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Respiratory System

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Acute bronchitis. Infection of primary and secondary bronchi ... Passive smoke can increase a nonsmoker's chance of pneumonia, bronchitis, and lung cancer ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Respiratory System


1
Chapter 9
  • Respiratory System

2
Overview of the respiratory system
9.1 The respiratory system
3
What is the pathway that air follows?
8.1 Overview of digestion
  • Nose
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchus
  • Bronchioles
  • Alveoli

4
What constitutes the upper respiratory tract?
9.2 The upper respiratory tract
  • Nose
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx

5
The nose
9.2 The upper respiratory tract
  • Opens at the nostrils/nares and leads into the
    nasal cavities
  • Hairs and mucus in the nose filters the air
  • The nasal cavity has lots of capillaries that
    warm and moisten the air
  • Specialized cells act as odor receptors
  • Tear glands drain into the nasal cavities and can
    lead to a runny nose

6
The pharynx
9.2 The upper respiratory tract
  • Funnel-shaped cavity commonly called the throat
  • Tonsils provide a lymphatic defense during
    breathing at the junction of the oral cavity and
    pharynx

7
The larynx
9.2 The upper respiratory tract
  • Triangular, cartilaginous structure that passes
    air between the pharynx and trachea
  • Called the voice box and houses vocal cords

8
What constitutes the lower respiratory tract?
9.3 The lower respiratory tract
  • Trachea
  • Bronchial tree
  • Lungs

9
The trachea
9.3 The lower respiratory tract
  • A tube, often called the windpipe, that connects
    the larynx with the 1 bronchi
  • Made of connective tissue, smooth muscle, and
    cartilaginous rings
  • Lined with cilia and mucus that help to keep the
    lungs clean
  • Tracheostomya breathing tube may be inserted
    into the trachea when a person is choking due to
    a blocked windpipe.

10
The bronchial tree
9.3 The lower respiratory tract
  • Starts with two main bronchi that lead from the
    trachea into the lungs
  • The bronchi continue to branch until they are
    small bronchioles about 1mm in diameter with
    thinner walls
  • Bronchioles eventually lead to elongated sacs
    called alveoli

11
The lungs
9.3 The lower respiratory tract
  • The bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli beyond the
    1 bronchi make up the lungs
  • The right lung has 3 lobes while the left lung
    has 2 lobes that divide into lobules
  • Each lung is enclosed by membranes called pleura

12
The alveoli
9.3 The lower respiratory tract
  • gt 300 million in the lungs that greatly increase
    surface area
  • Alveoli are enveloped by blood capillaries
  • The alveoli and capillaries are one layer of
    epithelium to allow exchange of gases
  • Alveoli are lined with surfactant that act as a
    film to keep alveoli open
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome affects premature
    infacts born without surfactant

13
Two phases of breathing/ventilation
9.4 Mechanism of breathing
  • 1. Inspiration an active process of
    inhalation that brings air into the lungs
  • 2. Expiration usually a passive process of
    exhalation that expels air from the lungs

14
Inspiration
9.4 Mechanism of breathing
  • The diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract
  • The diaphragm flattens and the rib cage moves
    upward and outward
  • Volume of the thoracic cavity and lungs increase
  • The air pressure within the lungs decrease
  • Air flows into the lungs

15
Expiration
9.4 Mechanism of breathing
  • The diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax
  • The diaphragm moves upward and becomes dome-shape
  • The rib cage moves downward and inward
  • Volume of the thoracic cavity and lungs decrease
  • The air pressure within the lungs increases
  • Air flows out of the lungs

16
How is breathing controlled by the nervous system?
9.5 Control of ventilation
  • Nervous control
  • Respiratory control center in the brain (medulla
    oblongata) sends out nerve impulses to contract
    muscle for inspiration
  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is thought to
    occur when this center stops sending out nerve
    signals

17
Upper respiratory tract infections
9.7 Respiration and health
  • Sinusitis blockage of sinuses
  • Otitis media infection of the middle ear
  • Tonsillitis inflammation of the tonsils
  • Laryngitis infection of the larynx that leads
    to loss of voice

18
Lower respiratory tract disorders
9.7 Respiration and health
  • Pneumonia infection of the lungs with thick,
    fluid build up
  • Tuberculosis bacterial infection that leads to
    tubercles (capsules)
  • Pulmonary fibrosis lungs lose elasticity
    because fibrous connective tissue builds up in
    the lungs usually because of inhaled particles
  • Emphysema chronic, incurable disorder in which
    alveoli are damaged and thus the surface area for
    gas exchange is reduced usually due to smoking
  • Asthma bronchial tree becomes irritated causing
    breathlessness, wheezing, and coughing
  • Lung cancer uncontrolled cell division in the
    lungs that is often caused by smoking and can
    lead to death

19
TB
  • Pulmonary tuberculosisbacterial infection of the
    lungs
  • Bacteria invade lungs, and cells form a capsule
    called a tubercle
  • The body may destroy the tubercle or the bacteria
    may be released into lung tissue
  • PPD Skin test that detects TB in a patient
  • http//www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/faqs/qa.htm

20
Respiratory disorders
  • Acute bronchitis
  • Infection of primary and secondary bronchi
  • Cough becomes deep that expectorates mucus and
    perhaps pus
  • Bacterial infection
  • May be preceded by viral URI

21
Health focus Things you should know about
tobacco and health
9.7 Respiration and health
  • All forms of tobacco can cause damage
  • Smoking increases a persons chance of lung,
    mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney,
    pancreas, stomach, and cervical cancer
  • The 5-year survival rate for people with lung
    cancer is only 13
  • Smoking also increases the chance of chronic
    bronchitis emphysema, heart disease, stillbirths,
    and harm to an unborn child
  • Passive smoke can increase a nonsmokers chance
    of pneumonia, bronchitis, and lung cancer
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