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Smoking Tobacco

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Chronic Bronchitis. Frequently coexist, thus physicians prefer the term COPD ... Chronic Bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis is an inflammation and eventual ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Smoking Tobacco


1
Smoking Tobacco
  • Chapter 13

2
History of Tobacco
  • Tobacco - Nicotiana Tabacum and Nicotiana Rustica
  • Smoking practiced among the early Mayas, probably
    in the district of Tabasco, Mexico, as part of
    their religious ceremonies 86-161 AD
  • Europeans first exposure from Columbus 1492
  • 2Spread throughout Europe during the 1500-1600s
  • By Elizabethan times addictive potential was
    apparent
  • 1633 Turkish Sultan mandated death to smokers
  • Late 1800s cigarette smoking became popular
  • Link to cancer established during 1960s

3
Tobacco Drug Administration
  • The active psychotropic drug in tobacco is
    nicotine
  • Nicotine is an acetylcholine agonist
  • Nicotine in tobacco can be administered into the
    blood stream via, eating, snorting, contact
    w/mucous membranes and SMOKING
  • Smoking is the most common route of
    administration
  • Pipes
  • Cigars
  • Cigarettes

4
Smoking and the Respiratory System
5
The Respiratory System
  • Air flows in through the
  • nasal passages
  • pharynx
  • larynx
  • trachea
  • bronchi and bronchioles
  • Smoke is drawn through the mouth and into the
    respiratory system

6
The Respiratory System
  • Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract to
    increase volume of chest.
  • Resulting loss in pressure causes air to flow in

7
The Respiratory System
  • Gas exchange occurs in the alveoli
  • Alveolus A tiny, thin-walled, capillary-rich sac
    in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and
    carbon dioxide takes place. In this sense, also
    called air sac.

8
The Respiratory System - Gas Exchange
  • Bubbles with thin skin
  • Diffusion pressure leads carbon dioxide to move
    from the blood and oxygen into the blood.

9
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10
Smoking and Disease
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Cancer
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  • A Host of Other Fun Stuff

11
Cardiovascular Disease
  • Primary cause of smoking related deaths
  • Smoking leads to a relative risk of 2.0 for CVD
  • Speeds plaque formation (Atherosclerosis)
  • Nicotine increase cardiovascular strain

12
Cancer
  • Lung, lip, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, pancreas,
    esophagus, pancreas, larynx, trachea, bladder and
    kidney
  • 9.0 relative risk for smoking and cancer
  • Primary contributor to lung cancer deaths
  • Cigarettes contain at least 43 distinct
    cancer-causing chemicals.

13
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14
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  • COPD
  • Emphysema
  • Chronic Bronchitis
  • Frequently coexist, thus physicians prefer the
    term COPD
  • Fourth leading cause of death in the U.S.

15
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  • Approx. 80 to 90 of COPD cases are caused by
    smoking
  • Relative risk 10.0

16
Chronic Bronchitis
  • Chronic bronchitis is an inflammation and
    eventual scarring of the lining of the bronchial
    tubes.
  • An estimated 14 million people suffer from
    chronic bronchitis, the seventh leading chronic
    condition in America.

17
Chronic Bronchitis
  • Symptoms of chronic bronchitis include
  • chronic cough, increased mucus
  • frequent clearing of the throat
  • shortness of breath.

18
Emphysema
  • Emphysema causes irreversible lung damage. The
    walls between the air sacs within the lungs lose
    their ability to stretch and recoil. They become
    weakened and break.
  • Elasticity of the lung tissue is lost, causing
    air to be trapped in the air sacs and impairing
    the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

19
Emphysema
  • Symptoms of emphysema include cough, shortness of
    breath and a limited exercise tolerance.
  • Diagnosis is made by pulmonary function tests,
    along with the patient's history, examination and
    other tests.
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