Experiment
  • Add fungi to container with water and sugar
  • What happens to the population?

38
Population and Resource Growth
Yeast
Sugar
Population Growth Surpasses Resources
39
Population and Resource Growth
Population
Famine
Resources
Population Crashes!!
40
Thomas Malthus
  • Predicted
  • Land Degradation
  • Massive Famine
  • Disease
  • War
  • Has this happened?
  • Where?

41
Malthuss Predictions USA Developed Countries
  • Predictions Delayed by Technology
  • Fertilizer more yield per acre
  • Irrigation more yield per acre and opened more
    land in arid regions
  • Green Revolution Crops (Breeding)
  • Human Birth Control
  • Education of Women

42
World Population Growth
43
Causes for World Population Growth
  • DDT/Malaria
  • Childhood immunizations
  • Education of females
  • Green Revolution Crops
  • Use of fertilizers and pesticides
  • Religious Beliefs large families, contraception

44
Agriculture
  • We practice it on a local level
  • Must think globally

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Famine
  • Part of Agriculture in much of the world
  • Not a factor in this country
  • Many in our country eat too much!
  • We spend as much on diets, pills, and books about
    diets than some countries spend on importing food?

47
Frequency of Famines 1945-1975Latin America
48
Frequency of Famines 1945-1975Africa
49
Frequency of Famines 1945-1975Africa
50
Frequency of Famines 1945-1975Africa
Asia, Middle East, Europe Trend Continues Today
51
World Population
  • How many people can the earth support?
  • Who Knows, possibly 20 Billion

52
Conclusion
  • There has been a famine in the world almost every
    year since WWII
  • Human Suffering
  • Political Instability
  • Causes are
  • Manmade
  • Natural

53
Consider
  • World gtgt 6,000,000,000 persons
  • Entire world depends on 25 crops of which
  • 3 5 are heavily relied upon
  • Risk mass starvation
  • Susceptible to disease/insect damage

54
Irish Potato Famine
  • Reliance on one food
  • 1.5 A fed family of six, would take 8 A of wheat
    for same level!
  • 1845 cool, wet summer
  • Potato blight fungus imported from South America
    by mistake
  • Spread by spores throughout country without notice

55
Irish Potato Famine
  • When they dug tubers in the fall, half the crop
    was rotted
  • Theories of the day
  • Static electricity from new steam locomotives
  • Mortiferous vapors from volcanoes
  • Tubers contracted dropsy
  • Tubers continued to rot but they did nothing to
    stop it

56
Irish Potato Famine
  • Lasted from 1845 to 1851
  • Hunger, disease, weakened bodies
  • Death from dysentery and others

57
Famine in the USSR 1930-33
  • Stalin in 1928 proposed a five year plan to
    collectivize many of the farms
  • Ownership taken by state
  • Resettlement of millions of peasant farmers to
    farms operated by communes
  • Huge loss of crop production
  • Famine, Starvation, Millions died

58
Causes of Famine
  • Irish Potato Famine
  • Russian Famine
  • African Famines
  • Consecutive years of below average rain
  • Political redistribution of land or food aid
  • Robert Mugabe, Pres. Zimbabwe land reform

59
Reducing Famine
  • Diversify food supplies
  • Keep food reserves safe
  • Population control
  • Political stability
  • Better transportation, highways and ports
  • Education, better economic outlook

60
Text Books are in at Bookstore
61
CHINA
  • 1.28 Billion persons in 2002
  • 5X U.S.
  • 20 of worlds population
  • Land area slightly less than U.S.
  • 10 Arable land vs. 19 in U.S.

62
China
  • 1979 decided to limit pop to 1.2 B by 2000
  • One child per couple policy
  • Couples rewarded money, vacation, more land to
    farm
  • One child children get better education, housing,
    jobs

63
India
  • Family planning less aggressive
  • 947 million, .947 Billion persons
  • Expected to reach 2 Billion by 2025 and become
    the worlds most populous nation

64
Name the top 3 World Crops
  • Rice
  • Corn
  • Wheat
  • What do they have in common?
  • All grasses!!
  • We have low diversity for
  • Pest Resistance
  • Nutrition

65
Green Revolution
  • Feeding the Growing World

66
Green Revolution
  • The most significant development of agriculture
    of the 20th century
  • Dr. Norman Borlaug
  • 1970 Nobel Peace Prize

67
Landrace Varieties
  • Tall
  • Leafy
  • Large root system
  • Evolved to compete under high pest pressure and
    marginal production areas

68
Landrace Wheat
69
Green Revolution Wheat
70
Green Revolution Varieties
  • Physical Changes to Plants
  • Shorter plants
  • Smaller leaves
  • Stronger stems
  • Smaller root systems

71
Results of G.R. Crops
  • More plants/acre higher yield
  • India exports wheat now, not starving
  • BUT
  • Less competitive plants more need for weed
    control, herbicides
  • Genetic variability gone
  • More fertilizer to produce higher yields

72
G.R. Crops
  • Bottom Line
  • Millions now fed
  • Requires more management and inputs
  • Has been criticized for this but

73
Soils
  • Not just Dirt

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78
Soil Importance
  • Agriculture
  • Construction
  • Depository for waste
  • Beauty

79
What is soil?
  • Minerals from weathered rock
  • Organic matter
  • Decaying plants
  • Decaying animals
  • Decaying microbes
  • Water
  • Air
  • Living Organisms

80
Functions of Soil
  • Provide physical support for plants
  • Provide nutrients
  • Provide water
  • Support biological activity of microbes,
    earthworms, etc.

81
Soil Profile
  • Vertical cross section showing horizons or layers
  • Horizons determine value and use of land

82
0 25 in. Roots, highest biological activity,
microbes, OM
A
25 36 in. Accumulation from A, more mineral,
less OM, less oxygen, less biological activity
B
36 in. Weathered parent rock
C
BEDROCK
83
Nutrients aka Fertilizer
  • Macronutrients used in large quantities
  • Nitrogen N promotes leafy green growth
  • Phosphorous P promotes flowering
  • Potassium K promotes root growth and cold
    hardiness

84
Macronutrients
  • Appear on the fertilizer label
  • Always appear in order N P K
  • 20 20 20
  • N P K
  • 0 60 0
  • 33 0 0

85
Micronutrients
  • Trace elements
  • Needed in smaller quantities
  • Mg
  • Mn
  • Cu
  • Fe
  • B
  • Mo
  • Zn

86
Macronutrients and Micronutrients
  • CHOPKNS CaFe Mg
  • CuZn BMo Cl Mn
  • Know them for the exam

87
Organic vs. Inorganic Ferts.
  • Organic not wholesome and pure
  • Denotes source of elements
  • Organic derived from living organisms
  • Compost, sea weed, fish emulsion, manure

88
Organic vs. Inorganic Ferts.
  • Inorganic does not mean evil or wrong
  • Designates source processing or mining
  • N natural gas
  • P and K - mined

89
Organic Ferts.
  • Organic Ferts low in nutrients
  • Manure lt2 N
  • Inorganic gt 30 N
  • Cost per pound of N?
  • Ease of Application?
  • Bonus with Organic Adds OM

90
Slow Release Ferts.
  • Organic manure rots over time
  • Inorganic engineered to be slow release

91
Osmocote
Various particle sizes are coated with various
thickness of a resin coating.
92
Osmocote
Thin coating breaks down first
Thicker coating breaks down last
93
Availability
  • All nutrients are available based not only on
    amount applied but also the pH

94
Availability
95
Availability
Clematis
Ericaceous Plants
96
Environmental Concerns
  • Runoff into surface waters
  • Leaching through soil profile into groundwater

97
Biological Nitrogen Fixation
  • 78 of atmosphere is nitrogen gas
  • Inert
  • Unusable as macronutrient

98
Biological Nitrogen Fixation
  • 2 ways nature converts nitrogen gas to usable
    form
  • Lightning
  • Rhizobium bacteria
  • Found in symbiotic relationship with plants in
    legume (bean) family
  • Peas, redbud, alfalfa, locust, soybean, wisteria

99
Biological Nitrogen Fixation
  • Rhizobium found in root nodules
  • Free nitrogen, transportation, application

100
Rhizobium nodules on roots
101
Black alder seedlings growing without N
fertilizer Left not growing with bacteria Right
with bacteria
102
Physical Properties of Soils
103
Physical Properties of Soils
  • Color indicates parent material, amount of OM,
    aerobicity or not of soil, clay content
  • Texture proportion of sandsiltclay

104
Soil Texture Triangle
105
What texture of soil is 20 Clay 15 Sand 65
Silt?
106
Agents of Soil Erosion
  • Wind - Dust Bowl, 1930s Great Plains
  • Water Impact of raindrops, running water
  • Biological cattle overgrazing
  • Temperature changes in soil chemistry, mainly a
    problem in the tropics

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111
Soils and Fertility in Horticulture
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119
Types of Soils Media
  • Native Soils
  • Soilless Media
  • Sing. Medium, pl. Media
  • Hydroponics
  • Tissue Culture
  • Sand/Gravel Culture
  • Bag Culture

120
Soilless Media
  • Used in Container Nursery Production
  • All Greenhouse Crops
  • Foliage
  • Flower production
  • Potted flowering plants

121
Soilless Media
  • Field Soil is NOT used in containers
  • Soil structure is destroyed
  • Loss of pore space long capillary tubes in soil
    that allow water and gasses to be exchanged are
    destroyed when placed into a pot
  • Poor aeration
  • Poor drainage
  • POOR PLANT PERFORMANCE!!

122
Components of Soilless Media
  • Sand adds weight to hold the pot upright and
    adds porosity.
  • Little water holding or CEC capacity

123
Components of Soilless Media
  • Sand
  • Bark - creates a lightweight portion that adds
    porosity
  • Little water holding or CEC capacity

124
Components of Soilless Media
  • Sand
  • Bark
  • Peat - holds water like a sponge with a high CEC

125
Components of Soilless Media
  • Sand
  • Bark
  • Peat
  • Compost Less expensive alternative to peat that
    holds water, has a high CEC, and decomposes to N
    and P among others.

126
Assignment Due Friday 9-24
  • Find a newspaper or magazine article about one of
    following topics. Write a 200 word summary of
    the article and how it affects your life.
  • Breeding/Green Revolution
  • Soil fertility/Erosion
  • Any topic in Horticulture/LS/Gardening/Veggie/Frui
    t and Nut production

127
Components of Soilless Media
  • Sand
  • Bark
  • Peat
  • Compost
  • Vermiculite
  • Vermiculite is a sterile, lightweight mica
  • heated to approximately 1800 degrees F
  • plate-like structure expands, allowing it to
    retain large quantities of air and water

128
Vermiculite
129
Components of Soilless Media
  • Sand
  • Bark
  • Peat
  • Compost
  • Vermiculite
  • Perlite
  • produced by heating volcanic rock to
    approximately 1800 degrees F
  • sterile, lightweight, porous material

130
Perlite - Coarse
131
Tropical Foliage Plant Production
132
Hydroponic Production
133
Hydroponic Production
134
Field Nursery
135
Container Nursery
136
Container Plant Production
137
Container Tree Nursery
138
Soilless Media
139
Commercial Media
140
Soilless Media Mixers
141
Soilless Media Plug Trays and Filling Machine
142
Peat Harvest
143
Peat Harvest
144
Peat Harvest
145
Peat Vacuum
146
Soils in Landsapes
  • Amend, Import, Alter, Improve

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Soils in Landscapes
149
Soils in Landscapes
150
Soils in Landscapes
151
Soils in Landscapes
152
Soils must be Amended
153
Modifying Landscape Soils
  • Easier to amend soil BEFORE planting rather than
    AFTER!

154
Modifying Landscape Soils-Amendments
  • Soil
  • Usually sandy loam, blended
  • Watch out for clay chunks, weed seeds or other
    propagules, roots, trash
  • Always inspect the soil
  • Look for consistency

155
Modifying Landscape Soils-Amendments
  • Soil is not usually enough
  • Must add an OM component
  • Manure must be decomposed, not raw
  • Compost must be decomposed, not raw
  • Peat except on small sites
  • Bagged goods cotton seed hulls, chicken litter,
    steer manure, decomposed alfalfa, sheep doo
    check them carefully before using. No Surprises!

156
Modifying Landscape Soils
  • If soil is too dry, add OM for aeration
  • If soil is too wet, add OM for drainage
  • If soil is low in nutrients, add OM
  • OM is called the Humble Miracle for good reason

157
Importance of Crop Plants
  • Plants are only important if like breathing or
    eating

158
Top 4 ListWhy crops are important
  • Primary producer in the food chain
  • 3. Animals depend on them
  • Fossil Fuels
  • 1. Humans use them for food, medicine, fiber,
    building materials, oxygen, aesthetics, waxes,
    perfumes, etc.

159
Crop Classification
  • Five Kingdoms animals, plants, fungi, protista,
    monera
  • Classification for Soybeans

160
Soybeans
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Division Magnoliophyta
  • Class Magnoliopsida
  • Order Rosales
  • Family Fabaceae (leguminosae)
  • Genus Glycine
  • Species max

161
Common Names of Plants
  • Not used in Science
  • Common names change from town to town or person
    to person
  • No consistency
  • Foreign communication difficult
  • Periwinkle, Vinca minor
  • Periwinkle, Catharanthus rosea

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164
Advantage of Latin
  • Dead, not changing
  • No single country claims it
  • Useful communication for all people of the world

165
Vavilovs Centers of Origin
166
Important Families
167
Some Important Crops
For more crops, see textbook, page 15-16
168

Binomial Nomenclature
Name this tree
169
Binomial Nomenclature
Name this tree Redbud
170
Binomial Nomenclature

Name this tree Redbud Judas Tree
171
Binomial Nomenclature

Name this tree Redbud Judas Tree Salad Tree
172
Binomial Nomenclature

Name this tree Redbud Judas Tree Salad
Tree ALL WRONG
173
Binomial Nomenclature

Cercis canadensis
174
Binomial Nomenclature

Cercis canadensis
genus
species
175

Warning,
For the sake of your professional and
intellectual reputation, do NOT use the word,
specie. There is no such word! Deer (sing.)
deer (pl.) Moose (sing.) moose (pl.) Sheep
(sing.) sheep (pl.) Species (sing.)
species (pl.)
176
Plant Life Cycles
177
Plant Life Cycles
  • Annual a plant that completes its life cycle in
    one season
  • Winter Annual germinates in fall, establishes
    crown and root system in fall, overwinters,
    flowers and dies in spring. Vegetative Phase in
    Fall Sexual Phase in Spring
  • Winter wheat, annual bluegrass, henbit, chickweed

178
Plant Life Cycles
  • Annual
  • Winter Annual
  • Summer Annual germinates in spring, grows in
    summer, flowers, sets seed, and dies before
    winter. Vegetative Growth in Spring/Summer
  • Sexual Growth in Late Summer/Fall

Impatiens, beans, corn, sunflower, begonia
179
Plant Life Cycles
Perennial a plant that lives for more than one
year, is herbaceous, and regrows each year from a
perennating structure Hosta, daylily, iris, some
ferns, heucheras, coneflower, vinca
groundcover Distinct from shrubs-woody lt10,
mult.stems trees woody gt10 main trunk
180
Plant Life Cycles
  • Biennials Bi two, ennial years
  • Intermediate life cycle between annuals and
    perennials
  • Live for two years with distinct growth patterns
    for each year

181
Plant Life Cycles
  • Year 1 grow vegetatively
  • Leaves, stems, roots
  • Usually grow in a rosette
  • Year 2 grow reproductively (sexually)
  • Send up flower stalk
  • Set seed
  • Die
  • Hollyhocks, cabbage, carrots

182
Name the Life Cycle
  • Corn
  • Soybeans
  • Roses
  • Kentucky bluegrass
  • Carrot
  • Oak tree
  • Potato -

183
Hardiness Zones
  • What is the single most important limiting factor
    for plant growth besides water?

184
Hardiness Zones
  • Annual Minimum Temperature
  • Determines world biomes to a large extent
  • Determines growing season length
  • Determines what you can grow in your garden and
    landscape

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USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map
Hardiness Zones -- Details
187
Kentucky is Zone 6b, 6a, and 5b
188
Temperature
  • Calorie the heat required to change the
    temperature of 1 g of water by 1 C

189
Climate vs. Weather
  • Climate includes temperature, precipitation,
    humidity, sky conditions, wind, and atmospheric
    pressure
  • Climate is the average conditions over a long
    period
  • Weather is the current and temporary atmospheric
    conditions
  • Difference is time span

190
Climate Types
  • Macroclimate describes the conditions over a
    relatively large area i.e. a portion of a state
    or county
  • Local climate refers to more localized conditions
    i.e. a valley or mountain
  • Microclimate is the conditions around a plant or
    leaf
  • Microclimate can be modified by us to grow
    marginally hardy plants

191
Solar Radiation
  • Source of heat and light Sun
  • 93,000,000 miles away, 9 min. travel at speed of
    light
  • The wavelengths that reach earths outer
    atmosphere do not completely reach the surface-
    filtered

192
Solar radiation
  • Absorbed
  • Light absorbed by atmospheric components
  • Ozone
  • Water vapor (clouds)
  • Dust
  • Oxygen, Carbon dioxide
  • UV (ultraviolet) and IR (infrared) light damaging
    to plants and absorbed in atm.

193
Solar Radiation
  • Scattered
  • Dust, smoke, water droplets, smog
  • Small particles (gas molecules) scatter shorter
    wavelengths (blue)
  • Large particles (dust, smoke) scatter longer
    wavelengths (red)

194
Solar Radiation
  • Reflection
  • Light bounces off components of atm.
  • Clouds major reflector
  • Ex. Flying on a cloudy day then breaking through
    the layer, the sunlight is very intense

195
Modifying Cold Temps
196
Modifying Temperatures
  • Frost Protection
  • Most effective and widely used is mist irrigation
  • Can prevent damage down to 20F, but usually only
    to the upper 20s
  • As the temp drops below freezing, ice forms,
    releases heat of fusion

197
Freezes and Frosts
  • Radiational Freeze calm conditions, radiational
    cooling, not a blanket of cloud cover to hold in
    heat

198
Radiational Freeze
Sunset beginning a cold, clear night
199
Freezes and Frosts-Damage Control
  • Radiational Freeze
  • Reduce outgoing radiation
  • Hotcaps
  • Row cover
  • Flooding (cranberries)
  • Foams
  • Straw covering (must be removed) strawberries
  • Artificial fog

200
Row Cover with Tomatoes
201
Freezes and Frosts-Damage Control
  • Radiational Freeze
  • 2. Add heat
  • Smudge pots
  • Utilize the temperature inversion with fans or
    helicopters
  • Overhead irrigation- water gives off heat when it
    freezes (80cal/g). Must constantly add water.
    As long as liquid water is present, the temp.
    remains at 0 F

202
Temperature Inversion
CALM NIGHT
Warmer Air, ie. 36 F
Crop Will FREEZE!!!
Very Cold Air, ie. 30 F
203
Temperature Inversion
Mix Air
Air Mixture is Now 34 F and the Crop is Safe!
204
Freezes and Frosts
  • Advective Freeze
  • Large, cold air mass moves in from Canada
  • Associated with windy conditions

205
Freezes and Frosts-Damage Control
  • ADVECTIVE FREEZE
  • Not much you can do.

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208
Freezes and Frosts
209
Freezes and Frosts
  • Radiational Freeze calm conditions, radiational
    cooling, not a blanket of cloud cover to hold in
    heat

210
Freezes and Frosts
  • Advective Freeze
  • Large, cold air mass moves in from Canada
  • Associated with windy conditions

211
Freezes and Frosts-Damage Control
  • Radiational Freeze
  • Reduce outgoing radiation
  • Hotcaps
  • Row cover
  • Flooding (cranberries)
  • Foams
  • Straw covering (must be removed) strawberries
  • Artificial fog

212
Row Cover with Tomatoes
213
Freezes and Frosts-Damage Control
  • Radiational Freeze
  • 2. Add heat
  • Smudge pots
  • Utilize the temperature inversion with fans or
    helicopters
  • Overhead irrigation- water gives off heat when it
    freezes (80cal/g). Must constantly add water.
    As long as liquid water is present, the temp.
    remains at 0 F

214
Freezes and Frosts-Damage Control
  • ADVECTIVE FREEZE
  • Not much you can do.

215
Hardening Crops to Cold Weather
  • Growth slows in fall, no longer using
    photosynthate for new growth, stored for winter.
  • Accumulation of starches and sugars, pectins and
    nucleic acids in cells adds to their viscosity
    and depresses the freezing point.

216
Hardening Crops to Cold Weather
sugar


salt
FP -3 C
FP 0 C
autumn
summer
Anti-Freeze
217
Hardening Crops to Cold Weather
  • NOTE plants exit dormancy or a hardened state
    much faster than they enter it.
  • Peach tree blossoms example

218
Hardening Crops to Cold Weather
  • Ice is deadly
  • Ice crystals are sharp and puncture cell
    membranes.
  • Upon thawing, the contents of the cell
    (cytoplasm) leaks out
  • Watersoaking appearance the morning after

219
Hardening Crops to Cold Weather
  • Intracellular vs Extracellular Ice formation
  • Adaptation to cold weather
  • Ice crystals actually form outside the cell
    membrane, usually between cell walls
  • Harmless if no membranes are punctured

220
Ice Forms Here Extracellular
Ice Forms Here Intracellular
221
Hardening Crops to Cold Weather
  • Extracellular ice formation can cause dehydration
    and death by drought in middle of winter
  • Esp. damaging with broadleaf evergreens, azalea,
    boxwood

222
Hardening Crops to Cold Weather
  • Supercooling
  • In the absence of nucleating agents, still,
    purified water will cool to a temperature to
    38.1 C. With solutes, it can drop to 40.1 C.
    Below this, some plants are killed.

223
Ice Nucleating Agents
  • Water supercools without them, freezes at 0 C
    with them.
  • Frozen water is a crystal
  • Crystals grow rapidly from a seeding agent
  • A crystal
  • Bacteria
  • Dust particle

224
Ice Nucleating Agents
  • Once a crystal begins to grow, it will continue
  • Snowflakes
  • Intra and extracellular ice formation in cells
  • Rain and seeding practices
  • Bacterial protection of sensitive crops GM
    bacteria example

225
Ice Nucleating Agents
  • One of first GM organisms is 1970s
  • Removed the ice nucleating portion of outside of
    bacteria
  • Used to replace nucleating bacteria on sensitive
    crops
  • GM bacteria displaces wild types
  • Water cools to mid20s w/o injury

226
Ice Nucleating Agents
  • Laboratory testing showed less fit
  • Does not live long and will not spread
  • Short-term process
  • Per testing standards, researchers wore space
    suits with self containing breathing apparatus
  • Eco terrorists and media nightmare

227
Vegetative (Asexual)Propagation
228
Vegetative Propagation
  • Making more plants without sex (seeds)
  • A form of cloning that has been practiced for
    centuries
  • Includes all techniques from rooting a houseplant
    in a glass of water to grafting fruit trees to
    tissue culture

229
Techniques of Asexual Prop.
  • Divisions
  • Herbaceous perennials hosta, daylily, liriope
  • Cuttings
  • Leaf cuttings- African Violets
  • Stem cuttings- Crape Myrtle
  • Root cuttings-Blackberries
  • Layering
  • Houseplants, strawberry
  • Grafting roses, fruit and nut trees
  • Budding fruit and nut trees
  • Tissue Culture ornamentals, most agronomic
    crops

230
Vegetative Propagation
  • Advantages
  • -all offspring are clones (plants derived
    from the same parent plant by asexual means and
    are genetically identical)
  • -some plants cant be propagated by seed
  • -can decrease time to flower

231
Vegetative Propagation
  • Disadvantages
  • -can only propagate a few from each parent
    (except tissue cultures)
  • -requires a lot of labor
  • -Diseases can be easily transmitted

232
Totipotency
  • Plant cells contain all the genetic information
    needed to regenerate a complete organism
  • Totipotency allows stem or leaf cuttings to grow
    roots and vice versa
  • Allows the regeneration of entire plants from a
    single cell

233
Totipotency
Chrysanthemum stem cuttings freshly harvested
from the stock plant
Cuttings will be dipped in a hormone to
facilitate rooting and stuck into propagation
tray
234
Totipotency
Stem grows root cells and roots after several
weeks
Production tray full of rooted cuttings
235
Illustrated Examples of Asexual Propagation
236
DIVIDING CLUMPS
237
DIVIDING CLUMPS
238
DIVIDING CLUMPS
239
OFFSETS
  • Hen and Chicks

240
BULBS
241
HARDWOOD/SOFTWOOD CUTTINGS
242
LEAF CUTTINGS
  • Leaf bud
  • Leaf petiole
  • Leaf blade
  • Leaf Section

243
LEAF CUTTINGS
244
African Violet Leaf Cuttings
245
African Violet Leaf Cuttings
246
African Violet Leaf Cuttings
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248
LAYERING
  • roots are formed on a stem before it is removed
    from the parent plant
  • the stem is cut below the new root system and
    planted

249
LAYERING(Important Points)
  • similar to cuttings
  • advantages (water, nutrients, disease)
  • hard to root plants
  • accumulation of photosynthates and hormones
  • encourage by bending, girdling, or wounding
  • etiolation
  • shoot elongation in the absence of light
  • natural means of reproduction
  • strawberry runners, Bermuda grass stolons, hen
    and chic offsets

250
PHYSIOLOGY LAYERING WOODY PLANTS
  • remove a ring of bark (removing phloem and
    cambium)
  • xylem remains intact (water continues to move up
    the plant)
  • accumulation of photosynthates and hormones

251
LAYERING
Tip
Simple
Compound/Serpentine
252
AIR LAYERING
253
LAYERINGcontinued
  • Mound / Stool layer
  • Trench Layer

254
WHY GRAFTING OR BUDDING?
  • cannot be propagated by other means
  • decrease time to flower and fruit
  • change variety of existing, mature tree
  • special forms (dwarf trees, tree roses, weeping
    cherry, etc.)
  • obtain desirable traits of rootstock (disease
    resistance, adaptation, etc.)
  • repair damage

255
PHYSIOLOGY of GRAFTING
  • Scion
  • Root Stock
  • Cambium

256
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GRAFTING TYPES(Stock and Scion Same Sizes)
Whip or Tongue Graft
Saddle Graft
Splice Graft
258
GRAFTING(Stock and Scion Different Sizes)
  • Wedge graft
  • Cleft graft
  • Side graft

259
APPROACH GRAFTING
260
APPROACH GRAFTING
261
GRAFTING (TO REPAIR DAMAGE)
  • Brace Graft
  • Bridge Graft

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263
Grafted Hibotan Cactus
  • Top is NOT a flower
  • Top is a mutant form that produces no chlorophyll
    but much pink pigment
  • Photosynthesis must occur on green stock plant
  • Usually last 6 mos. or less

264
T BUDDING
  • Bud
  • Rootstock

265
TYPES OF BUDDING
T BUD
INVERTED T BUD
I BUD
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TYPES OF BUDDINGContinued
Chip Bud
Flute Bud
268
T-budding an Apple Tree
  • Photographic How-To

269
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274
A shield bud inserted in the "T" cut.
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Plant Structure and Function
282
Plant Structure and Function
  • Cells
  • Discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665
  • Looked like tiny rooms in which Monks slept,
    called cells
  • Estimated 1256 million cells/ cu in.
  • Form the basis building block of life

283
2 Types of Cells
  • Prokaryotic no organization in cell
  • Pro before, karyote nucleus
  • DNA and cellular stuff floats freely around
    inside cells
  • Primitive
  • Found only in bacteria and blue-green algae

284
2 Types of Cells
  • Eukaryotic highly organized
  • eu true, karyote nucleus
  • Higher life forms
  • Contain specialize structures called organelles

285
Organelles
  • Nucleus brains, contains DNA
  • Mitochondria power plants
  • Vacuoles sewage disposal, membrane bag, can
    occupy 90 of cell volume
  • Ribosomes factories, proteins transcribed from
    DNA and translated into proteins (including
    enzymes)

286
Organelles, contd
  • Endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes attach
  • Cell wall made of the most abundant organic
    molecule on earth, rigid skeletal frame to hold
    plant upright and rigid
  • Plasma membrane on inside cell wall, regulates
    what comes in and goes out
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