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COPD Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease

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A set of lung diseases that limit air flow and is not fully ... American Lung ... American Lung Association. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Fact ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: COPD Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease


1
COPDChronic Obstructive Lung Disease
  • Developed by
  • Dana Hughes, RN, PhD
  • Miners Hospital, University of Utah
  • Libbey M. Chuy, MPH
  • Asthma Program, Utah Department of Health

2
Overview
  • What is COPD?
  • How do I know if I have COPD?
  • How common is it?
  • General population
  • Mining population
  • What increases my risk of developing COPD?
  • How can I prevent getting COPD?
  • How is COPD treated?

3
What is COPD?
  • A set of lung diseases that limit air flow and is
    not fully reversible.
  • COPD patients report they are hungry for air
  • Usually progressive and is associated with
    inflammation of the lungs as they respond to
    noxious particles or gases
  • Potentially preventable with proper precautions
    and avoidance of precipitating factors
  • Symptomatic treatment is available

4
Two Major Causes of COPD
  • Chronic Bronchitis is characterized by
  • Chronic inflammation and excess mucus production
  • Presence of chronic productive cough
  • Emphysema is characterized by
  • Damage to the small, sac-like units of the lung
    that deliver oxygen into the lung and remove the
    carbon dioxide
  • Chronic cough
  • Source Braman, S. Update on the ATS Guidelines
    for COPD. Medscape Pulmonary Medicine.
    20059(1)1.

5
Primary Symptoms
  • Chronic Bronchitis
  • Chronic cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Increased mucus
  • Frequent clearing of throat
  • Emphysema
  • Chronic cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Limited activity level

6
Normal versus Diseased Bronchi
7
Emphysema
8
How common is COPD?
  • About 13.9 of the U.S. adult population (25
    years) have been diagnosed with COPD
  • An estimated 15-19 of COPD cases are
    work-related
  • 24 million other adults have evidence of troubled
    breathing, indicating COPD is under diagnosed by
    up to 60
  • Braman, S. Update on the ATS Guidelines for
    COPD. Medscape Pulmonary Medicine. 20059(1)1.
  • CDC programs in Brief Workplace Health and
    Safety-Work-related Lung Diseases.
    www.cdc.gov/programs/workpl18.htm
  • COPD Fact Sheet. Oct 2003. www/lungusa.org

9
COPD-A Major Cause of Hospitalization
Death
  • COPD was the
  • Leading cause of hospitalizations in the U.S. in
    2000
  • Fourth leading cause of death

10
COPD in the Mining Industry
  • Studies show
  • An increased number of cases of chronic
    bronchitis in coal gold miners
  • Long-term exposures to low levels of silica may
    lead to the development of chronic bronchitis
    emphysema
  • Chronic exposure to coal dust, particularly high
    levels, may lead to severe respiratory impairment
    (emphysema)
  • Hnizdo Vallyathan Chronic obstructive
    pulmonary disease due to occupational exposure to
    silica dust a review of epidemiological and
    pathological evidence. Occup Environ Med
    200360237-243.

11
COPD Death Rates in Mining Industry
1999
  • Coal mining was at the top of a list of
    industries with a significantly elevated death
    rate from COPD
  • Non-metal and metal mines were also in the top 5
    industries for elevated COPD death rate
  • Top 5 occupations for elevated COPD death rate
    included
  • Helpers, mechanics and repairers
  • Mining machine operators

12
What can cause COPD?
  • Smoking is the primary risk factor
  • Long-term smoking is responsible for 80-90 of
    cases
  • Smoker, compared to non-smoker, is 10 times more
    likely to die of COPD
  • Prolonged exposures to harmful particles and
    gases from
  • Second-hand smoke,
  • Industrial smoke,
  • Chemical gases, vapors, mists fumes
  • Dusts from grains, minerals other materials

13
Other Risk Factors for COPD
  • History of childhood respiratory infections
  • Genetic makeup
  • Increasing age

14
Ways to prevent or slow the progression of
COPD
  • Stop smoking, if you smoke, to prevent further
    damage to your body
  • Smoking cessation is critical for all severities
    of COPD
  • Avoid or protect yourself from exposures to
  • Second-hand smoke
  • and
  • Other substances such as chemical vapors, fumes,
    mists, dusts, and diesel exhaust fumes that
    irritate your lungs

15
How is COPD Treated?
  • COPD can be managed, but not cured
  • Treatment is different for each individual and is
    based on severity of the symptoms
  • Early diagnosis and treatment can
  • Slow progress of the disease
  • Relieve symptoms
  • Improve an individuals ability to stay active
  • Prevent and treat complications
  • Improve quality of life

16
When should you see your doctor?
  • If smoker, see doctor for baseline evaluation of
    your lungs
  • When first experiencing shortness of breath or
    having other lung symptoms
  • When your symptoms get worse
  • Seek emergency medical treatment if
  • Breathing suddenly becomes more difficult
  • If diagnosed with chronic bronchitis, emphysema
    or COPD, see doctor 1-2 times yearly to review
    your treatment plan

17
What medications are used to treat symptoms?
  • Bronchodilators
  • Relaxes muscles around airways
  • Steroids
  • Reduces inflammation
  • Oxygen therapy
  • Helps with shortness of breath

18
What medications are used to prevent
complications?
  • Annual flu vaccine
  • Reduces risk of flu and its complications
  • Pneumonia vaccine
  • Reduces risk of common cause of pneumonia

19
Resources References
  • American Lung Association. Breathing hazards at
    work, Workplace exposures can generate breathing
    hazards, accessed 11/02/06
  • American Lung Association. Chronic obstructive
    pulmonary disease (COPD) Fact Sheet, 2003
  • www.lungusa.org
  • Centers for Disease Control, DHHS, CDC Programs
    in Brief-Workplace Health and Safety-Work-Related
    Lung Disease, 2005
  • www.cdc.gov/programs/workpl18.htm
  • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH.
    Global strategy for the diagnosis, management,
    and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary
    disease Executive Summary, Updated 2003
  • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH.
    COPD-Key points and How is COPD treated?
    January, 2006 http//www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health
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