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Overview of Projects Fall 2002 Personality and Social Development Research Laboratory

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NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Barriers to Child Care Subsidy (with Anne Shlay at the Center for Public Policy) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Overview of Projects Fall 2002 Personality and Social Development Research Laboratory


1
Overview of Projects Fall 2002Personality and
Social Development Research Laboratory
  • Marsha Weinraub, Director
  • 6th floor Weiss Hall
  • Temple University

2
Three ongoing research projects
  • NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth
    Development
  • Barriers to Child Care Subsidy (with Anne Shlay
    at the Center for Public Policy)
  • Applied work through CIRCL (Center for Improving
    Childrens Lives)
  • UCPC (Universities Childrens Policy
    Collaborative)
  • Governors Task Force on Early Child Care and
    Education

3
Project 1 NICHD Study of Early Child Care and
Youth Development
  • Overview
  • Purpose
  • History, Investigators and Model
  • Participants and Overview of Procedures
  • Three Phases since 1991
  • Findings Prevalence and Quality of Child Care
    in the U.S.
  • Incredibly brief overview of other findings
  • Future directions

4
The Main Questions
  • What are todays childrens experiences with
    early child care in the U.S.?
  • How does early child care affect children in the
    early years?
  • Does early child care experience continue to
    affect children as they move into preschool and
    elementary school?

5
Unique Features of the NICHD Study of Early Child
Care
  • Prospective, longitudinal study
  • Wide range of child-care arrangements and family
    characteristics
  • Large sample diverse in terms of geography,
    ethnicity, education, income, and family
    composition
  • Multiple, broad-based assessments of childrens
    development
  • Direct observations of home and child-care
    experiences
  • Public access to data available to
    qualified/supervised investigators

6
NICHD investigators in Phase I
  • Mark Appelbaum - UC San Diego
  • Jay Belsky - Penn State University
  • Cathryn Booth - U of Washington
  • Robert Bradley - U of Arkansas
  • Celia Brownell - U of Pittsburgh
  • Peg Burchinal - U of North Carolina
  • Bettye Caldwell - Arkansas Childrens Hospital
  • Susan Campbell - U of Pittsburgh
  • Alison Clarke-Stewart - UC Irvine
  • Martha Cox - U of North Carolina
  • Sarah Friedman - NICHD
  • Kathy Hirsh-Pasek - Temple U.
  • Aletha Huston - U Texas at Austin
  • Bonnie Knoke - Research Triangle Institute
  • Nancy Marshall - Wellesley College
  • Kathleen McCartney - U of New Hampshire
  • Marion OBrien - University of Kansas
  • Margaret Tresch Owen - UT Dallas
  • Deborah Phillips - National Academy of Sciences
  • Robert Pianta - U of Virginia
  • Susan Spieker - U of Washington
  • Deborah Lowe Vandell - U of Wisconsin
  • Marsha Weinraub - Temple U.

7
Families in the Study
  • 1,364 eligible births occurring during 1991
  • Sampling designed to assure adequate
    representation of major socio-demographic niches
  • Ten data collection sites
  • Two sites in PA.
  • 24 hospitals

Recruited in these locations
8
Who are the Families of the Study?
Maternal Educationat 1 Month
Income-to-Needsat 1 Month
9
The Model
Child Care Environment
Demographics
Outcomes Family/Child
Child
Home Environment
Family Char.
10
Data Collection Schedule Phase 1 and 2
  • Child age (in months)

11
Child Care Variables
  • Type of care
  • (maternal care, relative care, in home care,
    child care home, center)
  • Age of entry to care
  • Amount of care (in hours per week)
  • Stability of care
  • Quality of care
  • Regulables group size, caregiver ed/training,
    safety
  • Observations
  • ratings of the quality of interactions
  • measures of the frequency of interactions

12
Outcomes
  • Social
  • Emotional
  • Language
  • Intellectual
  • Behavior Problems and Adjustment
  • Health and Growth

13
Some selected findings
  • Just the tip of the iceberg

14
Child Care Usage?
  • Age of Entry into 10 or More Hours of Care per
    Week
  • 0 to 3 months 51
  • 4 to 8 months 18
  • 9 to 12 months 5
  • 13 to 24 months 9
  • 25 to 36 months 3
  • after 36 months 14

15
Child Care Use
16
Child Care Use
17
Child Care Use at 54 Months
18
Type of Care at 54 Months
19
What child care characteristics were predictive
of better child care quality?
20
OBSERVED CAREGIVING FROM AGES 6 TO 36 MONTHS WAS
MOST POSITIVE WHEN
  • Group sizes were smaller
  • Child-adult ratios were smaller (decreasing in
    importance at 36 months)
  • Caregivers had more child-centered beliefs about
    childrearing at all ages, and more education and
    experience from 15-36 months
  • Physical environments were safe, clean, and
    stimulating
  • Care was provided in an in-home arrangement
    rather than a child-care center (decreasing in
    importance at 36 months)

21
WHAT IS THE OVERALL QUALITY OF CHILD CARE FOR 1-
TO 3-YEAR OLDS IN THE UNITED STATES?
  • NICHD NICHD Extrap
  • Observed Imputed U.S.
  • Observed Caregiving
  • (4-pt scale)
  • Poor (lt 2 pts) 6 7 8
  • Fair (2 to lt 3 pts) 51 53 53
  • Good (3 to lt 3.5 pts) 32 31 30
  • Excellent (gt 3.5 pts) 11 9 9

22
Selected results from 0 to 3 yearsNumber of
centers meeting recommended guidelines
6mo. 15mo. 24mo.
36mo. Child-staff ratios 36 20 26
56 Small group sizes 35 25 28
63 Caregiver education 56 60
65 75 Caregiver training 65
69 77 80
23
Does quality and quantity of care affect
childrens development?
  • Yes, and Yes!
  • (More information available on the web at
    www.rti.org)

24
Selected outcomes
  • Mother-child relationship
  • Social competence, peer relations and behavioral
    problems
  • Attention and cognitive development
  • Language development
  • School readiness

25
Future directions
  • Phase I data set (ages 1 through 3 years)
    currently available on web
  • Phase II data (4.5 years through first grade)
    analyses just about complete
  • Phase II data set to be available October 31,
    2002
  • Phase III data (3rd to 6th grades) in collection
  • Phase IV (8th and 10th grades) coming up soon!

26
Additional supplemental slides
  • Measuring Child care
  • Effects of care on mother-child interaction and
    Childs attachment security

27
What did we measure in the child care setting?
28
Measures of the Child Care Context
Time of Measurement
Construct
6 15 24 36 54
Child Care Context Structural Regulables
? ? ? ? ? Quantity ? ? ? ? ? Stability
? ? ? ? ? Quality ? ? ? ? ? Type ?
? ? ? ? Caregiver Characteristics ? ? ?
? ? Experience with Peers ? ? ? ? ?

29
Structural Characteristics
  • Observed Child-Staff Ratio
  • Observed Group Size
  • Age Mix
  • Licensure

30
Caregiver Characteristics
  • Education
  • Specialized Training
  • Experience
  • Wages
  • Professionalism
  • Beliefs Modernity
  • Attitudes about care

31
Quality of Care
  • ORCE (Observational Record of the Caregiving
    Environment)
  • Child-Care HOME
  • Profile

32
QUALITY OF CARE THE OBSERVATIONAL RECORD OF
THE CAREGIVING ENVIRONMENT (ORCE)
  • Behavioral scales Frequency counts of specific
    caregiving acts with the child
  • Qualitative ratings Ratings of the quality of
    the caregivers behavior in relation to the child
  • Four 44-minute cycles of observations
  • Trained, reliable observers
  • Observations took place over 2 days, within 2
    weeks

33
Quality of Child Care ORCE
  • Shared positive affect
  • Positive physical contact
  • Responds to vocalization/childs talk
  • Speaks positively to child
  • Asks questions of child
  • Other talk to child
  • Stimulates cognitive development/teaches academic
    skill
  • Facilitates behavior
  • Mutual exchange
  • Negative/restricting actions (reversed)
  • Speaks negatively to child (reversed)
  • Child watching, unoccupied

34
The ORCE Rating Scales
  • Stimulation
  • Sensitivity/responsiveness
  • Positive regard
  • Detachment/disengagement
  • Flat affect
  • Intrusiveness (at 36 months)
  • Fosters exploration (at 36 months)

35
ORCE RATINGS OF POSITIVE CAREGIVING
  • Ratings were completed at the end of each
    44-minute cycle
  • Sensitivity/responsiveness to nondistressed
    communication
  • Stimulation of development
  • Positive regard
  • Detachment/disengagement
  • Flat affect
  • Intrusiveness (at 36 months)
  • Fosters exploration (at 36 months)

36
Quality of Home Environment Mother-child
Interaction
37
Does Child Care affect the Mother-Child
Relationship?
  • We measured the mother-child relationship in two
    ways
  • Quality of maternal caregiving
  • Childs attachment to mother

38
Home Environment Measures
Time of Measurement
1 6 15 24 36 54
1st
Home/Family Context Household Members
? ? ? ? ? ?
? Family Structure ?
? ? ? ? ? ? Quality of Family
Environment ? ? ? ?
? Quality of Mother-child Interaction ? ?
? ? ? ? Quality of Father-child
Interaction ? ?
? Parent Characteristics ? ?
? ? ? ? ?
39
Quality of Home Environment HOME (Caldwell
Bradley)
  • Positive involvement
  • Lack of negativity

40
How we measured the quality of maternal
caregiving
  • Qualitative ratings of mothers sensitivity
    during a 15 minute play procedure
  • At 6, 15, 24, and 36 months
  • Coded by reliable observers from videotapes

41
Quality of Home EnvironmentMother-child
Interaction
  • Ratings from 15 minute video taped interactions
  • Sensitivity to nondistress
  • Detachment
  • Intrusiveness
  • Cognitive stimulation
  • Positive regard
  • Negative regard
  • Child positive engagement

42
How we coded the quality of maternal caregiving
  • Maternal behavior
  • sensitivity to nondistress/supportive presence
  • intrusiveness
  • stimulation of cognitive development
  • positive regard
  • negative regard/hostility
  • flatness
  • Child behavior
  • positive affect (agency)
  • negativity
  • engagement of mother
  • affection for mother

43
How we measured the childs attachment to the
mother
  • Strange Situation laboratory procedure
  • Secure Attachment Child re-establishes positive
    contact with mother following separation
  • Insecure Attachment Avoidance of mother or
    inability to receive comfort from mother

44
What predicted attachment security at 15 months?
  • Family/child factors
  • Secure attachment more likely when mothers were
    better adjusted
  • Secure attachment more likely when mothers were
    more sensitive
  • Child Care factors
  • No main effect of child care
  • Interaction When mothers were less sensitive,
    and there were more hours of child care, or care
    that is low-quality, or more than one
    arrangementgt fewer secure attachments

45
Main findings over the years
  • Families are using nonmaternal care of various
    sorts in large, and children are entering into
    care at an early age.
  • Child care does NOT, in and of itself, affect the
    childs attachment to the mother.
  • Parenting has stronger effects on child outcomes
    than child care experience.
  • By age 54 months, nearly all families are using
    nonmaternal care, and most, center care.
  • More care in hours per week is associated with
  • More school readiness
  • More behavior problems (within normal range)

46
Most exciting for the field
  • Public availability of the data set
  • Phase I and Phase II now publicly available.
  • Phase III ongoing, but will be available.
  • Phase IV will be funded.

47
Project 2 Barriers to Child Care Subsidy
  • Three studies with Henry Tran and Michelle Harmon
  • Funded by Administration for Children and
    Families, HHS.
  • Study 1 Fewer than half the low income mothers
    in Philadelphia were receiving the subsidies to
    which they were entitled.
  • Study 2 What do parents value in child care?
  • Study 3 So what is subsidized care any better?

48

Project 3 Participation in the Universities
Childrens Policy Collaborative (Research Team
for the Early Childhood Task Force)
49
Project 3 Universities Childrens Policy
Collaborative (UCPC)
  • Penn State University
  • Prevention Research Center Mark Greenberg
  • Early Childhood Training Institute Rick Fiene
  • Temple University
  • Center For Public Policy
  • Anne Shlay, Marsha Weinraub, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek
  • University of Pittsburgh
  • Office of Child Development
  • Chris Groark, Bob McCall Co-Directors
  • Robert Nelkin Director of Policy Initiatives

50
Projects for the Governors Task Force
  • Review of Science-Based Best Practices and
    Programs in Early Childhood
  • 2002 Pennsylvania Surveys
  • PA Families with Young Children
  • PA Education and Child Care Providers
  • Centers
  • Homes
  • Observations of Classroom Quality in PA
  • Higher Education Programs in PA

51
. Findings of the 2002 Survey of PA families
  • Two-thirds of Pennsylvania families have their
    children in a child care arrangement or
    educational program on a regular weekly basis.
  • The majority of infants under one year of age are
    cared for by someone other than a parent at least
    part-time each week.
  • 43 of children under the age of 6 years are in a
    nonparental arrangement at least 20 hours a week,
    and 25 for at least 35 hours per week.
  • Similarities across metropolitan, small cities,
    and rural areas suggest that child care concerns
    are pervasive across the State.

52
A Preschool Crisis?
  • More than half of Pennsylvanias 3- and 4- year
    old children receive no regular educational
    programming outside the home that would prepare
    them for school entry.
  • Low-income families and less educated parents are
    less likely to use such programs than other
    families.
  • Although 75 of 3 and 4 year-old children were in
    some type of regular non-parental arrangement,
  • Fewer than half (44) spend regular time each
    week in a center-based program that would help
    them prepare for school entry.

53
More on preschool
  • Twenty-five percent of 3 and 4 year-olds are in
    the exclusive care of their parents
  • 12 of children between 3 and 4 years of age are
    enrolled in child care centers
  • 19 in preschools
  • 5 in Head Start programs, and
  • 8 in pre-kindergarten or kindergarten programs.

54
Figure 1 Hours per Week that Children Spend in
their Care/Education Arrangement
55
Figure 2 Age Differences in the Use of
Different Care/Education Arrangements
56
Figure 6 Type of Care/Education Arrangement by
Respondents Education
College Graduate/ Post-Graduate
Some High School/ High School Graduate
Some college
No non-parental care
Non-parental in-home care
Out-of home family child care
Program/Center care
Parent as family care provider
57
Figure 8 Sources of Support Parents Have Used in
Past 12 Months
58
Figure 9 How Much of a Role Should Government
Play in Helping Children to Become Reading Ready?

59
Labs future directions
  • Continuing with Phase I and II and III analyses
    of NICHD data
  • Barriers to child care subsidies continuing
  • UCPC collaboration very fruitful
  • Hope to continue basic research in early
    personality and social development
  • Attachment
  • Parent-child relations
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