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Lt Col James B. Rose

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8 Total AMC Oceanic Incidents (25%) (2005) Numerous other ' ... AMC Develop Oceanic Standard Operating Procedure (SOP), Provide Required Materials to Pilots ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lt Col James B. Rose


1
Oceanic Procedures
Lt Col James B. Rose AFFSA/A3OT DSN
884-6603 https//wwwmil.tinker.af.mil/AFFSA
2
Reason for Emphasis
  • 1200 Oceanic Flights/day
  • 33 GNEs/year (2006) (Caught in the Act)
  • How Many More Corrected w/out Knowledge
  • 8 Total AMC Oceanic Incidents (25) (2005)
  • Numerous other ATC saves
  • DoD responsible for 25 of GNEs w/ only 4 of
    oceanic flights (North Atlantic)
  • 90 of GNEs are pilot error

3
Crews Beware!
  • Do not take modern technology for granted!
  • Crews should be especially vigilant during
    periods of low workload, guard against
    complacency and over-confidence, and adhere
    rigidly to MAJCOM approved standard operating
    procedures.

4
Crews Beware!
  • Do not take modern technology for granted!
  • Crews should be especially vigilant during
    periods of low workload, guard against
    complacency and over-confidence, and adhere
    rigidly to MAJCOM approved standard operating
    procedures.

5
Where Are We Now!
  • FAA Safety Division Oceanic Conference
  • FAA Concerned About Military Oceanic Procedural
    Knowledge
  • AF/HQ AFFSA Secondary IRC Special Interest Item
    (Briefing Linked)
  • To be covered at the discretion of IRC Inst
  • AMC FCIF Apr 07 All AMC Aircrews Need to
    Familiarize Themselves with the MNPS Manualthe
    Authoritative Guide for Ops

6
What is Next!
  • AFFSA
  • Oceanic Chapter to AFMAN 11-217
  • Update FLIP to Correct Known Errors
  • IRC Test Bank Oceanic Questions
  • Market Information to Pilot Force
  • FAA/AF
  • Expedite GNE Feedback Loop
  • AMC Develop Oceanic Standard Operating
    Procedure (SOP), Provide Required Materials to
    Pilots

7
Flight Information Regions
  • Add World Picture

8
RVSM Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums
  • Separation 1000 Vertical
  • Equipment
  • Two Primary Altimetry Systems (two ADCs)
  • One Automatic Altitude-Keeping Device
  • One Altitude-Alerting Device
  • Notify ATC If
  • Equipment Failure Unable RVSM Equip
  • Loss of Redundancy of Altimetry Systems
  • Turbulence Prevents Flt Level Maintenance
  • Contingency

9
NAT MNPS Airspace
  • Minimum Navigation Performance Specification
  • Goal All Flights Meet Highest Std of Horizontal
    Vertical Navigation Performance Accuracy
  • Authorization Pilot MNPS Approval Training
  • State of Registry (aircraft)
  • State of Operator (pilot)
  • Separation 60NM Lateral Separation (current)
  • Equipment RVSM Equipment High Stds of
    Horizontal Performance (specified in guidance)


10
Where is NAT MNPS Airspace?
Busiest Oceanic Airspace World
FL 285 to FL 420 (Cruising Levels FL 290 to FL 410
Aircraft Separation Assured Thru Technology and
Operator Discipline Published, Flexible
Organized Tracks
11
Organized Track System50 of NAT Traffic
  • NOTA Northern Oceanic Transition Area (NOTA)
  • NATs North Atlantic Tracks (Track Message
    22z/14z)
  • Eastbound Evening 0100 to 0800 UTC at 30W
  • Westbound Morning 1130 to 1900 UTC at 30W
  • NARs North American Routes (Can US)
  • Interface between Oceanic and Domestic
  • NERS N. Atlantic European Routing Scheme
  • WATRS West Atlantic Route System
  • US/CAN to Bermuda and Caribbean
  • SOTA Shannon Oceanic Transition Area (SOTA)
  • BOTA Brest Oceanic Transition Area (BOTA)
  • Callsign Brest Control
  • PACOTS Pacific Organized Track System (NOTAM
    Notification)
  • NOPACS Eastbound and Westbound Peak Flow Times
    (Published between Alaska Japan)

Script 52_1
12
NATNight-Time Eastbound
13
NATDay-Time Westbound
14
NATOther Routes
  • Blue Spruce
  • 1 LRN OK (MNPS Cert)
  • No HF OK

15
(No Transcript)
16
Pacific Track Message
17
NAT Track Message
  • Must Carry Onboard
  • (Even on Random Rt)

Click here to see North Atlantic Advisory
published by ATCSCC
Check Notams
Check FLs, Date, Times
Letter Identifier
NARs Expect Routing
North American Routes
REMARKS 1.TRACK MESSAGE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER IS
124 AND OPERATORS ARE REMINDED TO INCLUDE THE TMI
NUMBER AS PART OF THE OCEANIC CLEARANCE READ
BACK.
Oceanic Entry/Exit Points
18
Notams
Notices to Airmen
AMC Flight Manager Notes
  • AMC fliers, is your IFM package complete w/
    notams?
  • IFM package has disclaimer on front page
  • Why Center Notamswhat might I miss?
  • Example Changes to Oceanic entry points
  • What about Notices to AirmenI dont need that
    for oceanic flight do I?

19
SLOPStrategic Lateral Offset Procedure
  • Hypothesis Increased Instrument Accuracy
    Increases Potential for Mid-Air Collision
  • You May Use this Procedure (Shall?)
  • Currently 10 Usage Rate!
  • Three Aircraft Positions Allowed
  • 1 mile right, 2 miles right
  • 2 mile max (do not offset left)
  • Must Have Automatic Offset Capability
  • Return to Centerline On Oceanic Exit Point

20
Communication
  • VHF (Reg Supp (east), Track Msg (west)
  • HF Frequency
  • HF Radio Check Before Entering Airspace
  • Six Digit Short Code (MARSAT) or Regular
    Telephone Number (Chart)
  • Monitor 121.5 and 123.45 (worldwide)
  • Speaking to a Radio Operator

21
Oceanic Clearance
Oceanic Clearance Frequencies on NAT Track
Message Remarks Section (Westbound)/Published in
Supplements (Eastbound)
  • VHF
  • HF
  • Request Through Domestic Center
  • Data Link
  • Do Not Hold if Oceanic Clearance is not Obtained
    (Shanwick)

REMARKS 1.TRACK MESSAGE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER IS
124 AND OPERATORS ARE REMINDED TO INCLUDE THE TMI
NUMBER AS PART OF THE OCEANIC CLEARANCE READ
BACK. 2.CLEARANCE DELIVERY FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENTS
FOR AIRCRAFT OPERATING FROM KENKI TO BOBTU
INCLUSIVE KENKI TO VIMLA 132.02 MIBNO TO
LAKES/KENRI 134.2 MOATT TO SCROD 128.7 OYSTR TO
DOTTY 135.45 CYMON TO YYT 135.05 COLOR TO BANCS
128.45 RAFIN TO BOBTU 119.42 3.GANDER OCEANIC
CLEARANCE DELIVERY CREW PROCEDURES AS PER AIC
29/06 OF THE CANADIAN AIP. 4.OCEANIC PROCEDURES
IN THE EVENT OF A GANDER ACC EVACUATION ARE
PUBLISHED IN AIP CANADA ICAO PART 2 ENR 1.8.
5.OPERATORS ARE REQUIRED TO REFER TO NOTAM
A7961/06 FOR SPECIFIC PROCEDURES IN NAT MNPS
AIRSPACE.-
22
Oceanic Clearance
What are the Three Components of an Oceanic
Clearance?
  • Flight Level
  • Mach/Airspeed
  • Route

23
Oceanic Clearance
Be Prepared to Provide this information at
Oceanic Clearance Request
  • Call Sign
  • Entry Point/ETA
  • Mach Number/Flight Level
  • Max Flight Level
  • Any Route Change
  • 1st and 2nd Track Requests

24
Equipment Failures
  • Must Report These Equipment Failures to ATC
  • One or More Primary Altimetry Systems
  • Failure of all Automatic Alt-Control Systems
  • Navigation Doubt/Failure Require Notification
  • Two Independent LRNs Reqd
  • Consider location
  • Prior to oceanic entry or
  • Established on oceanic segment

25
In-Flight Contingencies
  • 163 times (2006), recently 2 Gulfstreams lost
    pressurization (2007)
  • Common reasons medical emergencies
  • Some Fuel Diverts improper flight planning
  • All possible contingencies cannot be covered (Get
    a revised clearance whenever possible)
  • Procedures Provided For
  • Inability to maintain assigned FL
  • Diversion across prevailing traffic flow
  • Loss of, significant reduction in required
    navigation capability

26
In-Flight Contingencies
  • Turn 90 degress left/right
  • Consider track system, sensitive airspace,
    terrain (?)
  • Consider traffic (SLOP acft below and to your
    right)
  • Consider location of divert field
  • Offset 15 NM and then climb or descend 500 ft
    (below FL410) (Worldwide Nov 2005)
  • Simulator trials show pilots are overshooting
    5-10 miles! Near continuous turn reqd. Where is
    the next track? 30,50,60 miles!
  • FAA Notam states turn may be more or less than 90
    degrees
  • Climb or Descend
  • Climb or Descend 1000 ft if Above FL410
  • Climb or Descend 500 ft When Below FL410
  • Climb 1000 or Descend 500 ft if at FL410 (NAT
    only)
  • Do Not Cross Flow of Traffic until Below FL285

Why?
Separation!
27
In-Flight Contingencies
  • Distress or urgency signal as appropriate
  • Distress Mayday, Mayday, Mayday
  • Urgency Pan, Pan, Pan
  • Turn on Lights, broadcast location/intentions
  • Best Position to Fly Relevant to Contingencies
  • 1 or 2 miles right (SLOP), consider going right
  • Above the Tracks? Align Yourself Parallel to
    Track
  • Question Are you prepared in the case of a rapid
    decompression to follow the correct procedures?
  • Recent examples suggest not

Pans Ops Doc 4444, ch 15
28
In-Flight Contingencies
An Engine Flames Out!
  • Broadcast 121.5/123.45
  • Contact ATC
  • Turn on Lights
  • Clear/TCAS
  • Turn 90 degrees left or right
  • Establish 15NM Offset
  • Program Offset in FMS
  • Determine Diversion Location
  • Aircraft Checklist(s)
  • Establish Driftdown
  • Determine Position Relative to Others

Are You Prepared?
29
Weather Deviations
  • Scenerio 1 Able to Communicate w/ ATC
  • If possible, obtain clearance prior, say Weather
    Deviation Required, Pan if necessary
  • Scenerio 2 Unable to Obtain Clearance
  • Deviate away from track system (if able)
  • Announce intentions on 121.5, and 123.45
  • Watch for conflicting traffic, turn on all ext
    lights
  • Up to 10NMs, stay at assigned level
  • Greater 10NMs (two variables 1. Mag hdg 2. L or
    R Track
  • (East -300L/300R)(West 300L/-300R)
  • N. Deviations Descend/S. Deviations Climb
  • Returning to track, regain flt level at 10NM

Pans Ops Doc 4444, ch 15
30
Re-clearance Tecnique
1 Reason for GNE
  • Both Pilots in the Seat
  • Both Pilots on Headset (verse speaker)
  • Both Pilots write Re-Clearance
  • PNF will Change Master Document
  • PNF Clearly Cross-out Old Waypoints
  • PNF Re-plots points on plotting chart
  • PNF Programs New Clearance in the FMS
  • PF independently Checks all PNF Actions
  • Waypoints, Distances, Mag Course
  • Re-compute Equal Time Point (if ETA changes by
    /-?)
  • New Domestic Clrn b4 Oceanic Exit Point

31
Re-clearance Procedure
Universal Tables of Tracks and Distances Tables
  • 55N40W to 57N30W
  • 10 Degress Longitude
  • Correct for Mag Variations
  • Correct for Winds

32
Performance Monitoring
  • The horizontal vertical navigation performance
    of operators within NAT MNPS Airspace is
    monitored on a continual basis. If a deviation
    is identified, follow-up action after flight is
    taken, both w/ the operator the State of
    Registry of the aircraft involved, to establish
    the cause of the deviation to confirm the
    approval of the flight to operate in NAT MNPS
    and/or RVSM Airspace.
  • North Atlantic MNPSA Operations Manual

33
Degrees of Separation(MNPS/RVSM)
Each one of these deviations is reported to
AF/A3O-A. AF/A3O-A forwards to MAJCOM/DO. MAJCOM/D
O then sends to your WG/CC for resolution! 7 Step
Process Begins!
  • Lateral Separation 1 degree (60 nm) lateral
    separation
  • Deviation of 25 nm or more Gross Navigation
    Error Report
  • Reduced Vertical Separation 1000 ft vertical
    separation
  • Deviation of 300 ft or more Oceanic Altitude
    Deviation Rpt
  • Longitudinal Separation 10 minute separation
    (assigned Mach)
  • Deviation of 3 minutes or more Erosion of
    Longitudinal Separation Report
  • TCAS, Turbulence, Contingencies are Still
    Reported
  • Separation Standards assures 95 Target Levels of
    Safety
  • 1/100th Mach Difference Equals 3 minutes in 4
    Hours
  • 1 Hour ClubAre you a member?
  • Wing CC Forms a Committee
  • Operations Group Commander Freaks Out
  • Squadron Commanders Freak Out
  • Inquisition Pairs Tail Number to Aircraft
    Commander
  • Your Leave is Cancelled
  • You Deny All Knowledge!
  • Cornered, you blame it on the co-pilot!

34
Degrees of Separation(Pacific RNP 10/RVSM)
  • Lateral Separation 50 nm lateral separation
  • Deviation of 25 nm or more Gross Navigation
    Error Report
  • Reduced Vertical Separation 1000 ft vertical
    separation
  • Deviation of 300 ft or more Oceanic Altitude
    Deviation Rpt
  • Longitudinal Separation 15 minute separation
  • Deviation of 3 minutes or more Erosion of
    Longitudinal Separation Report
  • 30 NM Separation in Some Locations (Oakland,
    South Pacific)
  • (30 NM lateral separation and 30 NM longitudinal)

35
Position Reports
  • Gander, Reach 7033 Position on 8864
  • Atlantic Cleared Points (typically every 10
    degrees) or Every 100 hour
  • Pacific Mandatory Reporting Points or Every
    120 hours
  • Check your FMS Estimate against CFP Computed
    Times
  • Is your FMS Winded for Route of Flight
  • Met Reports Atlantic Random Routes/Shall give
    Met Reports at all Position Reports (temp, winds,
    turb, icing)
  • Met Reports Upon Request on NATs
  • Warning You are Communicating to a Radio
    Operator

36
4 Most Common Errors How to get violated
  • FMS input errors of one degree of latitude made
    while inserting a forward waypoint into the
    navigation system.
  • Crew is re-cleared on new route by ATC and makes
    a waypoint insertion error
  • 1 Cause for GNEneed to re-accomplish distance
    checks/Mag Courses
  • Dont put FIR boundaries/ETPs in your FMS it
    causes problems with re-route
  • Autopilot inadvertently left in heading select
    mode (de-coupled) after avoiding clouds,
    maneuvering, or left in the VOR position after
    leaving the last domestic airspace VOR.
  • Errors arising in ATC/Pilot communication loop so
    that controller and crew have a different
    understanding of the clearance.

37
More Common Errors How to get violated
  • Aircrew Climbs IAW Flight Plan w/o Clearance
  • Beware of Oceanic Clearance Altitudes with
    insufficient range to make the entire crossing
  • Playing Poker Step Climb Requests May Not be
    Honored

38
Best Practices
  • The Best Practices described in this brief
    apply in any non-radar ATC environment. They
    also apply to the data-link upgraded aircraft.
  • These aircraft will automatically tell on you via
    ADS!

39
Pre-flight Duties
  • Check NOTAMs for GPS and the NAVAID that you plan
    to use for gross navigation check before
    coasting out
  • Plan in advance for a radial/DME cross check
    because over-flight gross navigation checks are
    less accurate due to altitude errors
  • When initializing the FMS, ensure the current
    database is installed
  • Most long range navigation systems will dump the
    entire route if a navigation database change is
    made even while airborne
  • Script 5_1

40
Pre-flight Duties contd
  • Ensure that environmental conditions do not
    hinder INS initialization
  • Conditions such as high winds, cargo loading or
    inadvertent aircraft movement will degrade the
    navigation solution
  • Script 6_1
  • Ensure FMS clock has accurate Zulu time loaded or
    correct it

41
MNPS Best Practices
  • Record the initialization position programmed
    into the Long Range Navigation System (LRNS)
  • Establishes the starting point for navigation
    computations
  • In the event of navigation difficulties it
    facilitates diagnosis
  • Use Master Document for
  • Read back of ATC clearance
  • Entering the route into the navigation system (1
    pilot loads)
  • Check route in the navigation system (2nd pilot
    checks)
  • Plotting the route on your oceanic chart

42
MNPS Best Practices Use of the Master Document
  • Only one master document should be used in the
    cockpit
  • Should be the CFP
  • One pilot should input waypoints from the
    computer flight plan
  • The other pilot should independently verify that
    the route loaded in the FMC matches the master
    document (Two Pilot Concept)
  • If re-route is received, both pilots should be in
    the cockpit to copy - Repeat the two pilot
    process for separate confirmation of all
    waypoints of the new route
  • Use appropriate symbology

43
MNPS Best Practices
44
MNPS Best Practices
  • Procedures Approaching a Waypoint
  • Check (Lat/Long, Mag, Dist, ETE) the Approaching
    Waypoint and Next Point, and Next 1 Point
  • Procedures At a Waypoint
  • Immediately Check Outbound Track and Distance
  • Procedures After Crossing a Waypoint
  • Position Report Correctly
  • Gross Error Check, 10 min. plot your position
    (Approximately 2 degrees longititude after last
    point)
  • Should be Right on the Line, if not Investigate
    Immediately (consider SLOP)

45
MNPS Best Practices
  • Before departure, ensure all of the following
    sources agree
  • Computer flight plan, the 1801, and track on the
    plotting chart
  • NAT Track Message also if filed on the track
    system
  • Plot your ATC cleared route on a suitable scale
    oceanic chart
  • Allows for a visual check on the reasonableness
    of the route and on its relationship to the
    Organized Track System (OTS), other aircraft,
    diversion fields, etc.

46
MNPS Best Practices
  • Plot your position regularly on the oceanic chart
  • Plot approximately 10 minutes after passing each
    waypoint
  • Check the present, next, and next 1 waypoint
    coordinates in the box against Master Document
    before making position report
  • This will save you if a reroute was issued and
    not input

47
Oceanic Plotting Chart
48
Oceanic Plotting Chart (2)
49
Seat Swap Etiquette
  • Immediately before getting out of the seat,
    conduct a professional briefing on the status of
    the flight to include
  • Aircraft position and current control agency
  • The current clearance and reroute information
  • Aircraft maintenance status and its effects on
    mission
  • Progress on Master Document and plotting chart
  • Mission timing and any contact with command and
    control
  • Police your area and take your pro-gear and trash
    with you
  • Briefly stick around for any questions before
    hitting the bunk

50
Learn from Past Mistakes
  • Each pilot make an independent check of present
    position prior to entering it into the LRNS
  • Never relax with respect to cross-check
    procedures (especially nearing the end of a long
    duty day)
  • Avoid casual radio procedures remember you are
    probably talking to a radio operatornot an air
    traffic controller
  • Before entering oceanic airspace note and record
    the check of LRNS positions at or near to the
    last NAVAID (Gross Nav Check)
  • Do not assume that the aircraft is at a waypoint
    because the alert annunciator indicates
    cross-check by reading present position

51
Or you will be doomed.
  • Flight Deck Drills. Navigation using automated
    systems is not a task which can be delegated to
    one crew member. The Aircraft Commander should
    always participate in all navigation
    cross-checking procedures
  • Before departure, check that the computer flight
    plan, flight plan filed by crew, oceanic plotting
    chart and North Atlantic Track (NAT) message
    agree (if applicable). Note NAT Track
    Identification Number for read back brevity.
  • Use an appropriate scaled flight progress chart
    on the flight deck. Periodic plots of position
    on a suitably sized chart and comparing current
    position with ATC cleared track help greatly in
    identifying errors before getting too far off
    track (i.e. GNE).

52
To repeat those mistakes
  • Use common sense pilotage. If the magnetic
    heading or distance between waypoints is
    significantly different from the computer flight
    plan then it is probably a good indication of
    tracking or waypoint error
  • If a crew suspects that equipment failure may be
    leading to divergence from cleared track, it is
    better to advise ATC sooner rather than later

53
To repeat those mistakes
  • Use common sense pilotage. If the magnetic
    heading or distance between waypoints is
    significantly different from the computer flight
    plan then it is probably a good indication of
    tracking or waypoint error
  • If a crew suspects that equipment failure may be
    leading to divergence from cleared track, it is
    better to advise ATC sooner rather than later

54
To repeat those mistakes
  • Use common sense pilotage. If the magnetic
    heading or distance between waypoints is
    significantly different from the computer flight
    plan then it is probably a good indication of
    tracking or waypoint error
  • If a crew suspects that equipment failure may be
    leading to divergence from cleared track, it is
    better to advise ATC sooner rather than later

55
April 2007
September 2007
56
To repeat those mistakes
57
Recommended Reading
  • North Atlantic MNPS Airspace Operations Manual
    (current edition 2005)
  • http//www.nat-pco.org/nat/MNPSA
  • FLIP AP/2, Chap 2, North Atlantic Supplementary
    Procedures
  • Pans Ops Doc 4444
  • Alaska Supplement, Navigation Procedures
  • Oceanic Errors Safety Bulletin (OESB-01-07) (Apr
    07)
  • Contingency Operations Extract (Ext Date 18 Apr
    07) from PANS ATM DOC 4444
  • On The Right Track DVD available on nat.pco.org

58
To repeat those mistakes
  • Use common sense pilotage. If the magnetic
    heading or distance between waypoints is
    significantly different from the computer flight
    plan then it is probably a good indication of
    tracking or waypoint error
  • If a crew suspects that equipment failure may be
    leading to divergence from cleared track, it is
    better to advise ATC sooner rather than later

59
To repeat those mistakes
  • Use common sense pilotage. If the magnetic
    heading or distance between waypoints is
    significantly different from the computer flight
    plan then it is probably a good indication of
    tracking or waypoint error
  • If a crew suspects that equipment failure may be
    leading to divergence from cleared track, it is
    better to advise ATC sooner rather than later

60
To repeat those mistakes
  • Use common sense pilotage. If the magnetic
    heading or distance between waypoints is
    significantly different from the computer flight
    plan then it is probably a good indication of
    tracking or waypoint error
  • If a crew suspects that equipment failure may be
    leading to divergence from cleared track, it is
    better to advise ATC sooner rather than later

61
To repeat those mistakes
  • Use common sense pilotage. If the magnetic
    heading or distance between waypoints is
    significantly different from the computer flight
    plan then it is probably a good indication of
    tracking or waypoint error
  • If a crew suspects that equipment failure may be
    leading to divergence from cleared track, it is
    better to advise ATC sooner rather than later

62
To repeat those mistakes
  • Use common sense pilotage. If the magnetic
    heading or distance between waypoints is
    significantly different from the computer flight
    plan then it is probably a good indication of
    tracking or waypoint error
  • If a crew suspects that equipment failure may be
    leading to divergence from cleared track, it is
    better to advise ATC sooner rather than later

63
Exercise
North American Routes
64
Thats All Folks
Maj James B. Rose DSN 884-6603 (405.734-6603)
65
(No Transcript)
66
Take Aways
  • Oceanic Procedures Conference
  • See notes on Title slide
  • Consider scenerio driven Oceanic brief
  • Get slides/info from Dave Maloy (FAA Flt Ops HQ)
  • Get slides/info from Troy Etheridge (Training)
  • Get draft KC-135 oceanic training book (Eric
    Schroeder DSN 779-3646)
  • Get SOPs from Westover (Dave Smith), UPS,
    Airlines, etc
  • Consider Oceanic Sim profile
  • Get on the right track and level best videos
    from NAT website
  • Make slide on major differences between Pacific
    and Atlantic
  • Get OESB-01-06 (7 Jun 06) from NAT website (add
    to mandatory reading slide)
  • Link MNPS manual on website site it as the core
    document
  • ATSO 21 initiative for elimination of 11-217v3
  • Oceanic Crossing Pre-test for my lecture
  • MNPS Question Bank from Dave Maloy/Jim Brown
  • Compare Vol 3 guidance verse MNPS manual
  • Class II Notam Book has discussion on SLOP
  • SLOP presentation on NAT-PCO Website
  • IRC Oceanic Questions Now

67
Pre-Test
  • Oceanic Procedures Conference
  • Oceanic, prior to coast out, you lose comm. You
    are level at FL310. You are filed on your flt
    plan at FL350.

Major James B. Rose/DSN 884-6603/405.734-6603
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