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The Cuban Missile Crisis

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The Cuban Missile Crisis. CHST 540. May 26, 2005. American Policy Towards Cuba ... James G. Blight, Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis (Frank Cass, 1998) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cuban Missile Crisis


1
The Cuban Missile Crisis
  • CHST 540
  • May 26, 2005

2
American Policy Towards Cuba
  • 1960 US reduces Cuban sugar quota, then imposes
    embargo Cuba nationalizes all US holdings
  • January 1961 diplomatic relations severed
  • April 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion US imposes
    embargo
  • January 1962 at US urging, Cuba expelled from
    Organization of American States (OAS)

3
Cuban-Soviet Ties
  • Cuba turns to the USSR
  • Cuba had not been granted entrance to the Warsaw
    Pact
  • Agreed to Operation Anadyr to deter US and to
    strengthen moral defense of sovereignty

Castro Khrushchev, 1960
4
CIA Assessments
  • The Military Build-up in Cuba (NIE of Sept. 19,
    1962)
  • misjudged Khrushchevs will to gamble
  • missed crucial evidence of deployment of Soviet
    medium and intermediate range ballistic missiles
    to Cuba
  • failed to link construction of SAM anti-aircraft
    sites and presence of Soviet combat forces to
    deployment of ballistic missiles

5
Khrushchevs Gamble
  • Policy of bluff?
  • Deterrent (to American invasion)?
  • Balancing move?

6
The Crisis Begins
  • October 14, 1962 first evidence of Soviet MRBM
    sites in Cuba (PSALM)
  • EX-COMM (Executive Committee of NSC) meets
  • Armed forces readiness raised to unprecedented
    DEFCON 2
  • October 22, 1962 Kennedy goes public

7
Role of Intelligence Imagery
  • National Photographic Intelligence Center (NPIC),
    headed by Arthur Lundahl
  • U-2 reconnaissance flights

8
Imint MRBM Launch Site 1
9
Imint Close-ups of Missile Sites
Close-up of missile preparation area (taken
from altitude of 250 feet)
  • Close-up of missile transporters and
    missile-ready tents

10
Role of Intelligence Human
  • KGB Colonel Oleg Penkovsky
  • Run jointly by the CIA and SIS (MI6)
  • Ironbark reports
  • Arrested by Soviets in Sept. 1962 later executed

11
Resolution of the Crisis
  • October 28, 1962 Khrushchev ordered construction
    work stopped on installations in Cuba missiles
    to be dismantled, packed up and shipped back to
    USSR
  • Khrushchev dropped demand that US withdraw
    missiles from Turkey

12
Excerpt from a post-crisis report
13
Soviet Intelligence
  • Highly skilled at security and surveillance
    within their totalitarian system
  • Khrushchev acts as own intelligence analyst
    rejects professionalization of intelligence
  • KGB fails to influence policy-making
  • Soviet intelligence fails to grasp sophistication
    of US technology

14
American Intelligence
  • Analysis still weak and flawed at times
  • Far greater ability than Soviet intelligence to
    influence policy-making
  • Far more technically sophisticated than Soviets
    (U-2, etc.)

15
For further info
  • James G. Blight, Intelligence and the Cuban
    Missile Crisis (Frank Cass, 1998)
  • David Alvarez, American Signals Intelligence and
    the Cuban Missile Crisis Intelligence and
    National Security 151 (2000) 169-77.
  • A.V. Fursenko, One Hell of a Gamble Khrushchev,
    Castro, and Kennedy, 1958-1964 (W.W. Norton,
    1997)
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