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Sport and Exercise Psychology

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Title: Sport and Exercise Psychology


1
Chapter 9
  • Sport and Exercise Psychology

2
Sport Psychology -Defined
  • The systematic scholarly study of the behavior,
    feelings, and thoughts of people engaged in
    sport, exercise, and physical activity-Vealey

3
Defined-Continued
  • Focuses on the psychological and mental aspects
    of participation in sport and exercise, seeking
    to understand how psychological processes
    influence and are influenced by participation
    (AAASP).

4
Historical Development
  • Early history is sport psychology is related to
    Motor Learning.
  • Both emerged as sub-disciplines in the late
    1960s- and early 1970s.

5
Early History
  • Norman Triplett, 1898, studied the effects of an
    audience on motor performance.
  • Coleman Griffith, 1918, (father of sport
    psychology) wrote Psychology of Coaching in 1926
    and Psychology of Athletics in 1928.

6
Early History-continued
  • Griffith, 1938, hired by Philip Wrigley as the
    Chicago Cubs baseball teams sport psychologist.
    Researched ways to enhance motivation and develop
    self-confidence.

7
Early History-continued
  • 1940-1965 Research was sporadic. After WW2
    Motor Learning programs were established in
    colleges and universities. Henry, Slater-Hammel,
    Hubbard, and Lawther developed research in motor
    learning and performance. (currently within the
    realm of sport psychology)

8
Early History-continued
  • 1949, Warren Johnson, looked at pre game emotion
    in football. 1951, The Psychology of Coaching
    (emotions associated with competition).
  • 1964, Bryant Cratty, Movement Behavior and Motor
    Learning and 1967-Psychology and Physical Activity

9
History-Continued
  • Late 1960s-Early 1970s-emergence of Sport
    Psychology. Courses were developed within grad
    and undergrad programs.
  • 1965 International Society of Sport Psychology
    was founded.
  • Journal of Sport Psychology began publication in
    1979.

10
History-continued
  • 1980s Tremendous Expansion
  • Intervention/Performance Enhancement
  • Health Psychology
  • Social Psychology
  • Clinically trained psychologists
  • Applied approach
  • Psychological factors that influence
    participation in fitness, wellness, etc

11
History-continued
  • 1990s separation of study in Sport Psychology
    and Exercise Psychology.

12
Areas of Study
  • Why do some athletes choke under pressure?
  • Why do some postcardiac patients fail to complete
    their rehab program?
  • Does exercise reduce stress?

13
Areas of Study-Continued
  • Research in Psychology can help teachers,
    scientists, sport leaders make modifications to
    programs to enrich experiences for clients.

14
Psychological Benefits of Exercise
  • Page 334
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • 7
  • 8
  • 9
  • 10
  • 11

15
Exercise Adherence
  • Estimated ½ of all patients fail to comply with
    medical treatment. Why?
  • Classic Learning Theories
  • Health Belief Model
  • Social Cognitive Theory
  • Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior
  • Ecological Approach

16
The Transtheoretical Model-Prochaskas Stages of
Change
  • Precontemplation
  • Contemplation
  • Preparation
  • Action
  • Maintenance
  • Termination
  • Decisional Balance
  • Self Efficacy

17
Why do individuals drop out of programming?
  • Low Self Motivation
  • Depression
  • Low Self Efficacy
  • Denial of seriousness of condition

18
Who Drops OUT?
  • Smokers
  • Blue Collar Workers
  • Obese Individuals
  • Type A Personalities
  • People who lack support from others

19
Personalities
  • Does Sport Influence Personality?
  • Are their Psychological Differences between
    Athletes and Non-Athletes? Or between Elite
    Athletes and their less successful competitors?
  • 1. 2. 3. 4.

20
Anxiety and Arousal
  • Anxiety A subjective feeling of apprehension
    accompanied by a heightened level of
    physiological arousal. (sweaty hands, urge to
    urinate, increased respiration rate, elevated
    heart rate, increased muscle tension) State/Trait

21
Anxiety and Arousal
  • Arousal
  • Low Level of Arousal may create motivation,
    inattention, and inappropriate slow movement
    choices.
  • High Level of Arousal may cause deterioration in
    coordination, inappropriate narrowing of
    attention, distractibility, lack of flexibility
    in movement response.

22
Goal Setting
  • Goal Setting is important as a motivational
    strategy, and a strategy to change behavior or
    enhance performance.
  • Outcome Goals
  • Performance Goals
  • Process Goals

23
Principles of Effective Goal Setting
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Action Oriented
  • Realistic
  • Timely

24
Self Talk
  • Task Relevant Statements
  • Positive Self Statements
  • Mood Words

25
Application of Self Talk
  • Uses for
  • Enhancing Skill
  • Focusing Attention
  • Modifying activation
  • Promoting Self Confidence

26
Attention
  • Attention the ability to direct senses and
    thought processes to particular objects, thoughts
    and feelings.
  • Can be Width Dimension or Direction Dimension

27
(No Transcript)
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