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Florida Fruit Tree and AvocadoMango Tree Pilot Insurance Programs


The 21 Century -- Multi-Media and Multi-Functional -- Approach to Risk ... (Channels Direct TV 379 & Dish Network 231) 3. What is Risk? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Florida Fruit Tree and AvocadoMango Tree Pilot Insurance Programs


25, 2007 - New York
  • The 21 Century -- Multi-Media and
    Multi-Functional -- Approach to Risk Management
    Using RFD-TV Television, Internet, Interactive
    CD-ROMs, and On-Site Workshops
  • Brought to you by
  • AgriLogic, Inc Farm Credit New York Farm
    Bureau New York Corn Growers Association Hot
    Shots Video Productions ABG, Inc. The Practical
    Planner, LLC USDA-Farm Service Agency and with
    funding provided by the USDA-Risk Management

RMA Agreement Number 06-IE-0833-0114-E
  • Handout of 10 Questions
  • Have you seen our Ag Lifestyle TV shows
  • on RFD-TV?
  • (Channels Direct TV 379 Dish Network 231)

What is Risk?
  • The possibility that something unpleasant will
    happen in the future.
  • Risk Management
  • The practice of managing our life and resources,
    in a manner that provides an acceptable level of
    risk. Risk management is everything you do to
    understand and deal proactively with risks.
  • Three issues to consider
  • Frequency of Loss
  • Severity of Loss
  • Overall Dollar Impact

Types of Risk
  • Production Risk - Anything that hinders the
    quantity and quality of your production.
    (weather, pests, diseases, etc.)
  • Market Risk - Market uncertainty for your
    product, price declines, govt actions to limit
    imports/exports, input costs.
  • Financial Risk - Having the ability to pay your
    cash obligations in a timely manner, to obtain
    capital and financing, and to protect or grow
    your equity.
  • Legal Risk - The possibility of being sued,
    fined, or penalized for violating current or
    future laws, regulations, or contractual
  • People Risk - Managing people and disruptions
    that come from any of the 3 Ds death, divorce,
    or disability, which could limit or even
    eliminate the farming operation

Risk Tolerance
  • Risk Attitude Your desire to seek risk
  • Risk-Averse
  • Risk-Seeking
  • Risk-Neutral
  • Risk Bearing Ability
    Your financial ability
    sustain a loss.
  • Risk Tolerance

Risk Management Techniques
  • Risk Avoidance
  • Risk Control
  • Prevention Lowers frequency (irrigation)
  • Reduction Lowers severity (spraying for a
    visible pest)
  • Diversification Lowers both by spreading risk
  • Risk Financing
  • Self Insurance/Retention
  • Transfer through Insurance Hedging

Risk Management Agency
  • Overview
  • U.S.D.A. Federal Crop Insurance Corporation
  • Providing crop insurance since 1938.
  • Provides reinsurance to private-sector insurance
    companies that sell and service the insurance
  • Subsidy
  • Premiums set to break-even on losses paid plus a
    reasonable reserve.

80 85 are available outside New York
RMA Insurance Products
  • Actual Production History (APH) Plan GYC
  • Covers individuals yield loss 50 - 75 Cov.
  • CAT 50 Coverage Level 55 Price Election
  • Crop Revenue Coverage (CRC)
  • Covers individual's yield and price losses
  • Indexed Income Protection (IIP)
  • Covers individual lost revenue uses county
    yields to index your production history to
    determine your Approved Yield
  • Dollar Plan
  • Specialty Crops
  • Covers individuals lost revenue

RMA Insurance Products
  • Group Risk Plan (GRP)
  • Covers countys yield loss 70 - 90 Coverage
  • CAT 65 Cov. Level 45 of Max Protection/Acre
  • Group Risk Income Protection (GRIP)
  • Covers countys yield and price loss
  • Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR)
  • Covers individuals lost revenue from multiple
  • Coverage based off Schedule F tax form
  • Adjusted Gross Revenue - Lite (AGR-Lite)
  • Like AGR, but liability limited to 1 million in

RMA Insurance Products - Review
Actual Production History Plan (APH)
  • Assume you average 110 bu./acre, select the 75
    coverage level, plant 100 acres, and the RMA
    price is 3.50. Your insurance coverage is…
  • 110 bu./acre x 75 x 100 acres x 3.50 28,875
  • Loss Trigger
  • Harvested Yield lt APH x Coverage Level
  • You experience a drought and only harvest 6,900
    bushels. Your indemnity payment is…
  • (82.5 bu./acre x 100 acres 6,900 bu.) x 3.50

All Examples Assume 100 Share and 100 Price
Crop Revenue Coverage (CRC)
  • Assume you average 110 bu./acre, select the 75
    coverage level, plant 100 acres, and the CRC Base
    price is 4.06. Your guaranteed revenue is…
  • 110 bu./acre x 75 x 100 acres x 4.06 33,495
  • Loss Trigger
  • Harv Yield x Harv Price lt APH Yield x Coverage
    Level x Higher of (Harvest Price or Base Price)
  • You harvest 6,900 bu. Harvest Prices _at_ 4.06,
    3.50, 4.50. Your indemnity…
  • (82.5 bu. x 4.06 x 100) (6,900 bu. x 4.06)
  • (82.5 bu. x 4.06 x 100) (6,900 bu. x 3.50)
  • (82.5 bu. x 4.50 x 100) (6,900 bu. x 4.50)

Indexed Income Protection (IIP)
  • Assume you average 1 bu./acre above the county,
    and the county expected yield is 109 bu./acre,
    select the 75 coverage level, plant 100 acres,
    and IIP Projected price is 4.06. Your coverage
  • 110 bu./acre x 75 x 100 acres x 4.06 33,495
  • Loss Trigger
  • Harv Yield x Harv Price lt APH Yield x Coverage
    Level x Projected Price)
  • You harvest 6,900 bu. Harvest Prices _at_ 4.06,
    3.50, 4.50. Your indemnity…
  • (82.5 bu. x 4.06 x 100) (6,900 bu. x 4.06)
  • (82.5 bu. x 4.06 x 100) (6,900 bu. x 3.50)
  • (82.5 bu. x 4.06 x 100) (6,900 bu. x 4.50)

Group Risk Plan (GRP)
  • Assume the county expected yield is 110 bu./acre,
    select the 75 coverage level and 100 of Max
    Protection/Acre, plant 100 acres, and Max
    Protection/Acre 488. Your insurance coverage
  • 488 Max Protection/Acre x 100 x 100 Acres
  • Loss Trigger
  • Payment Yield lt County Expected Yield x Cov.
  • You harvest 10 bu., but it depends on the county
  • Payment Yield is 69 bu/acre. Your indemnity
    payment is…
  • (82.5 bu 69 bu)/82.5 bu x 488 x100 x 100
    acres) 7,985

Comparison 2007 Madison Corn
Madison County 2007 GRP vs. CAT
  • Max Protection/Acre 488.08 100 acres
  • Expected County Yield 110.3 bu/acre
  • NASS County Yields
  • 02 99 bu/ac 04 92 bu/ac 06 69 bu/ac

Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR)
  • Assume you average 800,000 in gross revenue,
    have 3 commodities, and select the 75 coverage
    level at the 90 payment rate. Your insurance
    coverage is…
  • 800,000 x 75 x 90 540,000
  • Loss Trigger
  • Annual Gross Revenue lt AGR x Coverage Level
  • You experience loss and only have 200,000
    adjusted gross farm revenue. Your indemnity
    payment is…
  • (800,000 x 75 - 200,000) x 90 360,000

AGR AGR-Lite Issues
  • Provides revenue protection from yield price
  • AGR Requirements
  • Insurance coverage based on Schedule F tax forms
    (5 Years)
  • Amount of Insurance cannot exceed 6.5 million
  • Purchase traditional Federal crop insurance when
    more than 50 of expected income is from
    insurable commodities (with a reduced AGR
  • No more than 50 of your allowable income comes
    from agricultural commodities purchased for
  • No more than 35 of the expected allowable income
    comes from animals and animal byproducts.
  • AGR-Lite Exceptions
  • Amount of Insurance cannot exceed 1 million
  • 35 income limit from livestock is no longer

AGR AGR-Lite Issues

Pasture, Rangeland and Forage Rainfall Index and
Vegetation Index
Depending on Government Funding
Rainfall Vegetative Indices
  • Rainfall/Vegetative Index background
  • Index based on precipitation (Rainfall) or
    greenness (Vegetation)
  • Not measuring actual rainfall/greenness or
    individual production The deviation from
    long-term normal precipitation or greenness is
    used to establish the index
  • Precipitation/Greenness has a high degree of
    correlation to forage production
  • WHY?
  • Lack of actual producer/industry production data
  • No consistent and practical methodology for
    measuring production of the crop

Rainfall Index
  • Area of insurance 0.25o grids ( 12 x 12 miles)

Vegetation Index
  • Area of insurance 8 x 8 km ( 4.8 x 4.8 miles)

Rainfall Vegetation Index
  • Rainfall Index Intervals
  • Multiple Intervals offered 6
  • Crop Year divided into 6, 2-month Intervals for
    each grid
  • Producers must select at least 2 Intervals
  • Vegetation Index Intervals
  • Multiple Intervals offered 4
  • Crop Year divided into 4, 3-month Intervals for
    each grid
  • Producers may select more than 1 Interval

Rainfall Vegetation Index
  • Ability for producers to manage their individual
    risk periods
  • Correlate to individual growth patterns and
    production seasons
  • The Intervals provide for greater reaction to
    forage reduction events vs. a yearly average
  • Not required to insure 100 of acreage
  • Internet based
  • Coverage Levels 90, 85, 80, 75, and 70
  • Sales Closing Date Acreage Reporting Date
    November 30th
  • Rating Each grid, Index Interval, and coverage
    level is individually rated

Risk Tolerance Coverage Levels?
APH GRP County Yield Correlate?
Commodity Marketing
  • Forward Price Contracting

Photo Source USDA/ARS
Forward Price Contracting
  • Forward Price Contracting
  • Is a tool that agricultural producers of select
    commodities can use to mitigate a portion or all
    of their price risk.
  • Hedge
  • The practice of offsetting the price risk
    inherent in any cash market position by taking an
    equal but opposite position in the futures market
    or with another forward contracting alternative.
  • The hedger (i.e. a corn producer) foregoes the
    opportunity for additional profit as a result of
    increases in the market price for their commodity
    (i.e. corn), for the ability shift risk of
    decreases in the price to another entity (i.e. a
    feed mill).
  • Four general categories of hedging mechanisms
  • Forward Cash Contracts
  • Futures Contracts
  • Option Contracts
  • Other privately negotiated forward contracting

  • Forward Cash Contract
  • Obligates the holder to buy or sell an asset for
    a certain price at a certain time in the future.
  • Non-standardized written agreement
  • Terms are open to negotiation (e.g. an
    agricultural producer and grain elevator
  • Privately negotiated
  • Futures Contract
  • Obligates the holder to buy or sell an asset for
    a certain price at a certain time in the future.
  • Highly standardized written agreement
  • Standard quality, quantity, delivery time, and
  • Traded only on an exchange (i.e. Chicago Board of
    Trade (CBOT), New York Board of Trade (NYBT),

  • Option Contract A written agreement that gives
    the buyer of the option the right, but not the
    obligation to, buy or sell for a limited time a
    particular good at a specific price.
  • Call Option - An option to buy.
  • Put Option An option to sell.
  • Basis Difference in the local spot (cash) and
    futures markets price for a commodity.
  • Futures Risk The risk that fluctuations in the
    level of price in the futures contract will
  • Basis Risk The risk that fluctuations will
    occur in relationship between the local cash
    (i.e. New York) and futures markets (i.e. CBOT).

Forward Cash Contract
  • Scenario
  • New York Corn Producer
  • 250 acres of Corn
  • 100 bushels / ac. expected yield
  • 250 acres 100 bushel per ac. yield 25,000
    bushels expected production
  • Hedges 100 of 25,000 bushels of expected

NOTE 100 Hedge is unlikely, but is used for
example purposes. Depending on your risk
tolerance, production, etc. you should consider
hedging 40 - 80 of your crop.
Option Contract
  • Scenario
  • The same New York Corn Producer
  • Hedges 100 of 25,000 bushels of expected
  • 1 CBOT Option Contract is for 1 CBOT Futures

Other Risk Management Strategies
Other Risk Management Strategies
  • Production Risk
  • FSA
  • NAP
  • Disasters
  • Emergency Loans
  • Crop-Hail Insurance
  • New Technologies (seeds, sprays, precision
    farming, etc)
  • Production Market Risk
  • Diversification fields, crops, types, non-farm
  • Record Keeping!!!

Financial Risk
  • Obtaining Capital Financing (Interest rates)
  • Mitigate by lowering debt-to-asset ratio have
    collateral, crop insurance and marketing plan
    shop for better borrowing terms and conditions
    establish relationships with lenders.
  • Meeting Cash-Flow Needs (short-term)
  • Mitigate by having liquidity, reducing expenses,
    lines of credit, insurance for crops, machinery,
    equipment, etc.
  • Protecting Growing Equity (long-term)
  • Mitigate by having insurance for major events
    crops, property, liability, heath, disability,
    and life
  • During good years, build-up liquid reserves,
    invest (possibly in non-farm assets), pay down

Legal Risk
  • Concern Risk of being sued. Mitigate by…
  • Structural Entity of Operation
  • Sole Proprietor (all risk all reward)
  • Partnership (shared risk and reward)
  • LLC (1 or multiple owners with limited liability)
  • Corporations (Sub S or C having 1 owners with
    limited liability)
  • Contractual Agreements
  • Non-performance Get it in writing use
    trustworthy parties
  • Tort Liability Neglect or Harm to
  • Review general liability insurance for coverage
    and exclusions
  • Statutory Laws lots of them for farming
  • Labor Environmental Have insurance and
    maintain accurate documentation

People Risk
  • Concern losing key owners/partners/employees
  • Managing People
  • Death
  • Divorce
  • Disability
  • Mitigate by having…
  • Life insurance and disability insurance to offset
    lost income, hire new employees, and meet
    cash-flow needs
  • Heath insurance and long-term care to offset any
    new expenses
  • Cross-functional training of employees and owners
  • Written succession and estate plans

Estate Planning
  • Is the process of planning for the final
    disposition of your life's work.
  • Benefits of Estate Planning
  • Peace of mind for you and your family.
  • The guardianship and care of dependent children.
  • A reduction in estate tax liability.
  • Distribution of assets according to your wishes.
  • An assurance that your business will continue
    with the least amount of disruption
  • Mitigate by having…
  • A Will, use Trusts (Revocable Living Trust,
    Marital Trust, Charitable Trusts, etc) and Gifting

Goals - SMART
  • S - Specific - Goals need to be clearly defined
    and written...no room for ambiguity here. For
    example, 10 return on capital, break-even this
    year, etc.
  • M - Measurable - Acceptable standards of
    measurement need to be consistently used for each
    goal, e.g. bushels, dollars, hours.
  • A - Attainable - It may be exciting to reach for
    the stars, but accomplishing realistic goals is
    rewarding. Are you shooting for the highest
    yield ever or a reasonable average?
  • R - Related - Goals should be written so that
    they are related to each other and do not
    compromise your basic values and beliefs. Related
    goals include moving the operation toward higher
    returns this year and long-term equity/ownership.
  • T - Tractable - Goals should be established with
    progressive steps and checked or monitored over

  • Identify and analyze your risks and risk
  • Establish your goals
  • Evaluate the alternatives available
  • Implement the action plan with your best
  • Monitor the progress and results
  • Update the plan as needed

Need more information?
  • Education Manual
  • RFD-TV (Channels Direct TV 379 Dish Network
  • Interactive CD-ROM
  • Online
  • www.rma.usda.gov
  • www.agrilogic.com/education
  • Contact your local crop insurance agent
  • RMA Regional Offices

Post Quiz
  • Handout of 10 Questions
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