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Romantic Poetry

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Title: Romantic Poetry


1
Romantic Poetry
R.J. Schatz
2
Characteristics of the Age of Reason
  • Uniformity
  • Intellect
  • Objectivity
  • Control
  • Education
  • Nature as the source of laws and order in the
    universe

3
Characteristics of Romanticism
  • Individuality
  • Emotion
  • Subjectivity
  • Spontaneity
  • Direct experience
  • Nature (concrete, physical nature as the source
    of direct experience as opposed to nature as the
    source of laws and order in the universe)

4
Robert Burns
5
To a Mouse (p. 588)
  • Storyline
  • The farmer inadvertently plows under a nest that
    a mouse has built to survive the winter.
  • Attitude towards mouse
  • apologetic, not just for plowing the nest under,
    but for humanity domination of the planet.
  • Lesson
  • Direct experience teaches that the best plans can
    lead to failure because of unforeseen
    circumstances.

6
  • Individuality
  • The speaker is reacting one on one to the mouses
    specific situation in November of 1785.
  • Emotion
  • The speaker sympathizes with the mouse about the
    trials it must suffer.
  • Subjectivity
  • The poem is written in dialect. The point of view
    is that of a farmer.
  • Spontaneity
  • It just happened. There was no premeditation.
  • Nature
  • On observing the mouse in its situation, the
    speaker becomes aware of his own helplessness.

7
To a Louse (p. 590)
  • Storyline
  • The speaker sees a louse on a young womans
    bonnet at church and observes her reaction to it.
  • Attitudes towards the louse and Jenny
  • the louse The speaker is angry that it seems to
    be unaware as to where it should be.
  • Jenny The speaker sees her reaction as humorous
    as she mistakes the peoples attention to the
    louse as admiration for her.
  • Lesson
  • Direct observation reveals that we should learn
    to have a more realistic view of ourselves.

8
  • Individuality
  • The speaker is reacting one on one to the louse
    and to Jenny.
  • Emotion
  • The speaker condemns the impudence of the louse
    and the vanity of Jenny.
  • Subjectivity
  • The poem is written in dialect. The very specific
    events suggest a particular incident.
  • Spontaneity
  • It just happened. There was no premeditation .
  • Nature
  • Seeing Jennys foolishness in her assuming the
    attention is directed at her and her beauty, the
    speaker becomes aware that we could be freed of
    vanity if we looked at ourselves as others do.

9
William Blake
10
(No Transcript)
11
  • Introduction
  • Piping down the valleys wild,Piping songs of
    pleasant glee,On a cloud I saw a child,And he
    laughing said to me
  • 'Pipe a song about a Lamb!'So I piped with merry
    cheer.'Piper, pipe that song again.'So I piped
    he wept to hear.

12
  • 'Drop thy pipe, thy happy pipeSing thy songs of
    happy cheer!'So I sung the same again,While he
    wept with joy to hear.
  • 'Piper, sit thee down and writeIn a book, that
    all may read.'So he vanished from my sightAnd
    I plucked a hollow reed,
  • And I made a rural pen,And I stained the water
    clear,And I wrote my happy songsEvery child may
    joy to hear.

13
Stages of composition
music music music words words wrote the
poems from a subjective point of view
  • Piping down the valleys wild
  • 'Pipe a song about a Lamb!'
  • Sing thy songs of happy cheer!
  • 'Piper, sit thee down and writeIn a book, that
    all may read.'
  • And I made a rural pen,And I stained colored
    the water clear,And I wrote my happy songsEvery
    child may joy to hear.

14
The Lamb (p.598)
15
The Lamb
  • Little Lamb, who made thee?
  • Dost thou know who made thee?
  • Gave thee life, and bid thee feed,
  • By the stream and o'er the mead
  • Gave thee clothing of delight,
  • Softest clothing, woolly, bright
  • Gave thee such a tender voice,
  • Making all the vales rejoice?
  • Little Lamb, who made thee?
  • Dost thou know who made thee?

16
  • Little Lamb, I'll tell thee, Little Lamb, I'll
    tell thee. He is called by thy name, For He
    calls Himself a Lamb. He is meek, and He is
    mild He became a little child. I a child, and
    thou a lamb, We are called by His name. Little
    Lamb, God bless thee! Little Lamb, God bless
    thee!

17
  • From The Songs of Innocence.
  • Rhythmic pattern
  • of a childs song, suggesting the simplicity of
    the childs world.
  • Diction
  • delight, bright, tender, rejoice, meek, mild,
    suggest an ideal world filled with good and
    without discomfort. The words are euphonic (i.e.,
    they have pleasant agreeable sounds.)
  • Structure
  • Questions in the first stanzas and definite
    answers in the second suggest a simply existence.
    Every question is answered.

18
The Tyger ( p. 599)
19
The Tyger
  • Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests of
    the night, What immortal hand or eye Could
    frame thy fearful symmetry?
  • In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of
    thine eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? What
    the hand dare seize the fire?

20
  • And what shoulder, what art. Could twist the
    sinews of thy heart? And when thy heart began to
    beat, What dread hand? what dread feet?
  • What the hammer? what the chain? In what furnace
    was thy brain? What the anvil? what dread grasp
    Dare its deadly terrors clasp?

21
  • When the stars threw down their spears, And
    watered heaven with their tears, Did he smile
    his work to see? Did he who made the Lamb make
    thee?
  • Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests of
    the night, What immortal hand or eye Dare frame
    thy fearful symmetry?

22
  • From The Songs of Experience.
  • Rhythmic pattern
  • irregular, even rough.
  • Diction
  • burnt, fire, twist, dread, hammer, chain,
    furnace, anvil, grasp, terrors, spears, tears,
    suggest a harsher world that comes with
    experience. The words are cacophonous (i.e., the
    have harsh discordant sounds).
  • Structure
  • consists of unanswered questions suggesting that
    life is open ended.

23
The Chimney Sweeper (p. 600)
24
History The sweeps life
  • Orphaned four year olds were sold to a master.
  • Sweeps cleaned the soot off chimney walls with
    hands and scrapers.
  • Fire forced the child to the top.
  • origin of the phrase "To light a fire under you"
  • Common causes of death were suffocating from
    breathing dust, being trapped in narrow flues, or
    falling from the chimney.
  • Long term consequence Emphysema occurs when the
    air sacs at the ends of the smallest air passages
    (bronchioles) are gradually destroyed.

25
The Chimney Sweeper
  • From The Songs of Innocence
  • The speakers pleasant language contrasts with
    the sweepers harsh and cruel reality.
  • The rhythm sounds like a childs verse, a
    ludicrous style for their lives.
  • The Angel the church is seen as power in the
    corruption and enslavement the children. How does
    the angel accomplish this?

26
William Wordsworth
27
Expostulation and Reply
  • "WHY, William, on that old grey stone,
  • Thus for the length of half a day,
  • Why, William, sit you thus alone,
  • And dream your time away?
  • "Where are your books?--that light bequeathed
  • To Beings else forlorn and blind!
  • Up! up! and drink the spirit breathed
  • From dead men to their kind.
  • "You look round on your Mother Earth,
  • As if she for no purpose bore you 10
  • As if you were her first-born birth,
  • And none had lived before you!

28
  • One morning thus, by Esthwaite lake,
  • When life was sweet, I knew not why,
  • To me my good friend Matthew spake,
  • And thus I made reply
  • "The eye--it cannot choose but see
  • We cannot bid the ear be still
  • Our bodies feel, where'er they be,
  • Against or with our will. 20

29
  • Nor less I deem that there are Powers
  • Which of themselves our minds impress
  • That we can feed this mind of ours
  • In a wise passiveness.
  • "Think you, 'mid all this mighty sum
  • Of things for ever speaking,
  • That nothing of itself will come,
  • But we must still be seeking?
  • "--Then ask not wherefore, here, alone,
  • Conversing as I may, 30
  • I sit upon this old grey stone,
  • And dream my time away,"

30
Wordsworth and poetry
  • incidents and situations from common life
  • language really used by men
  • ordinary things should be presented to the mind
    in an unusual aspect
  • by tracing in them . . . the primary laws of our
    nature
  • humble and rustic life was generally chosen

31
Wordsworths definition of poetry
  •  I have said that poetry is the spontaneous
    overflow of powerful feelings it takes its
    origin from emotion recollected in tranquility
    the emotion is contemplated till, by a species of
    reaction, the tranquility gradually disappears,
    and an emotion, kindred to that which was before
    the subject of contemplation, is gradually
    produced, and does itself actually exist in the
    mind.
  • Preface to Lyrical Ballads. 1798

32
The Solitary Reaper
33
  • Behold her, single in the field,
  • Yon solitary Highland Lass!
  • Reaping and singing by herself
  • Stop here, or gently pass!
  • Alone she cuts and binds the grain,
  • And sings a melancholy strain
  • O listen! for the Vale profound
  • Is overflowing with the sound.

34
  • No Nightingale did ever chaunt
  • More welcome notes to weary bands
  • Of travellers in some shady haunt,
  • Among Arabian sands
  • A voice so thrilling ne'er was heard
  • In spring-time from the Cuckoo-bird,
  • Breaking the silence of the seas
  • Among the farthest Hebrides.

35
  • Will no one tell me what she sings?
  • Perhaps the plaintive numbers flow
  • For old, unhappy, far-off things,
  • And battles long ago
  • Or is it some more humble lay,
  • Familiar matter of to-day?
  • Some natural sorrow, loss, or pain,
  • That has been, and may be again?

36
  • Whate'er the theme, the Maiden sang
  • As if her song could have no ending
  • I saw her singing at her work,
  • And o'er the sickle bending--
  • I listened, motionless and still
  • And, as I mounted up the hill
  • The music in my heart I bore,
  • Long after it was heard no more.

37
The World Is Too Much with Us"
p. 624
  • The world is too much with us late and
    soon,Getting and spending, we lay waste our
    powersLittle we see in Nature that is oursWe
    have given our hearts away, a sordid boon!The
    Sea that bares her bosom to the moonThe winds
    that will be howling at all hours,And are
    up-gathered now like sleeping flowersFor this,
    for everything, we are out of tuneIt moves us
    not.

38
  • Great God! I'd
    rather beA Pagan suckled in a creed outwornSo
    might I, standing on this pleasant lea,Have
    glimpses that would make me less forlornHave
    sight of Proteus rising from the seaOr hear old
    Triton blow his wreathed horn.

39
Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3,
1803
  • Earth has not anything to show more fair
  • Dull would he be of soul who could pass by
  • A sight so touching in its majesty
  • This City now doth, like a garment, wear
  • The beauty of the morning silent, bare,
  • Ships, towers, domes, theatres, and temples lie
  • Open unto the fields, and to the sky
  • All bright and glittering in the smokeless air.

40
  • Never did sun more beautifully steep In his first
    splendour, valley, rock, or hill
  • Ne'er saw I, never felt, a calm so deep!
  • The river glideth at his own sweet will
  • Dear God! the very houses seem asleep
  • And all that mighty heart is lying still!

41
This City now doth, like a garment, wear The
beauty of the morning silent, bare, Ships,
towers, domes, theatres, and temples lie Open
unto the fields, and to the sky All bright and
glittering in the smokeless air.
42
This City now doth, like a garment, wear The
beauty of the morning silent, bare, Ships,
towers, domes, theatres, and temples lie Open
unto the fields, and to the sky All bright and
glittering in the smokeless air.
The river glideth at his own sweet will
43
The river glideth at his own sweet will
44
Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey
pp.616ff
45
ll.1-22
  • Synecdoche lengthens absence
  • Five years, five summers, five long winters
  • Imagery is multi-sensory
  • Visual steep and lofty cliffs
  • Auditory a soft inland murmur
  • Olfactory wreaths of smoke

46
  • Mans peaceful coexistence with nature
  • I . . . connect the landscape with the quiet of
    the sky.
  • I see . . . These pastoral farms/Green to the
    very door.
  • Wreaths of smoke are/Sent up . . . From among
    the trees.
  • houseless woods

47
Test Burns, Blake, and Wordsworth
  • Expostulation and Reply (web) Not 8th
  • Tintern Abbey (616)
  • The World is Too Much with Us (624)
  • Composed upon Westminster Bridge (web)
  • The Solitary Reaper (web)
  • To a Mouse (588)
  • To a Louse (590)
  • The Lamb (598)
  • The Tyger (599)
  • The Chimney Sweeper (600)

48
ll. 23-49
  • Contrast between the city and nature
  • City
  • lonely, din, weariness, weary weight, and
    unintelligible
  • Nature
  • memories bring sensations sweet

49
  • The sensations sweet are felt
  • physically felt in the blood
  • emotionally felt along the heart
  • intellectually passing even into my purer mind
  • spiritually We see into the life of things.

50
  • breath and blood/ Almost suspended we are laid
    asleep/ In body, and become a living soul . . .
    We see into the life of things.

51
ll. 49-57
  • Transition from the past--How oft . . . Have I
    turned to thee--to the present as he addresses
    the river O sylvan Wye!

52
ll. 58-111
  • Mature consideration ll. 58-65
  • present pleasure, food for future years
  • Childhood appreciation ll. 65-85
  • When first I came among these hills, nature
    had no need of a remoter charm/ By thought
    supplied. It was a purely physical appreciation.
  • Present appreciation ll. 85-111
  • Other gifts have followed that are abundant
    recompense for his youth which is now past.

53
  • I have felt
  • A presence that disturbs me with the joy/Of
    elevated thoughts
  • A sense sublime/ Of something . . . whose
    dwelling is in various aspects of nature and in
    the mind of man.
  • A motion and a spirit that impels/All thinking
    things, all objects of all thought,/ And rolls
    through all things.

54
Conclusion
  • . . . Therefore am I
  • . . . well pleased to recognize
  • In nature and the language of the sense,
  • The anchor of my purest thoughts, the nurse,
  • The guide, the guardian of my heart, and soul
  • Of all my moral being.

55
Needs met by nature in Wordsworths life
  • physical the nurse
  • intellectual the guide
  • emotional the guardian of my heart
  • spiritual the soul of all my moral being

56
ll. 111-159
  • Advice to his sister Dorothy on this trip to
    Tintern Abbey
  • He sees her looking at nature the same way he did
    when he was young she has his former language,
    enjoys his former pleasures.

57
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
1772-1834
58
  • The Frost performs its secret ministry,
  • Unhelped by any wind. The owlet's cry
  • Came loudand hark, again! loud as before.
  • The inmates of my cottage, all at rest,
  • Have left me to that solitude, which suits
  • Abstruser musings save that at my side
  • My cradled infant slumbers peacefully.
  • 'Tis calm indeed! so calm, that it disturbs
  • And vexes meditation with its strange
  • And extreme silentness. Sea, hill, and wood,
  • This populous village! Sea, and hill, and wood,
  • With all the numberless goings-on of life,
  • Inaudible as dreams! the thin blue flame
  • Lies on my low-burnt fire, and quivers not
  • Only that film, which fluttered on the grate,

59
  • Still flutters there, the sole unquiet thing.
  • Methinks, its motion in this hush of nature
  • Gives it dim sympathies with me who live,
  • Making it a companionable form,
  • Whose puny flaps and freaks the idling Spirit
  • By its own moods interprets, every where
  • Echo or mirror seeking of itself,
  • And makes a toy of Thought.

60
  •                       But O! how oft,
  • How oft, at school, with most believing mind,
  • Presageful, have I gazed upon the bars,
  • To watch that fluttering stranger ! and as oft
  • With unclosed lids, already had I dreamt
  • Of my sweet birth-place, and the old
    church-tower,
  • Whose bells, the poor man's only music, rang
  • From morn to evening, all the hot Fair-day,
  • So sweetly, that they stirred and haunted me
  • With a wild pleasure, falling on mine ear
  • Most like articulate sounds of things to come!

61
  • So gazed I, till the soothing things, I dreamt,
  • Lulled me to sleep, and sleep prolonged my
    dreams!
  • And so I brooded all the following morn,
  • Awed by the stern preceptor's face, mine eye
  • Fixed with mock study on my swimming book
  • Save if the door half opened, and I snatched
  • A hasty glance, and still my heart leaped up,
  • For still I hoped to see the stranger's face,
  • Townsman, or aunt, or sister more beloved,
  • My play-mate when we both were clothed alike!

62
  •          Dear Babe, that sleepest cradled by my
    side,
  • Whose gentle breathings, heard in this deep calm,
  • Fill up the intersperséd vacancies
  • And momentary pauses of the thought!
  • My babe so beautiful! it thrills my heart
  • With tender gladness, thus to look at thee,
  • And think that thou shalt learn far other lore,
  • And in far other scenes! For I was reared
  • In the great city, pent 'mid cloisters dim,
  • And saw nought lovely but the sky and stars.

63
  • But thou, my babe! shalt wander like a breeze
  • By lakes and sandy shores, beneath the crags
  • Of ancient mountain, and beneath the clouds,
  • Which image in their bulk both lakes and shores
  • And mountain crags so shalt thou see and hear
  • The lovely shapes and sounds intelligible
  • Of that eternal language, which thy God
  • Utters, who from eternity doth teach
  • Himself in all, and all things in himself.
  • Great universal Teacher! he shall mould
  • Thy spirit, and by giving make it ask.

64
  • Therefore all seasons shall be sweet to thee,
  • Whether the summer clothe the general earth
  • With greenness, or the redbreast sit and sing
  • Betwixt the tufts of snow on the bare branch
  • Of mossy apple-tree, while the nigh thatch
  • Smokes in the sun-thaw whether the eave-drops
    fall
  • Heard only in the trances of the blast,
  • Or if the secret ministry of frost
  • Shall hang them up in silent icicles,
  • Quietly shining to the quiet Moon.

65
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
66
Stages of plot
  • The exposition introduces the mariner and the
    wedding guest. The setting is the stark, austere
    night contrasting with the music and celebration
    from the wedding hall. The story is about a
    strange sea voyage.
  • The inciting incident is the mariners killing of
    the albatross. It introduces the man versus
    nature conflict.
  • The development consists of the action in which
    the other sailors die and the mariner begins to
    be aware of the consequences of his actions. 

67
Stages of plot
  • The climax of the poem occurs when the mariner
    has a change of heart and the albatross falls
    from his neck. 
  • The resolution occurs when the mariner blesses
    the sea creatures unawares and no longer thinks
    of them as the slimy things upon the slimy sea.
    At that point that the conflict ends the mariner
    is no longer critical of nature, but loves it.
  • The denouement consists of the return home and
    his receiving forgiveness from the hermit.

68
Themes
  • Sin and Redemption
  • Man is a sinful creature, but redemption awaits
    if he repents his wrongdoing and performs
    penance.
  • Respect for Nature
  • Humans should respect all of Gods creation and
    all of His creatures. In doing so, people
    indicate their respect for the Creator Himself
  • Farewell, farewell! but this I tell  To thee,
    thou Wedding-Guest!  He prayeth well, who loveth
    well  Both man and bird and beast. (611-614)

69
Enjambment is the practice of carrying the sense
of one line of verse over to the next line
without a pause.
  • And now the storm-blast came, and he Was
    tyrannous and strong (41-42) 
  • We could not speak, no more than if We had been
    choked with soot. (137-138)
  • Instead of the cross, the Albatross About my
    neck was hung. (141-142)
  • 'There passed a weary time. Each throat  Was
    parch'd, and glazed each eye. (143-144)

70
Internal rhyme is rhyme within a line of poetry.
  • The guests are met, the feast is set (7)
  • The ship drove fast, loud roared the blast  (49)
  • And through the drifts the snowy clifts (54)
  • The ice did split with a thunder-fit (69)
  • In mist or cloud, on mast or shroud (75)
  • The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew (103)

71
Alliteration is the repetition of initial
consonant sounds.
  • By thy long grey beard and glittering eye (3)
  • He holds him with his skinny hand (9)
  • The Wedding-Guest here beat his breast, For he
    heard the loud bassoon.(31-32)
  • The merry minstrelsy (36)
  • The furrow followed free (104) 

72
Anaphora is the repetition of a word or words at
the beginning of two or more successive verses,
clauses, or sentences.
  • The ice was here, the ice was there, The ice was
    all around. (59-60)
  • With throats unslaked, with black lips baked
    (157) 
  • Without a breeze, without a tide (169) 
  • Her lips were red, her looks were free, Her
    locks were yellow as gold Her skin was as white
    as leprosy (190-192)
  • They groan'd, they stirr'd, they all uprose, 

73
Irony
  • Water, water, every where, And all the boards
    did shrink Water, water, every where, Nor any
    drop to drink. (119-122)

74
Metaphor
  • Each turned his face with a ghastly pang, And
    cursed me with his eye. (215-216)
  • They coil'd and swam and every track Was a
    flash of golden fire. (281-282)

75
(No Transcript)
76
  • To what do the verbs refer?
  • It cracked and growled, and roared and howled.
    (61)

Howl
77
Personification
  • The Sun came up upon the left, Out of the sea
    came he ! And he shone bright, and on the right
    Went down into the sea. (25-28) Comparison of
    the sun to a person

78
Simile
  • Every soul, it passed me by, Like the whizz of
    my crossbow! (223-224) Comparison of the passing
    of a soul to the sound of a shot arrow    
  • The sky and the sea, and the sea and the sky Lay
    like a load on my weary eye (251-252) Comparison
    of the sky and sea to a weight on the eye
  • Her beams bemocked the sultry main, Like April
    hoar-frost spread (268-269) Comparison of
    reflected sunbeams to frost
  • The bride hath paced into the hall, Red as a
    rose is she (33-34) Comparison of the bride to a
    rose
  • The water, like a witch's oils, Burnt green, and
    blue and white. (129-130) Comparison of water to
    witch's oils
  • Day after day, day after day,
  • We stuck, nor breath nor motion As idle as a
    painted ship Upon a painted ocean. (115-118)
    Comparison of the motionless ship and ocean to a
    painting

79
Synecdoche is a literary device in which the part
represents the whole.
  • The western wave was all a-flame (171) Wave
    refers to the ocean.

80
  • He holds him with his glittering eye (13)
  • The Mariner hath his the Wedding Guests will
    (16)

81
  • The ship was cheered, the harbour cleared,
  • Merrily did we drop
  • Below the kirk, below the hill,
  • Below the light-house top. (21-24)

82
  • The Sun came up upon the left, Out of the sea
    came he ! And he shone bright, and on the right
    Went down into the sea. (25-28)

83
  • Ah wretch! said they, the bird to slay
  • That made the breeze to blow! (ll. 95-96)
  • 'Twas right, said they, such birds to slay,
  • That bring the fog and mist. (ll. 101-102)

84
  • All in a hot and copper sky,
  • The bloody Sun, at noon,
  • Right up above the mast did stand,
  • No bigger than the Moon. (111-114)

85
  • The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,
  • The furrow followed free (ll. 103-104)
  • Day after day, day after day,
  • We stuck, nor breath nor motion
  • As idle as a painted ship
  • Upon a painted ocean. (ll. 115-118)

86
  • Water, water, every where,
  • And all the boards did shrink
  • Water, water, every where,
  • Nor any drop to drink. (ll. 119-122)

87
  • At first it seemed a little speck,
  • And then it seemed a mist
  • It moved and moved, and took at last
  • A certain shape, I wist. (ll. 149-153)
  • speck mist shape

88
  • With throats unslaked, with black lips baked,
  • We could not laugh nor wail
  • Through utter drought all dumb we stood!
  • I bit my arm, I sucked the blood,
  • And cried, A sail! a sail! (157-161)
  • What does the imagery suggest about the sailors
    situation?
  • What emotion on the part of the sailors does the
    last line suggest?

89
  • And straight the Sun was flecked with bars,
  • (Heaven's Mother send us grace!)
  • As if through a dungeon-grate he peered,
  • With broad and burning face. (ll. 177-180)
  • What is compared to a face peering through a
    prison grate?

90
  • Alone, alone, all, all alone,
  • Alone on a wide wide sea!
  • And never a saint took pity on
  • My soul in agony. (ll. 232-235)

91
  • The very deep did rot O Christ!
  • That ever this should be!
  • Yea, slimy things did crawl with legs
  • Upon the slimy sea. (123-126)
  • Ah! well a-day! what evil looks
  • Had I from old and young!
  • Instead of the cross, the Albatross
  • About my neck was hung. (139-142)

92
  • I looked to Heaven, and tried to pray
  • But or ever a prayer had gusht,
  • A wicked whisper came, and made
  • My heart as dry as dust. (ll. 244-247)
  • The self same moment I could pray
  • And from my neck so free
  • The Albatross fell off, and sank
  • Like lead into the sea. (ll. 288-291)

93
  • Beyond the shadow of the ship,
  • I watched the water-snakes
  • They moved in tracks of shining white,
  • And when they reared, the elfish light
  • Fell off in hoary flakes.
  • Within the shadow of the ship
  • I watched their rich attire
  • Blue, glossy green, and velvet black,
  • They coiled and swam and every track
  • Was a flash of golden fire.
  • O happy living things! no tongue
  • Their beauty might declare
  • A spring of love gushed from my heart,
  • And I blessed them unaware
  • Sure my kind saint took pity on me,
  • And I blessed them unaware. (272-287)

bioluminescence
94
  • Swiftly, swiftly flew the ship,
  • Yet she sailed softly too
  • Sweetly, sweetly blew the breeze--
  • On me alone it blew. (ll. 460-463)

95
Percy Bysshe Shelley
96
Ramses II
97
Ozymandias
I met a traveller from an antique land  Who
saidTwo vast and trunkless legs of stone  Stand
in the desert. Near them on the sand,  Half sunk,
a shatter'd visage lies, whose frown  And
wrinkled lip and sneer of cold command    5 Tell
that its sculptor well those passions read  Which
yet survive, stamp'd on these lifeless
things,  The hand that mock'd them and the heart
that fed. 
98
And on the pedestal these words appear  "My name
is Ozymandias, king of kings  10 Look on my
works, ye mighty, and despair!"  Nothing beside
remains round the decay  Of that colossal wreck,
boundless and bare,  The lone and level sands
stretch far away.
Ozymandias
99
Ozymandias (p. 670)
  • I met a traveller from an antique land 
  • Who saidTwo vast and trunkless legs of stone 
  • Stand in the desert. Near them on the sand, 
  • Half sunk, a shatter'd visage lies, whose frown 
  • And wrinkled lip and sneer of cold command     5
  • Tell that its sculptor well those passions read 
  • Which yet survive, stamp'd on these lifeless
    things, 
  • The hand that mock'd them and the heart that fed. 

100
  • And on the pedestal these words appear 
  • "My name is Ozymandias, king of kings  10
  • Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!" 
  • Nothing beside remains round the decay 
  • Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare, 
  • The lone and level sands stretch far away.

101
Song to the Men of England
  • Men of England, wherefore ploughFor the lords
    who lay ye low?Wherefore weave with toil and
    careThe rich robes your tyrants wear?Wherefore
    feed and clothe and save,From the cradle to the
    grave,Those ungrateful drones who wouldDrain
    your sweat--nay, drink your blood?Wherefore,
    Bees of England, forgeMany a weapon, chain, and
    scourge,That these stingless drones may
    spoilThe forced produce of your toil?

102
  • Have ye leisure, comfort, calm,Shelter, food,
    love's gentle balm?Or what is it ye buy so
    dearWith your pain and with your fear?
  • The seed ye sow another reapsThe wealth ye
    find another keepsThe robes ye weave another
    wearsThe arms ye forge another bears.
  • Sow seed,--but let no tyrant reapFind
    wealth,--let no imposter heapWeave robes,--let
    not the idle wearForge arms, in your defence to
    bear.

103
  • Shrink to your cellars, holes, and cellsIn
    halls ye deck another dwells.Why shake the
    chains ye wrought? Ye seeThe steel ye tempered
    glance on ye.With plough and spade and hoe and
    loom,Trace your grave, and build your tomb,And
    weave your winding-sheet, till fairEngland be
    your sepulchre!

104
John Keats
1795-1821
105
The Protestant Cemetery in Rome.
106
Grecian Urns
107
More urns
108
Ode on a Grecian Urn
  • Thou still unravished bride of quietness,      
    Thou foster child of silence and slow time,
  • Sylvan historian, who canst thus express       A
    flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme
  • What leaf-fringed legend haunts about thy shape
          Of deities or mortals, or of both,      
          In Tempe or the dales of Arcady?
  • What men or gods are these? What maidens loath?
          What mad pursuit? What struggle to
    escape?             What pipes and timbrels?
    What wild ecstasy?

109
  • Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard Are
    sweeter therefore, ye soft pipes, play on
  • Not to the sensual ear, but, more endeared,    
      Pipe to the spirit dities of no tone.
  • Fair youth, beneath the trees, thou canst not
    leave       Thy song, nor ever can those trees
    be bare             Bold Lover, never, never
    canst thou kiss,
  • Though winning near the goal---yet, do not
    grieve       She cannot fade, though thou hast
    not thy bliss             Forever wilt thou
    love, and she be fair!

110
  • Ah, happy, happy boughs! that cannot shed    
      Your leaves, nor ever bid the Spring adieu
    And, happy melodist, unwearied,       Forever
    piping songs forever new More happy love! more
    happy, happy love!       Forever warm and still
    to be enjoyed,             Forever panting, and
    forever young All breathing human passion far
    above,       That leaves a heart high-sorrowful
    and cloyed,             A burning forehead, and
    a parching tongue.

111
  • Who are these coming to the sacrifice?      
    To what green altar, O mysterious priest,
    Lead'st thou that heifer lowing at the skies,  
        And all her silken flanks with garlands
    dressed? What little town by river or sea shore,
          Or mountain-built with peaceful citadel,
                Is emptied of this folk, this pious
    morn? And, little town, thy streets for evermore
          Will silent be and not a soul to tell  
              Why thou art desolate, can e'er return.

112
  • O Attic shape! Fair attitude! with brede    
      Of marble men and maidens overwrought, With
    forest branches and the trodden weed      
    Thou, silent form, dost tease us out of thought
    As doth eternity. Cold Pastoral!       When old
    age shall this generation waste,            
    Thou shalt remain, in midst of other woe Than
    ours, a friend to man, to whom thou say'st,    
      "Beauty is truth, truth beauty"---that is all
                Ye know on earth, and all ye need to
    know.
  • 1820

113
Ode
  • lyric poem
  • usually of a serious or meditative nature
  • having an elevated style
  • formal stanzaic structure.

114
To Autumn
  •   1.
  • SEASON of mists and mellow fruitfulness,    
    Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun
  • Conspiring with him how to load and bless    
    With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves
    run
  • To bend with apples the mossd cottage-trees,  
      And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core
                To swell the gourd, and plump the
    hazel shell
  • With a sweet kernel to set budding more,    
    And still more, later flowers for the bees,    
    Until they think warm days will never cease,    
    For Summer has oer-brimmd their clammy

    cells.

115
To Autumn
  •   1.
  • SEASON of mists and mellow fruitfulness,    
    Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun
  • Conspiring with him how to load and bless    
    With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves
    run
  • To bend with apples the mossd cottage-trees,  
      And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core
                To swell the gourd, and plump the
    hazel shell
  • With a sweet kernel to set budding more,    
    And still more, later flowers for the bees,    
    Until they think warm days will never cease,    
    For Summer has oer-brimmd their clammy

    cells.

116
  • 2
  • Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store?      
      Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find
  • Thee sitting careless on a granary floor,      
      Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind
  • Or on a half-reapd furrow sound asleep,        
    Drowsd with the fume of poppies, while thy hook
                Spares the next swath and all its
    twined flowers     And
    sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keep    
    Steady thy laden head across a brook     Or by
    a cyder-press, with patient look,        Thou
    watchest the last oozings hours by hours.

117
  • 2
  • Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store?      
      Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find
  • Thee sitting careless on a granary floor,      
      Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind
  • Or on a half-reapd furrow sound asleep,        
    Drowsd with the fume of poppies, while thy hook
                Spares the next swath and all its
    twined flowers     And
    sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keep    
    Steady thy laden head across a brook     Or by
    a cyder-press, with patient look,        Thou
    watchest the last oozings hours by hours.

118
  •     3
  • Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are
    they?         Think not of them, thou hast thy
    music too,     While barred clouds bloom the
    soft-dying day,         And touch the stubble
    plains with rosy hue     Then in a wailful
    choir the small gnats mourn         Among the
    river sallows, borne aloft             Or
    sinking as the light wind lives or dies     And
    full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn  
          Hedge-crickets sing and now with treble
    soft         The red-breast whistles from a
    garden-croft            And gathering swallows
    twitter in the skies.

119
  •     3
  • Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are
    they?         Think not of them, thou hast thy
    music too,     While barred clouds bloom the
    soft-dying day,         And touch the stubble
    plains with rosy hue     Then in a wailful
    choir the small gnats mourn         Among the
    river sallows, borne aloft             Or
    sinking as the light wind lives or dies     And
    full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn  
          Hedge-crickets sing and now with treble
    soft         The red-breast whistles from a
    garden-croft            And gathering swallows
    twitter in the skies.

120
Themes in Romanticism
  • Mans insensitivity to nature.
  • I'm truly sorry man's dominion Has broken
    Nature's social union. Burns, To
    a Mouse
  • Little we see in Nature that is ours For
    this, for everything, we are out of tuneIt
    moves us not.



    Wordsworth, The World Is Too Much
    with Us

121
Themes in Romanticism
  • Language
  • well pleased to recognise
  • In nature and the language of the sense,
  • The anchor of my purest thoughts, the nurse,
  • The guide, the guardian of my heart, and soul
    110
  • Of all my moral being.

122
Test Coleridge, Shelley, and Keats
  • The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (630)
  • Frost at Midnight (web)
  • Ozymandias (670)
  • Song to the Men of England ()
  • Ode on a Grecian Urn ()
  • To Autumn (web)
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