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General Psychology: Child Dev I

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Once children know about 50 words, they stop using holophrases and start ... Bronfenbrenner's term for the interrelated settings in which a child grows up ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: General Psychology: Child Dev I


1
Child DevelopmentChapter 9Part II
William G. Huitt
Last revised May 2005
2
Language Development
  • Sequence of language development
  • Babbling
  • Vocalization of the basic speech sounds
    (phonemes), which begins between 4 and 6 months
  • Sounds of first language
  • By about 1 year of age
  • Begin to use words to communicate
  • By the second year
  • Sometimes these single words function as whole
    sentences

3
Language Development
  • Sequence of language development
  • Once children know about 50 words, they stop
    using holophrases and start combining words into
    two-word sentences
  • Overextension
  • The act of using a word, on the basis of some
    shared feature, to apply to a broader range of
    objects than appropriate
  • Underextension
  • Restricting the use of a word to only a few,
    rather than to all, members of a class of objects

4
Language Development
  • Sequence of language development
  • Childrens language advances considerably between
    2 and 3 years of age as they begin to use
    sentences of three or more words, which linguists
    call telegraphic speech
  • Telegraphic speech
  • Short sentences that follow a strict word order
    and contain only essential content words
  • Telegraphic speech reflects the childs
    understanding of syntax

5
Language Development
  • Sequence of language development
  • After age 3, children experience a phase
    linguists refer to as the grammar explosion
  • Overregularization
  • The act of inappropriately applying the
    grammatical rules for forming plurals and past
    tenses to irregular nouns and verbs

6
Language Development
  • Theories of language development
  • Learning theory
  • B. F. Skinner
  • Asserted that language is shaped through
    reinforcement
  • Some believe that children acquire vocabulary and
    sentence construction mainly through imitation
  • Imitation cannot account for patterns of speech
    such as telegraphic speech or for systematic
    errors such as overregularization
  • There are also problems with reinforcement as an
    explanation for language acquisition

7
Language Development
  • Theories of language development
  • Nativist position
  • For the nativist, the only environmental factor
    that is required for language development is the
    presence of language
  • Noam Chomsky
  • Maintains that the brain contains a language
    acquisition device (LAD), which enables children
    to sort the stream of speech they hear in the
    environment in ways that allow them to discover
    grammar rules
  • Also suggests that the LAD determines the
    sequence of language development

8
Language Development
  • Theories of language development
  • Nature and nurture an interactionist perspective
  • The interactionist perspective acknowledges the
    importance of both learning and an inborn
    capacity for acquiring language
  • Reading to children and with them also supports
    language development

9
Language Development
  • Learning to read
  • Phonological awareness
  • Knowledge about a languages sounds and how they
    are represented as letters
  • Children who have good phonological awareness
    skills in their first language learn to read more
    easily even if reading instruction takes place in
    an entirely new language
  • Children seem to learn phonological awareness
    skills through word play
  • Once children have mastered the basic
    symbol-sound decoding process, they become better
    readers by learning about root words, suffixes,
    and prefixes

10
Socialization of the Child
  • Socialization
  • The process of learning socially acceptable
    behaviors, attitudes, and values
  • Culture and child development
  • Urie Bronfenbrenner
  • Proposes that we think of the environment in
    which a child grows up as a system of
    interactive, layered contexts of development
  • Contexts of development
  • Bronfenbrenners term for the interrelated
    settings in which a child grows up
  • At the core of the system are what he calls
    microsystems, which include settings in which the
    child has personal experience
  • The macrosystem includes the larger culture

11
Socialization of the Child
  • Parents role in the socialization process
  • To be effective, socialization must ultimately
    result in children coming to regulate their own
    behavior
  • Three parenting styles
  • Authoritarian
  • Authoritative
  • Permissive

12
Socialization of the Child
  • Authoritarian parents
  • Parents who make arbitrary rules, expect
    unquestioned obedience from their children,
    punish transgressions, and value obedience to
    authority
  • Preschool children disciplined in this manner to
    be withdrawn, anxious, and unhappy
  • Parents failure to provide a rationale for rules
    makes it hard for children to see any reason for
    following them

13
Socialization of the Child
  • Authoritative parents
  • Parents who set high but realistic standards,
    reason with the child, enforce limits, and
    encourage open communication and independence
  • Knowing why the rules are necessary makes it
    easier for children to internalize and follow
    rules, whether in the presence of their parents
    or not

14
Socialization of the Child
  • Permissive parents
  • Parents who make few rules or demands and allow
    children to make their own decisions and control
    their own behavior
  • Children raised in this manner are the most
    immature and seem to be the least self-controlled
    and self-reliant

15
Socialization of the Child
  • Neglecting parents
  • Parents who make few rules or demands because
    they are not involved in their childrens lives
  • Infants of neglecting parents are more likely
    than others to be insecurely attached and
    continue to experience difficulties in social
    relationships throughout childhood and into their
    adult years

16
Socialization of the Child
  • Peer relationships
  • Infants begin to show an interest in each other
    at a very young age
  • Friendships begin to develop by 3 or 4 years, and
    relationships with peers become increasingly
    important
  • By middle childhood, friendships tend to be based
    on mutual trust, and membership in a peer group
    is central to a childs happiness
  • The peer group serves a socializing function by
    providing models of behavior, dress, and language

17
Socialization of the Child
  • Peer relationships
  • Physical attractiveness is a major factor in peer
    acceptance even in children as young as 3 to 5
    years, although it seems to be more important for
    girls than for boys
  • Low acceptance by peers is an important predictor
    of later mental health problems
  • Most often excluded from the peer group are
    neglected children, who are shy and withdrawn,
    and rejected children, who typically exhibit
    aggressive and inappropriate behavior and who are
    likely to start fights

18
Socialization of the Child
  • Television as a socializing agent
  • Surveys indicate that parents are keenly aware of
    the potentially damaging effects of television,
    especially violent programs, on their childrens
    development
  • Literally thousands of studies suggest that TV
    violence leads to aggressive behavior in children
    and teenagers
  • Other studies show that excessive TV viewing is
    linked to childhood obesity

19
Socialization of the Child
  • Television as a socializing agent
  • The socializing effect of television begins
    before that of schools, religious institutions,
    and peers
  • Singer and Singer
  • Suggest that such programming can lead to a
    shortened attention span
  • Mister Rogers Neighborhood has been found to
    increase prosocial behavior, imaginative play,
    and task persistency in preschoolers
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