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10th American History

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Andrew Jackson was quoted as saying that this was a way of protecting them and ... The period of forcible removal started when Andrew Jackson became Presidentin 1829. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 10th American History


1
10th American History
  • Day 3 - Daily Lesson

2
Unit I An Industrial Nation Chapter 5 Section 1
the American West Native Americans
  • Before Discovery
  • Explorers Landing
  • Revolutionary War
  • Westward Movement
  • Indian Wars and Containment
  • Post Indian Wars
  • Modern Times

3
Before Discovery

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Treatment of Native Americans- Early Conflicts-
Disease
  • What gave the Spaniards a decisive advantage this
    time was smallpox. The resulting epidemic
    proceeded to kill nearly half the Aztecs.
  • Populous Indian societies in the Mississippi
    Valle, these societies too would disappear. The
    conquistadores' germs, spreading in advance, did
    everything.
  • Archeologists feel the initial number of Natives
    at around 20 million when Columbus came. In the
    century or two following Columbus's arrival in
    the New World, the Indian population is estimated
    to have declined by about 95 percent.
  • The main killers were European germs, to which
    the Indians had never been exposed and against
    which they therefore had neither immunologic nor
    genetic resistance. Smallpox, measles, influenza,
    and typhus competed for top rank among the
    killers. As if those were not enough, pertussis,
    plague, tuberculosis, diphtheria, mumps, malaria,
    and yellow fever came close behind.

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Treatment of Native Americans- Early Conflicts
  • King Philip's War, 167576, the most devastating
    war between the colonists and the Native
    Americans in New England. Resulted in the
    virtual extermination of tribal Native American
    life in S New England and the disappearance of
    the fur trade.
  • The French and Indian Wars 1748-1760 The
    American conflict, Indians fought on both sides.

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10
Treatment of Native Americans- Early Policies
  • Indian Removal Act- 1830
  • On May 26, 1830, the Indian Removal Act of 1830
    was passed by the Twenty-First Congress of the
    United states of America. After four months of
    strong debate, Andrew Jackson signed the bill
    into law. Land greed was a big reason for the
    federal government's position on Indian removal.
    This desire for Indian lands was also abetted by
    the Indian hating mentallity that was peculiar to
    some American frontiersman.
  • To ensure peace the government forced these five
    tribes called the Five Civilized Tribes to move
    out of their lands that they had lived on for
    generations and to move to land given to them in
    parts of Oklahoma. Andrew Jackson was quoted as
    saying that this was a way of protecting them and
    allowing them time to adjust to the white
    culture. This land in Oklahoma was thinly settled
    and was thought to have little value. Within 10
    years of the Indian Removal Act, more than 70,000
    Indians had moved across the Mississippi. Many
    Indians died on this journey.

11
Treatment of Native Americans- Early Policies
  • Trail Tears- "Nunna daul Tsuny." That translates
    into English as "trail where they cried."
  • The term "Trails of Tears" was given to the
    period of ten years in which over 70,000 Indians
    had to give up their homes and move to certain
    areas assigned to tribes in Oklahoma. The tribes
    were given a right to all of Oklahoma except the
    Panhandle. The government promised this land to
    them "as long as grass shall grow and rivers
    run." Unfortunately, the land that they were
    given only lasted till about 1906 and then they
    were forced to move to other reservations.
    Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole
  • The Trails of Tears were several trails that the
    Five civilized Tribes traveled on their way to
    their new lands. Many Indians died because of
    famine or disease. Sometimes a person would die
    because of the harsh living conditions. The
    tribes had to walk all day long and get very
    little rest. All this was in order to free more
    land for white settlers. The period of forcible
    removal started when Andrew Jackson became
    Presidentin 1829. At that time there was reported
    to be sightings of gold in the Cherokee territory
    in Georgia which caused prospectors to rush in,
    tearing down fences and destroying crops.
  • All of the treaties signed by the Indians as the
    agreed to the terms of the removal contained
    guarantees that the Indians, territory should be
    perpetual and that no government other than their
    own should be erected over them without their
    consent.

12
Trail of Tears 228
13
Treatment of Native Americans- Early Policies
  • Seminole Wars
  • The Seminole Indians are a tribe the used to
    reside in Florida in the early 1800's. The
    Seminole originally belonged to the Creek tribe.
    They became known as Seminoles because the name
    means runaways.
  • The United acquired Florida in 1819, and began
    urging them to sell their land to the government
    and to move to the Indian Territory along with
    the other southeasten tribes.
  • In 1832, some of the Seminole leaders signed a
    treaty and promised to relocate. The Seminole
    tribe split at this time and fought to keep their
    lands. They fled into the Florida swamps.
  • They started the Second Seminole war (1835). This
    was fought over the remaining land that the
    Seminole had fled to. It lasted for seven years.
    1,500 American men died and the cost to the
    United States was 20 million. The Seminole were
    led by Osceola until he was tricked by General
    Thomas Jessup. Osceola was seized and imprisoned
    by Jessup during peace talks under a flag of
    truce. Osceola died in 1838 when he still in
    prison. After the war, many Seminoles moved west
    but still a small group stayed hidden in the
    Florida swamps.

14
The Price of Freedom
  • Western Indian Wars

15
Treatment of Native Americans- 1820-1850
  • Early policy- Treaties were being made with
    Indians- just like dealing with a foreign nation.
  • 1820-1850 - Push the Eastern Indians west
    across the Mississippi River. Let Indians live on
    the Great American Desert. One Big
    Reservation. Land not good enough for whites
    would be left to the Indian.

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Treatment of Native Americans- 1867-1886
  • 1867-1886 - 20 years of war and containment
  • Indians would be gathered in large reservations
    that would belong to them. Peacefully?
  • Govt reservation agents- some good, some inept,
    some corrupt.
  • Government promised to supply nations with food,
    but supplies were slow coming and caused
    starvation and rebellion.
  • Santee went on warpath-1862-no payments or even
    credit to buy food.
  • 1865-25,000 soldiers armed against Indians.
  • 1867-1868 Peace commission - two large meeting
    treaties. 100s of treaties were made and
    broken by the government.
  • 1871- Government stops dealing with the Indians
    and Independent nations. No more treaties to be
    made, Indians are wards of the state, to be dealt
    with by acts of Congress. Gen. Sherman went
    about the task of either killing Indians or
    making them beg for mercy.

18
Treatment of Native Americans- 1867-1886
  • Twenty years of new civil war- Indians vs.
    Whites.
  • 1864- Colonel Chivington slaughters 450 Cheyenne
  • Cap. Fetterman and 92 troopers are ambushed and
    killed by Crazy Horse and Red Cloud Sioux.
  • 1874- Black Hills, gold fever.
  • 1876- Sioux, Crazy horse, Sitting Bull- Custers
    Last Stand.
  • Chief Joseph tries to flee to Canada.
  • Buffalo soldiers (blacks) were used on the
    plains against the Indians.

19
Chief Joseph and Nez Pierce 433
20
Buffalo- Indians v. White man
  • Trappers and traders, people who made their
    living selling meat and hides. By the 1870s,
    they were shipping hundreds of thousands of
    buffalo hides eastward each year more than 1.5
    million were packed aboard trains and wagons in
    the winter of 1872-73 alone.
  • Train companies offered tourists the chance to
    shoot buffalo from the windows of their coaches,
    pausing only when they ran out of ammunition or
    the gun's barrel became too hot.
  • There were even buffalo killing contests. In one,
    a Kansan set a record by killing 120 bison in
    just 40 minutes. "Buffalo" Bill Cody, hired to
    slaughter the animals, killed more than 4,000
    buffalo in just two years
  • military commanders were ordering their troops to
    kill buffalo -- not for food, but to deny Native
    Americans their source of food
  • 1 Indian Village hunt-deaths of dozens or
    hundreds of animals (30, 60, 100, and even 600,
    800, and 1000 were reported killed) produced
    fantastic quantities of meat
  • 24 to 28 Plains tribes had figured out how to use
    the buffalo in 52 different ways for food,
    supplies, war and hunting implements, things like
    that.

21
Slaughter of the Buffalo and the End of the Indian
  • Male Buffalo- 700-800 pounds and yielded 225-400
    pounds of meat
  • Estimates once between 30 to 75 million buffalo
    in North America, but the great herds were
    reduced to less than 300 buffalo by 1900
  • By 1880, the slaughter was almost over.
  • In 1800, the best estimates show between 30
    million and 40 million bison in the Great Plains.
    By 1902, there were approximately 750 in the
    entire U.S.

22
Buffalo
23
The Ghost Dance- Hope to the People
  • The prophet who began the movement of the Ghost
    Dance was Wovoka, a member of the Paiute Tribe.
    He was descended of a family of prophets and
    Shamans. Known as a medicine man, it was said
    that during an eclipse of the sun and while
    suffering from a high fever, he had a vision
    which inspired the development of the movement
    known as the Ghost Dance. The vision embodied the
    beliefs that inspired the followers of the
    movement including that the white man would
    disappear from the Earth after a natural
    catastrophe and that the Indian dead would return
    bringing with them the old way of life that would
    then last forever.
  • To bring these and the other beliefs into effect,
    the Indians had to practice the customs of the
    Ghost Dance movement and to renounce alcohol and
    farming and end mourning, since the resurrection
    would be coming soon. The most important practice
    to ensure the effectiveness of the movement was
    the dance itself.
  • The dance was unlike other Indian dances with
    fast steps and loud drumming. The Ghost Dance
    consisted of slow shuffling movements following
    the course of the sun. It would be performed for
    four or five days and was accompanied by singing
    and chanting, but no drumming or other musical
    instruments. In addition, both men and women
    participated in the dance, unlike others in which
    men were the main dancers, singers and musicians.

24
Treatment of Native Americans- 1887-1934
1889- 1,000 out of the millions of Buffalo were
left. With food, clothing, fuel, and shelter
gone the Indians gave up. Ghost Dance created
to give the people hope. Wounded Knee, South
Dakota- Dec. 29, 1890 (200 Indian dead). Helen
Hunt Jacksons books awakened the whites to the
plight of the Indian. Dawes Act
1887-Americanize the Indian. Divide up
reservation land into 160 acre farms. 25 years
later Indians get title. Break up the tribes,
destroy Indian culture. 1887-1934 Indians lost
1/2 of their lands. Indian Citizenship Act June
2, 1924 granted citizenship to all Native
Americans born in the United States. 1934-
Indian New Deal- rebuild tribes and culture and
population grew.
25
Wounded Knee
26
Wounded Knee
  • Chief Big Foot and the Minniconjou Sioux
  • The Hotchkiss gun usually refers to the 1.65 inch
    light mountain gun there was also a 3-inch
    Hotchkiss gun. They were intended to be mounted
    on a light carriage or packed on mules to
    accompany a troop of cavalry or an army traveling
    in rough country. Breech loading and handled by
    two men.
  • Hotchkiss was employed against the Nez Percés in
    1877. Over the next twenty years the U.S would
    purchase fifty more. They were used in Cuba for
    the attack on San Juan Hill and in the
    Philippine-American War. It was also used at the
    Wounded Knee Massacre.
  • It fired two types of shells- one would explode
    on impact and send out shrapnel. The other was a
    canister which would rip open at the muzzle
    spraying the enemy with a fan shaped pattern of
    hardened lead ½ inch balls. This projectile was
    used at close range.

27
Black Elk- on Wounded Knee
  • I do not know then how much was ended. When I
    look back now from this high hill of my old age,
    I can still see the butchered women and children
    lying heaped and scattered all along the crooked
    gulch as plain as when I saw them with eyes still
    young. And I can see that something else died
    there in the bloody mud, and was buried in the
    blizzard. A peoples dream died there. It was a
    beautiful dream… the nations hoop is broken and
    scattered. There is no center any longer, and
    the sacred tree is dead.
  • Read a section of the book- Bury My Heart at
    Wounded Knee

28
Code Talkers
29
The American West
  • The Main Idea
  • As Native Americans gradually lost their battle
    for their lands in the West, settlers brought in
    new enterprisesmining, ranching, and farming.
  • Reading Focus
  • How did changing government policies lead to
    conflicts with Native Americans in the West?
  • How did mining and ranching influence the
    development of the West?
  • What opportunities and challenges did farmers
    face on the Great Plains?

30
Conflicts with Native Americans
  • By the 1890s, Native American cultures were
    dying, and many turned to a prophet, Wavoka, who
    said that through a Ghost Dance a messiah would
    save them.
  • White settlers streamed into the lands of the
    Sioux, Cheyenne, Blackfoot, Kiowa, and Comanche,
    who were known as the Plains Indians.
  • The Plains Indians did not settle in towns and
    did not think land should be bought or sold,
    while white settlers thought it should be divided
    up into claims.
  • In the mid-1800s, the U.S. governments Indian
    policy changed they seized Native American their
    lands and created reservations for them to live
    in.
  • Being confined to these reservations threatened
    the buffalo-centered Native Americans way of
    life. The buffalo were being driven to extinction
    by white settlers.
  • Tensions between Plains Indians and settlers led
    to a long period of violence known as the Indian
    Wars.

31
Events of the Indian Wars
32
Resistance Fades into Reservation Life
  • In 1877, while the Nez Percé were relocated to a
    smaller reservation in Idaho, some killed white
    settlers on the way, they fled with their leader,
    Chief Joseph, to Canada where they were captured.
  • In the Southwest, the Apache were moved to a
    reservation in Arizona, but their leader,
    Geronimo, fled the reservation and led raids on
    the Arizona-Mexico border for years, until they
    were captured in 1886.
  • In creating the reservations, the U.S. wanted to
    Americanize the Native Americans, or make them
    abandon their traditional culture in favor of
    white American culture.
  • The Bureau of Indian Affairs managed
    reservations, set up public schools often far
    from childrens homes, and forced them to speak
    English.
  • The Dawes Act (1887) broke up some reservations
    and divided the land for people, but the best
    land was usually sold to white settlers.

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