Respiratory System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Respiratory System PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 3343c-Y2M4O


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Respiratory System


Acute bronchitis. Infection of primary and secondary bronchi ... Passive smoke can increase a nonsmoker's chance of pneumonia, bronchitis, and lung cancer ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:68
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 22
Provided by: BIO115


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Respiratory System

Chapter 9
  • Respiratory System

Overview of the respiratory system
9.1 The respiratory system
What is the pathway that air follows?
8.1 Overview of digestion
  • Nose
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchus
  • Bronchioles
  • Alveoli

What constitutes the upper respiratory tract?
9.2 The upper respiratory tract
  • Nose
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx

The nose
9.2 The upper respiratory tract
  • Opens at the nostrils/nares and leads into the
    nasal cavities
  • Hairs and mucus in the nose filters the air
  • The nasal cavity has lots of capillaries that
    warm and moisten the air
  • Specialized cells act as odor receptors
  • Tear glands drain into the nasal cavities and can
    lead to a runny nose

The pharynx
9.2 The upper respiratory tract
  • Funnel-shaped cavity commonly called the throat
  • Tonsils provide a lymphatic defense during
    breathing at the junction of the oral cavity and

The larynx
9.2 The upper respiratory tract
  • Triangular, cartilaginous structure that passes
    air between the pharynx and trachea
  • Called the voice box and houses vocal cords

What constitutes the lower respiratory tract?
9.3 The lower respiratory tract
  • Trachea
  • Bronchial tree
  • Lungs

The trachea
9.3 The lower respiratory tract
  • A tube, often called the windpipe, that connects
    the larynx with the 1 bronchi
  • Made of connective tissue, smooth muscle, and
    cartilaginous rings
  • Lined with cilia and mucus that help to keep the
    lungs clean
  • Tracheostomya breathing tube may be inserted
    into the trachea when a person is choking due to
    a blocked windpipe.

The bronchial tree
9.3 The lower respiratory tract
  • Starts with two main bronchi that lead from the
    trachea into the lungs
  • The bronchi continue to branch until they are
    small bronchioles about 1mm in diameter with
    thinner walls
  • Bronchioles eventually lead to elongated sacs
    called alveoli

The lungs
9.3 The lower respiratory tract
  • The bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli beyond the
    1 bronchi make up the lungs
  • The right lung has 3 lobes while the left lung
    has 2 lobes that divide into lobules
  • Each lung is enclosed by membranes called pleura

The alveoli
9.3 The lower respiratory tract
  • gt 300 million in the lungs that greatly increase
    surface area
  • Alveoli are enveloped by blood capillaries
  • The alveoli and capillaries are one layer of
    epithelium to allow exchange of gases
  • Alveoli are lined with surfactant that act as a
    film to keep alveoli open
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome affects premature
    infacts born without surfactant

Two phases of breathing/ventilation
9.4 Mechanism of breathing
  • 1. Inspiration an active process of
    inhalation that brings air into the lungs
  • 2. Expiration usually a passive process of
    exhalation that expels air from the lungs

9.4 Mechanism of breathing
  • The diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract
  • The diaphragm flattens and the rib cage moves
    upward and outward
  • Volume of the thoracic cavity and lungs increase
  • The air pressure within the lungs decrease
  • Air flows into the lungs

9.4 Mechanism of breathing
  • The diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax
  • The diaphragm moves upward and becomes dome-shape
  • The rib cage moves downward and inward
  • Volume of the thoracic cavity and lungs decrease
  • The air pressure within the lungs increases
  • Air flows out of the lungs

How is breathing controlled by the nervous system?
9.5 Control of ventilation
  • Nervous control
  • Respiratory control center in the brain (medulla
    oblongata) sends out nerve impulses to contract
    muscle for inspiration
  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is thought to
    occur when this center stops sending out nerve

Upper respiratory tract infections
9.7 Respiration and health
  • Sinusitis blockage of sinuses
  • Otitis media infection of the middle ear
  • Tonsillitis inflammation of the tonsils
  • Laryngitis infection of the larynx that leads
    to loss of voice

Lower respiratory tract disorders
9.7 Respiration and health
  • Pneumonia infection of the lungs with thick,
    fluid build up
  • Tuberculosis bacterial infection that leads to
    tubercles (capsules)
  • Pulmonary fibrosis lungs lose elasticity
    because fibrous connective tissue builds up in
    the lungs usually because of inhaled particles
  • Emphysema chronic, incurable disorder in which
    alveoli are damaged and thus the surface area for
    gas exchange is reduced usually due to smoking
  • Asthma bronchial tree becomes irritated causing
    breathlessness, wheezing, and coughing
  • Lung cancer uncontrolled cell division in the
    lungs that is often caused by smoking and can
    lead to death

  • Pulmonary tuberculosisbacterial infection of the
  • Bacteria invade lungs, and cells form a capsule
    called a tubercle
  • The body may destroy the tubercle or the bacteria
    may be released into lung tissue
  • PPD Skin test that detects TB in a patient
  • http//

Respiratory disorders
  • Acute bronchitis
  • Infection of primary and secondary bronchi
  • Cough becomes deep that expectorates mucus and
    perhaps pus
  • Bacterial infection
  • May be preceded by viral URI

Health focus Things you should know about
tobacco and health
9.7 Respiration and health
  • All forms of tobacco can cause damage
  • Smoking increases a persons chance of lung,
    mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney,
    pancreas, stomach, and cervical cancer
  • The 5-year survival rate for people with lung
    cancer is only 13
  • Smoking also increases the chance of chronic
    bronchitis emphysema, heart disease, stillbirths,
    and harm to an unborn child
  • Passive smoke can increase a nonsmokers chance
    of pneumonia, bronchitis, and lung cancer