AIACC Asia Regional Workshop Session C2: Water Resources, Watersheds, Coasts (Bangkok, 26.3.03) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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AIACC Asia Regional Workshop Session C2: Water Resources, Watersheds, Coasts (Bangkok, 26.3.03)

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Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity in the Archipelagoes of the South Pacific. Patrick D. Nunn ... Overview of the South Pacific archipelagoes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AIACC Asia Regional Workshop Session C2: Water Resources, Watersheds, Coasts (Bangkok, 26.3.03)


1
AIACC Asia Regional WorkshopSession C2 Water
Resources, Watersheds, Coasts (Bangkok, 26.3.03)
  • Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity in the
    Archipelagoes of the South Pacific
  • Patrick D. Nunn
  • The University of the South Pacific

2
Organisation of this Talk
  • Overview of the South Pacific archipelagoes
  • Water resources vulnerability and adaptive
    capacity
  • Watersheds - vulnerability and adaptive capacity
  • Coasts - vulnerability and adaptive capacity
  • Future work/prospects

3
Part 1Overview of the South Pacific
archipelagoes
4
Overview of South Pacific island vulnerability
  • Comparatively large ratios of coast length to
    land area.
  • Comparatively remote and difficult of access.
  • Comparatively high dependence of people on
    locally available food sources.

5
Overview of South Pacific island adaptive capacity
  • Large area of highly vulnerable coastal lowland.
  • Comparative smallness of land areas limits
    within-island relocation.
  • Most practical environmental decision-making is
    at community level.
  • Lifestyle options limited.

6
Part 2Water resources vulnerability and
adaptive capacity
7
Pollution
Vulnerability Increasing demands (agricultural,
urban, waste, industrial, marine)
8
Pollution
Adaptive capacity More effective environmental
legislation, improved public awareness
9
Shortage
  • Vulnerability
  • Natural droughts
  • Infrastructural maintenance

10
Shortage
  • Adaptive capacity
  • Improved public awareness
  • Improved forecasting
  • Improved management

11
Part 3Watersheds vulnerability and adaptive
capacity
12
Natural landscape change
Vulnerability Natural processes, exacerbated by
changes in climate and climate extremes
13
Natural landscape change
Adaptive capacity Many settlements can move
fairly easily, hard engineering solutions often
prohibitively costly.
14
Human-induced land degradation
Vulnerability inland populations increasing and
likely to increase further as coastal populations
are displaced. Many inland landscapes degraded
from millennia of agricultural use and burning.
15
Human-induced land degradation
Adaptive capacity low in many island countries
because island land areas are small. Crop
strains more suited to upland than lowland areas,
and more tolerant of warmer wetter conditions
need to be developed.
16
Part 4Coasts vulnerability and adaptive
capacity
17
Melanesia, 1860s?
Shoreline protection
18
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19
Coasts - vulnerability
  • Low-lying
  • Unconsolidated
  • Permeable
  • Subject to storms
  • Locations of most settlements, most
    infrastructure, most revenue-generating
    enterprises (including tourism)

20
Consequence of 20th-century sea-level rise
inundation and salinisation of coastal lowlands.
21
Bruun Rule
Consequence of 20th-century sea-level rise
shoreline erosion along sandy coastlines.
22
On-site adaptation where possible
Out-migration where on-site adaptation impossible
23
Coastal vulnerability the seawall mindset
  • Most government and community-level decision
    makers believe in remedying short-term problems
    rather than addressing the likely long-term
    effects.

24
Coastal vulnerability the seawall mindset
  • Most long-term solutions are being driven by NGOs
    although governments commonly pay lip-service to
    such sustainable solutions.

25
Coasts adaptive capacity
Accommodation
26
Coasts adaptive capacity
Protection
27
Coasts adaptive capacity
Retreat inland
28
Coasts adaptive capacity
Retreat upslope
29
Part 5Future work/prospects
30
Sea-Level Rise, AD 1800-2100
31
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32
(No Transcript)
33
Sea-level rise
  • Probable sea-level rise over the next 100 years
    will see some parts of the Pacific disappear,
    many others significantly reduced in habitable
    area.
  • The geography of the Indo-Pacific region will
    change.

34
In atoll nations, the effects of future sea-level
rise are certain to produce environmental
refugees.
35
Coral-reef death
  • Increased ocean-surface temperatures over the
    next 100 years will kill many of the worlds
    coral reefs.

36
Aims of AIACC Project (S)IS09
  • Improve models for vulnerability and adaptation
    assessment in the Pacific Islands region.
  • Develop the capacity of Pacific Island nations to
    plan more effectively for future climate change.
  • Develop and trial methods of assessment which are
    transferable to other island regions.

37
Thank you
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