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A different note on why Hedda so often buys shoes

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Title: A different note on why Hedda so often buys shoes


1
A different note on why Hedda so often buys shoes
  • Kristine Bentzen
  • University of Tromsø

2
  • Vet du koffer ho Hedda kjøpe så ofte sko?
  • Vet du hvorfor Hedda så ofte kjøper sko?
  • Verb movement in an embedded non-V2 context in
    Northern Norwegian in contrast to Standard
    Norwegian.
  • A different focus today…

3
(No Transcript)
4
  • The big question
  • What is Heddas obsession with shoes all about
  • ???

5
Possession in Norwegian
  • Some ways of expressing possession
  • (3) Heddas bil (Heddas car)
  • (4) Hedda sin bil (Hedda REFL car)
  • (5) Bilen til Hedda (car.the to Hedda)
  • (6) Taket på bilen (roof.the on car.the)
  • ? But certain restrictions…

6
I will show that syntactically
  • 1 Shoes display animate behaviour.
  • 2 Shoes are inalienably possessed by the body.
  • 3 Shoes are a proper sub-part of the body.

7
1. Shoes are animate
  • Certain expressions of possession have an
    animacy restriction on the possessor
  • POSSESSEE til POSSESSOR
  • Only possible with an animate possessor.

8
1. Shoes are animate
  • (7) bilen til Hedda (car.the to Hedda)
  • (8) broren til Hedda (brother.the to Hedda)
  • (9) svingene til veien (curves.the to road.the)
  • (10) trærne til skogen (trees.the to forest.the)
  • (11) beinet til bordet (leg.the to table.the)
  • (12) vinduet til huset (window.the to house.the)

9
1. Shoes are animate
  • These possession relations can be expressed,
    using a different preposition
  • (9) svingene på veien (curves.the on road.the)
  • (10) trærne i skogen (trees.the in forest.the)
  • (11) beinet på bordet (leg.the on table.the)
  • (12) vinduet på huset (window.the on house.the)

10
1. Shoes are animate
  • But SHOES can be used as a possessor in the
    POSSESSEE til POSSESSOR constructions
  • (13) sålen til skoen (sole.the to shoe.the)
  • (14) hælen til skoen (heel.the to shoe.the)
  • From google
  • Hælen til skoen må være avrundet.
  • I sålen til skoene lå nesten en kilo heroin.

11
1. Shoes are animate
  • Other items of clothing cannot be the possessor
    of such constructions
  • (15) beinet til buksa (leg.the to pants.the)
  • (16) ryggen til kjolen (back.the to dress.the)
  • (17)tommelen til votten (tomb.the to mitten.the)
  • (18) fingrene til hansken (fingers.the to
    glove.the)

12
1. Shoes are animate
  • Again, the relation can only be expressed using a
    different preposition
  • (15) beinet på buksa (leg.the to pants.the)
  • (16) ryggen på kjolen (back.the to dress.the)
  • (17) tommelen på votten (tomb.the to mitten.the)
  • (18) fingrene på hansken (fingers.the to
    glove.the)

13
  • ? SHOES show properties similar to animate
    entities!

14
2. Shoes are inalienably possessed
  • Certain expressions of possession have an
    inalienability restriction on the possessee
  • POSSESSEE på POSSESSOR
  • Only possible with an inalienably possessed
    entity.

15
2. Shoes are inalienably possessed
  • Possession cline How inherent or permanent is
    the possession?
  • Gradable scale Inalienable ----------------------
    Alienable
  • Body parts gt inherent attributes gt clothing gt
    kinship gt pets

16
2. Shoes are inalienably possessed
  • Body parts and clothing can be possessed in a
    possessive pronoun construction
  • (19) Jeg brakk armen hans. (I broke arm.the his)
  • (20) Jeg klipte håret hennes. (I cut hair.the
    her)
  • (21) Jeg skrapte opp leggen hans. (I scratched up
    leg.the his)

17
2. Shoes are inalienably possessed
  • (22) Jeg spjæra opp buksa hans. (I tore up
    pants.the his)
  • (23) Jeg reiv sund lua hans. (I tore apart
    hat.the his)
  • (24) Jeg skrapte opp skoen hennes. (I scratched
    up shoe.the her)

18
2. Shoes are inalienably possessed
  • But in the POSSESSEE på POSSESSOR expression
    there is an inalienability restriction
  • (25) Jeg brakk armen på han. (I broke arm.the on
    him)
  • (26) Jeg spjæra opp leggen på henne. (I tore up
    leg.the on her)
  • (27) Vi klipte håret på henne. (we cut hair.the
    on her)

19
2. Shoes are inalienably possessed
  • (28) Jeg spjæra opp ermet på henne. (I tore
    up sleeve.the on her)
  • (29) Vi ødela strømpen på han. (we destroyed
    sock.the on him)
  • (30) Hun reiv sund lua på henne. (she tore
    apart hat.the on her)

20
2. Shoes are inalienably possessed
  • But SHOES can be used as a possessee in the
    POSSESSEE til POSSESSOR constructions
  • (31) Jeg skrapte opp skoen på henne. (I
    scratched up shoe.the on her)
  • (32) Han skitnet til skoen på meg. (he dirtied
    to shoe.the on me)

21
2. Shoes are inalienably possessed
  • (33) Skoen datt av på Askepott da hun sprang
    hjem. (shoe.the fell off on Cinderella when she
    ran home)
  • (34) Tiaraen datt av på Askepott da hun
    sprang hjem. (tiara.the fell off on
    Cinderella when she ran home)

22
  • ? SHOES are inalienably possessed by the body!

23
3. Shoes are proper body parts
  • Body parts can refer to parts of clothing in a
    part-whole relation
  • (35) Jeg strikket ferdig armene (på genseren).
    (I knitted finished arms.the on sweater.the)
  • (36) Sømmen har raknet på skuldra (på jakka).
    (seam.the has come.undone on shoulder.the)
  • (37) Hælen (på skoen) er 10 cm høy. (heel.the on
    shoe.the is 10cm high)

24
3. Shoes are proper body parts
  • But a part-whole relation isnt always possible!
  • (38) Han traff meg i skuldra. (body/jacket)
    (he hit me in shoulder.the)
  • (39) Han traff meg i kneet. (body/pants) (he
    hit me in knee.the)
  • (40) Han traff meg i halsen. (body/sweater)
    (he hit me in neck.the)

25
3. Shoes are proper body parts
  • However, the heel and the toe can always be in a
    part-whole relation with the shoe
  • (41) Han traff meg i hælen. (body/shoe) (he
    hit me in heel.the)
  • (42) Han traff meg i tåa. (body/shoe) (he hit
    me in toe.the)
  • No clear distinction between the body and the
    shoe.

26
  • ? SHOES are in a proper part-whole relation with
    the body!

27
  • Still not convinced of the importance of shoes
  • ??!?

28
  • Shoes do not only have a prominent position
    syntactically.
  • They also feature in various useful expressions
    in Norwegian.

29
  • 1. Å komme seg tørrskodd igjennom noe
  • (to come REFL dry.shoed through something)
  • Literary Dont get wet
  • Metaphorically Get safely through something

30
  • 2. Å fylle noens sko
  • (to fill someones shoes)
  • Take over (e.g. responsibility)
  • Live up to expectations

31
  • 3. Å være (godt) skodd for noe
  • (to be (well) shoed for something)
  • To be well-prepared for something
  • To be well-suited for something

32
  • 4. Å vite hvor skoen trykker
  • (to know where the shoe squeezes)
  • To know the situation
  • To know what the problems/challenges are

33
  • 5. Å banke noen ned i støvlene
  • (to knock someone down in their boots)
  • To beat someone competely
  • To be totally superior to someone

34
  • 6. Å sko seg på noe
  • (to shoe yourself on something)
  • To take advantage of some situation
  • To gain benefit from someones misery

35
  • 7. Over en lav sko
  • (over a low shoe)
  • Uncritically
  • Unrestrained

36
  • Han ser ikke skogen for bare trær
  • (He cant see the forest for the trees)

37
  • Han ser ikke skogen for bare trær
  • (He cant see the forest for the trees)

38
  • Han ser ikke skoen for bare tær
  • (He cant see the shoe for the toes)

39
  • So now you know why Hedda so often buys shoes!
  • (and for those who havent figured out already,
    Hedda is just a pseudonym…)

40
(No Transcript)
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