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Distance Education in China


Literacy correspondence courses started by the Commercial Press. Correspondence colleges took over in 1940s. Establishment of communist regime: 1949 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Distance Education in China

Distance Education in China
  • James Willcox
  • Joanne Kline
  • Yoko Nagashima

Education System Overview
  • Centralized Control
  • Ministry of Education
  • Formulate laws
  • Set policies for curriculum
  • Provide funding and funding guidelines
  • Funding support from controlling authority
  • Local primary schools, local support
  • Higher education, national support

Education System (cont)
  • Funding shared locally with social partners
  • Job training, work-study partnerships
  • Extends to higher ed with employer sponsorship
  • Compulsory education laws since 1986
  • 9 year target universal in areas w/90
  • Varying standards based on development
  • More a goal than a reality for rural areas

Education levels within China
  • Basic Education
  • Combination or primary and junior middle school
    (either 54 or 63 mix)
  • 135 million students
  • Occupational/Polytechnic Education
  • Some professional schools, technical training
  • Short-term vocational lo-tech training as well
  • 19 million students in 1999

Education levels (cont)
  • Higher Education
  • About 30 pursue academic track and take NCEE
  • Options plentiful, varying levels of support
  • All but the most talented now pay some portion
  • Student loan concept in early stages
  • China must educate workforce at minimal cost
  • 1978-1987 842k to over 2 mill college students

Education levels (cont)
  • Adult Education
  • Overlaps all previous categories
  • Includes both long and short term instruction
  • Ranges from adult literacy to short and regular
    term college instruction
  • Targeted for older adults not on academic track
    or unavailable for instruction (or vice versa)

History of Distance Ed in China
  • Existed for nearly 100 years
  • Combat literacy in rural China
  • Largest distance learning network in the world
  • Comprehensive snail mail to online courses
  • 3 types of distance education today
  • Correspondence University System
  • Self-study University Exam
  • Dianda (CRTVU/PRTVU)
  • Stage 1 1914-1949
  • Literacy correspondence courses started by the
    Commercial Press
  • Correspondence colleges took over in 1940s
  • Establishment of communist regime 1949

Stage 2 Mix media
  • Stage 2 1949-1966
  • Ideal vehicle for economic development and
    socialist modernization
  • Large colleges and universities continued
    correspondence courses (eg Peoples University
    of China, Northeast Teachers University)
  • Radio professional teachers broadcast to
    different regions
  • TV hybrid model of video instruction, textbooks
    and face-to-face instruction (Beijing TV Univ.)
  • 1960-1966
  • Over 50,000 finished single subject studies
    (10,000 at BTU)
  • Cultural Revolution all TVUs dissolved

Stage 3 Radio TV Universities
  • Stage 3 1979-1994
  • CRTVU (Central Radio Television University)
  • National curricula, teaching and testing
  • By 1983, 44.3 of students registered in Chinese
    higher education were in distance education
  • 1986 Satellite TV network established (CETV)
  • 1991 5000 hrs of broadcasting a year
  • 1994 850,000 enrolled students

Stage 4 Online Initiative
  • 1988 Ministry of Education pilot programs
  • CERNET country wide internet backbone
  • managed by Education Commission
  • High speed distance education program
  • Connects primary-adult education institutions
  • Goal is to connect western part of country (285
    mil. People, 23 of population)
  • By 2010 modern distance ed program completed
  • 8.9mil Internet users in China (mostly eastern)
  • 20mil by 2003

Case Study China Radio TV Universities
  • Missionserving socialist construction,
    producing qualified manpower needed for the
    socialist construction and raising the scientific
    and cultural level of the whole nation
  • Centralized system
  • Before 1986 Centralized policy Unified system
  • After 1986 Decentralized policy 60 CRTVU vs.
    40 RTVUs

CRTVUs Five level structure
Ministries Organizations
Administrative leadership Academic Guidance
State Education Commission
Provincial Education Commission
Industry Work Stations
PRTVUs (44)
Civic/Prefectural Education Commission
Branch Schools (690)
Rural County/Urban District Education Bureaus
Work Stations (1,600)
RTVU Classes (13,000)
CRTVU Programs Technology
  • Programs
  • Degree Diploma Bachelor degree
  • Non-degree In-service training Continuing
  • Humanities and technical degrees/courses
  • Technology
  • Multimedia (radio and television broadcasting,
    audio and visual recordings, and print
  • Teaching Learning
  • Radio and TV broadcasting
  • Class lectures
  • Tutoring
  • Effectiveness?

CRTVUs Funding
China Central Television China Education
Television (Funded by ministries SEDC)
Financial Support
Industries, companies, enterprises
State Education Commission
Provincial Education Commission
Industry Work Stations
Civic/Prefectural Education Commission
  • RTVU Classes
  • For sec. school grads school leavers
  • For work unit

Branch Schools
Rural County/Urban District Education Bureaus
Work Stations
Factories, shops, gov. bureaus
CRTVU Accomplishments
  • up to 1996
  • Almost 3 million enrolled (degree program
  • 2.1 million graduated
  • At present over one million undergraduates of all
    types at entire RTVU system
  • Over 600,000 primary and secondary school
    teachers have completed the in-service teacher
    training programs
  • About 500,000 in-service adults have gone through
    the courses offered by CRTV Specialized Secondary
    School and received certificates

Implications of Distance Education for China
  • More educated population, dispersed
  • Higher productivity, Economic growth
  • Further development of domestic industry
  • Less dependence on MNC investment
  • More attractive for foreign investmentmore
    plentiful local managerial talent and more
    educated workforce

Implications of Distance Education for China
  • Higher payoffs from economic growth provide
    incentives for open markets
  • Population better able to support local industry
    and development
  • Economic growth more likely outside of major
  • Less dependence on traditional core
    areas/industry of Chinese economy

Implications of Distance Education for China
  • Requires ongoing maintenance and technical
  • More difficult control of information
  • A crisis of rising expectations for the general
  • Less dependence on central economic and
    political hubs   
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