35.068 Dairy Cattle Production and Management - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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35.068 Dairy Cattle Production and Management


Dairy cattle are generally more nervous than other animals ... Avoid entering a small enclosed area with large animals ... indoor quality - animals and workers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 13 July 2020
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Title: 35.068 Dairy Cattle Production and Management

35.068 Dairy Cattle Production and Management
Working Safely With Dairy Cattle
Safe Handling of Cattle
Working Safely With Dairy Cattle
  • Dairy cattle are generally more nervous than
    other animals
  • Use a gentle approach to avoid startling them
  • When moved to the milking stalls
  • allow them to adapt to the new environment before
    the operation

Safely Approach to Cattle
  • Large animals can see at wide angles
  • But there is a blind spot
  • any movement in this area makes the animal uneasy
    and nervous
  • Announce your approach
  • touching the animals front or side
  • Most large animals will kick in an arch
  • beginning toward the front and moving toward the
  • Avoid this kicking region when approaching the

Separate Cattle Safely
  • A large cow weights 1500 lbs
  • Its not a good idea to separate it manually
  • They may run you over
  • It is safer to use proper handling facilities
  • Use a chute that has minimal distractions

Leave Yourself An Out
  • If you are inside a handling facility or milking
  • Leave a way to get out
  • Avoid entering a small enclosed area with large
  • Use it only if equipped with an easily accessed

Be Careful Around Sick /Hurt Animals
  • Protect yourself from any animal borne disease
  • Undulant fever
  • Tetanus
  • Rabies
  • wear personal protective equipment or clothing
  • practice good hygiene
  • wash your hands and face after handling animals

Practice Good House Keeping
  • Keep the work area clean and free of debris
  • Eliminate any sharp corners in walkways
  • Ensure that all latches and levers cannot fly
    open easily
  • Clean concrete floors and ramps regularly
  • prevents slips and trips
  • Store properly out of the way
  • pitch forks and other sharp tools

Maintain Even Lighting
  • Shadows mixed with light spots inside handling
  • Increase the animals
  • fear
  • tension

Safety with Livestock
  • About a quarter of all accidents on the farm are
    livestock related
  • 1/3 result in serious injury
  • lengthy hospital stay or death
  • Serious accidents occur when
  • crushing against walls and fittings in buildings
  • particularly by bulls or cows at calving time
  • loading animals onto trailers or releasing
    trapped animals
  • goring
  • bulls in fields

Farm injuries sustained by livestock
  • 1991 Alabama
  • A study of agricultural injuries found farm
    animals, mostly cattle, responsible for 13 of
    the farm injuries among a sample of 1000 farm
  • 1983-1997 Wisconsin
  • 134 people required hospitalization from farm
    animal related injuries
  • Fall from a horse 33
  • Kicked by a cow 21
  • Bovine assault 19
  • Equine assault 13
  • Kicked by a horse 8
  • Animal-drawn vehicle 6

Cattle PsychologyHow cattle sense and reacts to
the world around them
1. Sense of sight 2. Sense of hearing 3. Sense of
smell 4. Herd instinct 5. Maternal instinct
1. Sense of Sight
  • Cattle have a wide angle view and a narrow blind
    spot behind them
  • everything appears bent and distorted
  • Example a fence post that look straight to us,
    appears curved to cattle
  • Cattle will balk when approaching bright sunlight
    or shadows
  • a shadow on the ground, appears like a big hole
  • Cattle dont like quick movements
  • hands clapping, arms waving to move cattle
  • tarp blowing in the wind
  • spook the animals

2. Sense of Hearing
  • Noise is very stressful to cattle
  • cattle are disturbed by loud, abrupt noises new
    to them
  • gate slamming, telephone ring, crack of a whip,
    bleeding of a hydraulic line
  • 3. Sense of Smell
  • Cattle have an excellent sense of smell, scent
    will often be the dominant factor affecting
    cattle behavior
  • a cow will sense she is being separated from her
  • this will often cause her to become stressed and
  • odors provide sexual communication between cows
    and bulls

4. Herd Instinct
  • Cattle are social animals
  • feel comfortable and safe in a group
  • from predators and pests
  • isolated from the rest of the herd
  • a single animal will become stressed and easily
  • Two characteristics about cattle herd instinct
  • follow the leader
  • the leader is almost always the first member of
    the group
  • herd social order
  • one animal asserts dominance over a weaker member
  • when grazing, dominant cattle are usually in the
    middle of the group
  • at the feeder, dominant cattle will get at the
    food by pushing subordinate cattle away

5. Maternal Instinct
  • Maternal instinct in cattle is very strong
  • a cow will be wary of people, specially strangers
  • will be protective of her young
  • most protective during the first two weeks after
    the calf is born
  • Restrain the cow to avoid injuries when handling
    the calf
  • assisting in delivery
  • examining the newborn
  • castrating
  • ear tagging

Handling Cattle Safely
  • Flight zone
  • - A term used to describe an animals personal
  • handler enters the flight zone - animal move
  • handler exits the flight zone - animal will
  • If the flight zone is penetrated too deeply, the
    animal will often panic
  • Blind spot
  • - Is the area where the handler cannot be seen as
    they approach the
  • animal
  • entering an animals flight zone by its blind
  • agitates the animal and causes to kick

Understand the concept of flight zone and
point of balance
  • Animals will move more easily
  • reduce stress
  • - prevents injuries to
  • animals and handlers
  • Move Forward
  • stand in the dark shaded area marked in the
    flight zone diagram
  • Move Backwards
  • stand in front of the point of balance marked in
    the diagram

Using Flight Zone and Point of Balance concepts
  • Moving Cattle Forward
  • The handler should approach the animal from
    behind the point of balance
  • When entering the animals flight zone, the
    animal will look at the handler and will begin to
  • The handler must not penetrate the animals zone
    too deep
  • The handler must always be alert to the animals
    reaction to his or her presence
  • Once a cow begins to move, the handler can keep
    it moving straight ahead by entering and exiting
    the flight zone
  • To stop the animals forward progress, the
    handler should move out of its flight zone

Using Flight Zone and Point of Balance
  • Moving Cattle Backward
  • The handler should place himself or herself in
    front of the animals point of balance
  • Careful not to cut across the flight zone
  • if the animals personal space is invaded too
    deeply, it will be spooked and run or turn back
  • Follow the previous instructions

Things to keep in mind when handling cattle
  • Avoid approaching cattle from behind
  • Do not use quick movements
  • Cattle is very sensitive to abrupt movements and
  • Do not move cattle by whooping, hollering, or
  • Better handle them deliberately, confidently and
  • getting them excited makes the job more
  • Very little of noise is needed to move cattle
  • Rustle a stick with plastic strips attached
  • enough to guide the animals
  • Working cattle in groups, is easier than managing
    them alone
  • Separate a cow from the calf before handling the

Hazards in Animal Housing
  • Air Pollutants in Animal Housing
  • Dust and Other Aerosols
  • Ammonia
  • Hydrogen Sulfide
  • Other Gases
  • Odors
  • Air Quality Control and Management
  • Mechanical Hazards
  • Electrical Hazards
  • Noise
  • Fire
  • Children in Buildings
  • Safety Signs

Air Pollutants in Animal Housing
  • Dust and Other Aerosols
  • Dust found in animal housing is primarily
    composed of
  • Feed components
  • Dry fecal material
  • Dander (hair and skin cells)
  • Molds
  • Pollen
  • Grains
  • Insect parts
  • Mineral ash
  • some components may cause allergic responses
  • an important air quality problem in poultry and
    livestock housing

Dust Control
  • Proper waste management and ventilation
  • Minimize poor indoor quality - animals and
  • workers are required to wear appropriate personal
    protective equipment when entering these
  • particularly mask or respirators
  • Several methods of reducing dust are under
  • Wet , electrostatic, cyclonic and dry dust
  • Oil sprays
  • spraying vegetable oil
  • bind up the dust particles and keep them out of

Oil Sprinkling
  • Oil concentration in the oil-water mixture -
    should be gt 20
  • Droplet sizes should be gt 150 µm (microns) to
    achieve rapid deposition of droplets on available
  • Things to considered when choosing a vegetable
    oil (VO)
  • It is not necessary to use refined VO
  • oil should be free of particles
  • VO with strong odor are not suitable
  • potential effect of the oil affects animal
  • Use VO with low iodine value
  • in respect to the risk of self-ignition
  • Dust binding effect of oil remains for many days
  • consider designing spraying strategies accordingly

Results of Oil Sprinkling
  • Several methods for reduction of aerial dust in
    pig houses have been examined over the last 20
  • To date the most promising method appears to be
    Oil Sprinkling
  • Sprinkling undiluted Canola Oil in a
    grower-finisher room
  • Reduced dust by 79
  • Respirable dust particles - reduced by 73
  • Inhalable dust particles - reduced by 80

Ammonia ( NH3 )
  • Ammonia is produced by bacterial action on urine
    and feces during decomposition
  • Comes off of the floors and from the manure pits
  • Levels in animal buildings can be sufficiently
    high to affect human health
  • Ammonia control
  • Frequent removal of waste
  • Management of indoor moisture
  • Adequate ventilation
  • ventilation dilutes ammonia concentration and
    tends to dry floors and litter
  • reduces the rate of ammonia release

Hydrogen Sulfide ( HS )
  • Is an acutely toxic gas produced by the
    decomposition of animal manure
  • Often released into the air when liquid manure is
  • Its odor is not an indication of its
  • Above 6 ppm the odor increases as concentration
    also increases
  • The OSHA limits exposure to 10 ppm for an 8 hour,
    5 day exposure
  • At levels above 50 ppm human evacuation is
  • Levels above 500 ppm cause unconsciousness and
  • Levels increase to 1500 ppm when swine pit manure
    is agitated

Hydrogen Sulfide ( HS )(continued)
  • Workers should wear a self contained respirator
    if exposure to HS is expected
  • Hazards created during manure agitation can be
    controlled by
  • Providing ventilation during manure pumping
  • Removing the manure
  • Preferable when
  • people and animals are absent from the building

Other Gases
  • Methane ( CH4 )
  • A natural product of manure decomposition
  • nontoxic
  • High concentrations produces
  • dizziness and even asphyxiation
  • Flammability of methane Main Safety Concern
  • CH4 can be explosive at concentrations over
    50,000 ppm
  • valuable as an energy source
  • NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety
    and Health) recommended Daily exposure
  • 1,000 ppm per 8 hour work period
  • Control
  • proper ventilation generally dissipates methane
    from animal housings

  • Carbon Dioxide ( CO2 )
  • Produced by manure decomposition and animal
  • nontoxic gas
  • High concentrations can cause
  • asphyxiation by reducing available oxygen
  • Concentrations in well ventilated buildings can
  • 1,000 ppm during summer
  • 10,000 ppm during winter
  • OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health
    Administration) permissible exposure level for
  • 10,000 and 30,000 ppm respectively per 8 hour
    and 15 minutes work period
  • Control
  • proper ventilation
  • CO2 control is important in cold climates

  • Carbon Monoxide ( CO )
  • Product of the incomplete combustion of
  • its colorless, odorless, and has nearly the same
    density as air
  • CO hazards in animal production operations caused
  • combustion heaters malfunction
  • operational heaters or internal combustion
  • without venting the combustion products outdoors
  • Winter Most dangerous period
  • buildings are usually closed and ventilation
    rates are at its lowest
  • OSHA and NIOSH recommended threshold limit values
  • 40mg/m3 or 35 ppm for an 8 hour work period
  • Control
  • combustion heaters and engines should always be
    vented to the outside

  • Air Quality Control and Management
  • Unpleasant odors have long been associated with
    domestic animal production
  • Installation and operation of a well-designed
    ventilation system is the producers best
    assurance of adequate indoor air quality
  • provides thorough air mixing
  • eliminates dead spaces having stagnant air
  • moves fresh air through the housing facility
  • Ventilation vents should open enough to provide
    high velocity jets to ensure thorough air mixing
  • Summer months
  • evaporative cooling is needed using misting
    systems to reduce the indoor air temperature
  • Winter months
  • supplemental mixing fans are needed because
    ventilation rates are reduced to a minimum

Air Quality Control and Management(continued)
  • Prevention and early detection of toxic gas
    levels reduces health risks
  • installs CO detectors near combustion heaters
  • the heater should be vented to the outside
  • clean the heater thoroughly at the beginning of
    each heating season
  • while in use, monitor the heaters daily to ensure
    that they burn efficiently and produce minimal
    levels of CO
  • Use extreme caution during manure removal
  • manure slurries will release hydrogen sulfide
    rotten eggs
  • cause for concern
  • HS can quickly inure the sense of smell as
    concentrations increase and become deadly
  • Control dusts
  • during cold weather, use feed additives (oil,
    fat, and lecithin) to help reduce dust emission
    from feed meals.

Mechanical Hazards
  • Fans
  • unguarded fans are dangerous, must have guards or
    screens so people cannot touch any moving parts
  • Winches
  • workers operating winches must be careful to
    avoid releasing the winch before the object is
    fully raised or lowered
  • accidentally striking a winch under tension can
    cause it to release
  • Augers
  • must be properly guarded
  • before any maintenance the equipment must be
    unplugged, or switch off at the control and
    breaker box
  • Steel Cables
  • worn or frayed could produce gashes and puncture
    wounds on hands
  • wear a sturdy pair of work gloves to prevent
    these wounds
  • Housing Floors
  • can be slippery and obstructed by equipment and
  • use a good pair of work boots to prevent falls
    and foot injuries

Electrical Hazards
  • Due to faulty electrical wiring
  • Risk of shock
  • Potential for fire
  • Destruction of good equipment
  • motors and pumps
  • Use wiring practices that protects electrical
    cable and system components
  • from abuse by livestock and rodents
  • avoid exposure to tractors and feeding equipment
  • Appropriate design and reliable installation of
    electrical systems are crucial to
  • use electricity efficiently
  • provide a safe environment for workers and
  • minimize the potential for fire loss

  • Sound levels are measured in decibels (dB)
  • Soft whisper is about 30 dB while a 120 dB will
    cause pain
  • OSHA limits noise exposure to 90 dB over an 8
    hour shift
  • Tractors and other farm machinery cause the most
  • in livestock housing - animals and machinery
    produce significant noise
  • swine buildings - at feeding time 115 dB can be

  • Factors that facilitate fire in livestock
  • Poor management and maintenance, improper storage
    of combustibles, unsafe electrical wiring and
  • Reduce fire incidents
  • Construct building with fire retardant materials
  • Combustibles - discard from building those not
    frequently used
  • stored frequently used in a fire retardant
  • Use wiring material and equipment meeting the
    requirements of the National Electric Code
  • Electrical equipment should be installed
    according to manufacturers specifications
  • All electrical equipment (fuses, junctions, and
    outlet boxes) should be kept free of grease and
  • Place 10 lb ABC type fire extinguishers in all
    major buildings near exits

Children in Buildings
  • Animal production facilities are attractive
    playgrounds to children
  • Because of their complexity and potential for
  • no one should treat animal production facilities
    as play areas
  • lack of experience
  • makes children vulnerable to injuries in
    agricultural environments
  • young children visiting these facilities
  • should be supervised by trained production
  • older children should be allowed to work in these
  • providing adequate training and with parental

Safety SignsClassified according to the use
hazards and risk involved
The categories of hazard are Toxicity /
Poison Explosive Potential Flammability
Corrosive The categories of risks are
Danger Warning Caution
Farm Safety for Kids
  • Children must have a safe, easily supervised play
  • Hazards should be securely fenced and chemicals
    kept locked away
  • Spare equipment should be stored securely
  • Keep aggressive animals in childproof enclosures
  • Dont allow child passengers
  • Children should never help with
  • hazardous machinery
  • dangerous animals
  • dangerous chemical

Personal Protective Equipment
  • Head Protection
  • Eye Safety
  • Respiratory Protection
  • Hearing Protection
  • Hand Protection
  • Body Coverings
  • Foot Protection
  • First Aid

  • Head Protection Hard hats
  • from impacts or flying or falling objects
  • machinery maintenance
  • construction (electrical work, demolition)
  • horse back riding
  • enclosed spaces with low ceilings
  • chemical splashes
  • Eye Safety Safety glasses, goggles, face
  • when handling or applying pesticides
  • when working in dust, chaff or other flying
  • when working around trees
  • particularly under low-hanging branches

  • Hearing Protection Earmuffs and Ear plugs
  • from noise produced from farm machinery and hogs
  • tractors, combines, augers, blowers, chainsaws
  • hogs screaming at feeding time
  • Sound - measured in decibels (dB) 85 dB is the
    loudest sound workers should be exposed to for 8
    hours or more.
  • Examples Normal conversation 60 dB
  • John Deer Tractor 8560 tractor 76 dB
  • Massey Ferguson 750 combine 90 dB
  • Swine confinement at feeding 133 dB
  • Reduce indoor noise levels
  • install low noise fans, rubber fan mounts
  • use automated feeding systems
  • reduce animal produced noise by feeding all the
    animals at once
  • Wear protective equipment
  • disposable foam or reusable rubber earplugs
  • hearing protector earmuffs

  • Respiratory Protection Masks and Respirators
  • From dust and chaff
  • Toxic gases and chemicals
  • Welding fumes and low oxygen atmospheres
  • Silos and animal confinements
  • large livestock waste and manure dust
  • Effective respiratory hazard control in animal
  • Use NIOSH approved respiratory protection
    appropriate for the situation
  • Implement a respiratory control program that
  • evaluation of workers ability to work with the
  • regular training of personnel
  • routinely monitoring air quality
  • selection of appropriate NIOSH approved
  • respirator fit testing
  • medical evaluations
  • maintenance, cleaning and storage of respirators

Respirators used in animal housing facilities
  • Disposable dust / mist masks
  • Reusable dust / mist masks
  • Chemical cartridge respirators
  • which can include particulate matter prefilters
  • Powered air-purifying respirators
  • provide eye protection as well
  • Self-contain respirators
  • for dangerous gases - hydrogen sulfide or carbon

  • Hand Protection Gloves - fabric, leather,
    rubber, cut resistant
  • fabric protects from minor cuts and scrapes
  • inexpensive
  • could be laundered to extend its life
  • leather best choice for protection, cuts,
    scrapes, friction
  • inexpensive, breathable, tough and flexible
  • treat with leather care product to extend its
  • rubber protects from the use of chemicals
  • choose the appropriate rubber glove for the task
  • while still on, wash with warm water and soap,
    hang to dry
  • cut resistant protects from handling glass and
    sharp objects

  • Body Covering Aprons (leather and rubber),
    chemical resistant coveralls and chainsaw safety
  • leather aprons used when welding
  • protects from burns from splattering molten
    metals and slag
  • rubber aprons needed when handling liquids or
    concentrated chemicals
  • protects the groin area from chemical splashes
  • this area absorbs chemical 10x faster than
    through the forearm
  • chemical resistant coveralls excellent
    protection from pesticide dusts and mists
  • chainsaw safety chaps minimize the risk of
    cutting the legs
  • when handling square bales
  • reduce scratches and scrapes on the legs

  • Foot Protection Steel toe safety shoes and boots
    (rubber or leather) with puncture resistant soles
  • from sharp objects
  • dropped heavy objects
  • heavy livestock stepping on your feet
  • chemical hazards (steel toe safety rubber boots)
  • First Aid (FA) all vehicles and buildings
    should have a first aid kit
  • get appropriate first aid training
  • in your FA kit include emergency numbers
  • check FA kit content every three months
  • label all FA kits
  • include flares and flash light in your FA kit
  • emergency signals -extra help

What to pack in your first aid kit?
For more information visit the NASD (National Ag
Safety Database) (National Ag Safety
Database) http//www.cdc.gov/nasd/menu/topic/first
aid.html For emergencies call 911 Poison
Control Center Winnipeg (204) 787-2591
Regina (306) 766-4545 Toll free
1-800-667-4545 Manitoba Environment Spills
CSA approved safety equipment could be purchase
1. Implement dealerships 2. Farm supply
stores 3. Safety supply companies 4. Pharmacies
5. Agriculture chemical dealers 6. Hardware
Check the yellow pages under SAFETY EQUIP
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