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Title: Part I. Navigating the Myths and Monsoons of Emerging Technologies, Motivational Strategies, and Dem


1
Part I. Navigating the Myths and Monsoons of
Emerging Technologies, Motivational Strategies,
and Demanding Learners
Dr. Curtis J. Bonk Professor, Indiana
University President, CourseShare http//php.india
na.edu/cjbonk cjbonk_at_indiana.edu
2
Theres a Storm Brewing!!!
3
Are you ready?
4
Overview of Todays Workshop
A Monsoon of Online Learning Strategies
Part I Strategies
Part II Tools
Part III Resources
From Current States to Future Trends
5
The Perfect Storm!
I. Better Technology
II. Learner Demands
III. Better Pedagogy
6
Changes in College Campuses
7
What Really Matters in College Student Engagement
  • The research is unequivocal students who are
    actively involved in both academic and
    out-of-class activities gain more from the
    college experience than those who are not so
    involved.

Ernest T. Pascarella Patrick T. Terenzini, How
College Affects Students
8
Benchmarks of Effective Educational Practice
(Kuh, in press)
National Survey of Student Engagement(pronounced
nessie)
9
Level of Academic Challenge Challenging
intellectual and creative work is central to
student learning and collegiate quality.
Colleges and universities promote high levels of
student achievement by emphasizing the importance
of academic effort and setting high expectations
for student performance.
10
What Were Learning About Student Engagement From
NSSE George Kuh (in press). Change Indiana
University Bloomington
11
What Were Learning About Student Engagement From
NSSE George Kuh (in press). Change Indiana
University Bloomington
12
What about online students?
13
Fall 2002 Semester, Indiana University
All Campuses
IUPUI Faculty 86 Students 87
Bloomington Faculty 62 Students 77
14
Illinois Virtual Campus
  • 68 Illinois institutions (public and private,
    2-year and 4-year) providing online courses and
    programs
  • (2652) 2700 different online course titles
  • 107 degree and certificate programs

http//www.ivc.illinois.edu/ (Oakley, 2003)
15
University of Illinois Online
http//www.ivc.illinois.edu/ (Oakley, 2003)
16
University of Illinois at Springfield
  • Retention (day 10 to end-of-semester) in online
    courses averages gt93, which is comparable to
    on-campus retention

http//www.ivc.illinois.edu/ (Oakley, 2003)
17
What about Ohio State?
  • At Ohio State the of students using WebCT going
    from about 250 per quarter in 1999 to more than
    25,000 this quarter.  But 90 of those are just
    web-enhanced (or hybrid) courses not totally
    online. 
  • Per Tom Stone stone.177_at_osu.edu. April 6, 2003

18
Karen Lazenby (2003), Univ of Pretoria
19
Karen Lazenby (2003), Univ of Pretoria
20
Karen Lazenby (2003), Univ of Pretoria
21
(No Transcript)
22
Three Most Vital SkillsThe Online Teacher, TAFE,
Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)
  • Ability to engage the learner (30)
  • Ability to motivate online learners (23)
  • Ability to build relationships (19)
  • Technical ability (18)
  • Having a positive attitude (14)
  • Adapt to individual needs (12)
  • Innovation or creativity (11)

23
E-LearningProblems and Solutions
  • Tasks Overwhelm
  • Confused on Web
  • Too Nice Due to Limited History
  • Lack Justification
  • Hard not to preach
  • Too much data
  • Communities not easy to form
  • Train and be clear
  • Structure time/dates due
  • Develop roles and controversies
  • Train to back up claims
  • Students take lead role
  • Use Email Pals set times and amounts
  • Embed Informal/Social

24
E-LearningBenefits and Implications
  • Shy open up online
  • Minimal off task
  • Delayed collab more rich than real time
  • Students can generate lots of info
  • Minimal disruptions
  • Extensive E-Advice
  • Excited to Publish
  • Use async conferencing
  • Create social tasks
  • Use Async for debates Sync for help, office
    hours
  • Structure generation and force reflection/comment
  • Foster debates/critique
  • Find Practitioners/Experts
  • Ask Permission

25
E-Learning Myths.
26
College E-Learning Myths
  • Either-or decision
  • Good tools exist
  • Web no different
  • College owns course
  • Put FTF on Web
  • Cheaper
  • Better/Improved
  • Profit is the key
  • Need to create tools
  • High dropouts

27
College Myth 1.Web-instruction is an either-or
decision.
28
College Myth 2.Pedagogical tools exist to teach
online.
29
College Myth 7.Learning is improved.
After e-learning
Before e-learning
30
Instructor E-Learning Myths
  • They are young
  • Use latest tech
  • Teach same
  • Just more training
  • Time equal
  • Will not share
  • Are loyal
  • Not affected by this
  • Can wait it out
  • Teach for free online

31
Instructor Myth 1 They are Young
32
Instructor Myth 2 College Instructorswill
flock to sophisticated technologies.
  • Kirchner foresees faculty increasingly using
    technology in traditional classes, but comments
    they, They need to break through beyond
    discussion boards and chats.
  • Cornell Daily, January 20, 2003, Chris Mitchell,
    Fathoming the future of e-Learning.

33
Instructor Myth 3. Instructors can teach the
same way they always have.
Poor Instructors Good Instructors
  • Little or no feedback given
  • Always authoritative
  • Narrow focus of what was relevant
  • Used ultimate deadlines
  • Provided regular feedback
  • Participated as peer
  • Allowed perspective sharing
  • Tied discussion to grades.

Vanessa Dennen (2001) Research 9 Online
Courses (sociology, history, communications,
writing, library science, technology, counseling)
34
Deadlines
  • Deadlines motivated participation
  • Message counts increased in the days immediately
    preceding a deadline
  • Deadlines inhibited dialogue
  • Students posted messages but did not discuss
  • Too much lag time between initial messages and
    responses

35
Modeling
  • Instructor modeling increased the likelihood of
    student messages meeting quality and content
    expectations
  • Modeling was more effective than guidelines

36
Common Instructor Complaints
  • Students dont participate
  • Students all participate at the last minute
  • Students post messages but dont converse
  • Facilitation takes too much time
  • If they must be absent, the discussion dies off
  • Students are confused

37
Reasons why...
  • Students dont participate
  • Because it isnt required
  • Because they dont know what is expected
  • Students all participate at last minute
  • Because that is what was required
  • Because they dont want to be the first
  • Instructor posts at the last minute

38
3.
39
1. Social (and cognitive) Acknowledgement
"Hello...," "I agree with everything said so
far...," "Wow, what a case," "This case certainly
has provoked a lot of discussion...," "Glad you
could join us..."
40
2. Questioning "Another reason for this might
be...?," "An example of this is...," "In contrast
to this might be...,""What else might be
important here...?," "How might the teacher..?."
"What is the real problem here...?," "How is this
related to...?,, "Can you justify this?"
41
5. Feedback/Praise "Wow, I'm impressed...,"
"That shows real insight into...," "Are you sure
you have considered...," "Thanks for responding
to X...," "I have yet to see you or anyone
mention..."
42
6. Cognitive Task Structuring "You know, the
task asks you to do...," "Ok, as was required,
you should now summarize the peer responses that
you have received...," "How might the textbook
authors have solved this case."
43
8. Push to Explore "You might want to write to
Dr. XYZ for...," "You might want to do an ERIC
search on this topic...," "Perhaps there is a URL
on the Web that addresses this topic..."
44
Four Key Hats of Instructors
  • Technicaldo students have basics? Does their
    equipment work? Passwords work?
  • ManagerialDo students understand the assignments
    and course structure?
  • PedagogicalHow are students interacting,
    summarizing, debating, thinking?
  • SocialWhat is the general tone? Is there a
    human side to this course? Joking allowed?
  • Other firefighter, convener, weaver, tutor,
    conductor, host, mediator, filter, editor,
    facilitator, negotiator, e-police, concierge,
    marketer, assistant, etc.

45
Online Concierge
  • To provide support and information on request
    (perhaps a map of the area) (Gilly Salmon, 2000).

46
Personal Learning Trainer
  • Learners need a personal trainer to lead them
    through materials and networks, identify relevant
    materials and advisors and ways to move forward
    (Mason, 1998 Salmon, 2000).

47
E-Police
  • While one hopes you will not call yourself this
    nor find the need to make laws and enforce them,
    you will need some Code of Practice or set
    procedures, and protocols for e-moderators (Gilly
    Salmon, 2000).

48
Still More Hats
  • Assistant
  • Devils advocate
  • Editor
  • Expert
  • Filter
  • Firefighter
  • Facilitator
  • Gardener
  • Helper
  • Lecturer
  • Marketer
  • Mediator
  • Priest
  • Promoter

49
Instructor Myth 7.College Instructors are Loyal.
50
Student E-Learning Myths
  • Anytime, anywhere
  • Easy
  • Can cram
  • Procrastinate ok
  • Less social
  • Can hide
  • To many off-task
  • Domination
  • Dont care
  • More excuses ok

51
Lets brainstorm comments (words or short
phrases) that reflect your overall attitudes and
feelings towards online teaching
52
Student Myth 2 Its EasyStudent comments from
The Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell
(April, 2001)
  • Positive Side intense, challenging, emotional,
    dynamic, addictive, fun, stimulating, flexible,
    empowering, intellectually stimulating.
  • Less-Positive Side Time-consuming, frustrating,
    little feedback, isolating, bewildering, a lot to
    grapple with.
  • Professors say exciting, fun, challenging,
  • demanding, time consuming

53
What are your e-learning myths???
54
3 E-learning Storms are Approaching
55
Storm 1 Technology
  • Many faculty members are still concerned whether
    the technology is simple and reliable enough to
    use for more-sophisticated learning tasks.
    Increasingly, however, better software is
    emerging that engages students in more effective
    learning.
  • Online Technology Pushes Pedagogy to the
    ForefrontFrank Newman J. Scurry, Chronicle of
    Higher Ed, July 13, 2001, B7.

56
E-Learning Technologies of Future?
  • Assistive Technologies
  • Learning Communities
  • Digital Portfolios
  • Electronic Books
  • Instructor Portals
  • Intelligent Agents
  • Online Exams and Grade Books
  • Online Games and Simulations
  • Online Language Learning
  • Online Mentoring
  • Pedagogical Courseware
  • Peer-to-Peer Collaboration
  • Reusable Learning Objects
  • Virtual Worlds/Reality
  • Wearable Computing
  • Wireless Technology and Handheld Devices

57
4. Electronic Books
58
5. Instructor/Trainer Portals
59
8. Online Simulations (SimuLearn)
60
9. Online Language Support (pronunciation,
communication, vocabulary, grammar, etc.)
61
10. Online Mentoring (from remote locations)
62
A webs thats out of this world Alan Boyle,
MSNBC, Nov. 8, 1999
  • NASA and network gurus are working together to
    extend the Internet to other worlds in the next
    few years. But there are some limits that not
    even the World Wide Web can route around, such as
    the speed of light. So the builders of the
    Interplanetary Internet are going back to the
    basics, retooling protocols for future
    communications with Mars and beyond.

63
13. Reusable Learning Objects
  • Learning Objects are small or large resources
    that can be used to provide a learning
    experience. These assets can be lessons, video
    clips, images, or even people. The Learning
    Objects can represent tiny "chunks" of knowledge,
    or they can be whole courses.
  • Claude Ostyn, Click2Learn

64
14. Virtual Worlds/Virtual Reality
  • Avatars--representations of people
  • Objects--representations of objects
  • Maps--the landscape which can be explored
  • Bots--artificial intelligence

65
15. Wearable Computing
66
16. Wireless Technology
67
Any questions or comments so far?
68
Storm 2E-Learner Demands
69
Student Hated Ed Psych OnlineIndiana Daily
Student, March 5, 2003
  • Mainly technology problems, somewhat lack of
    interaction and bored

70
So What Do These Demanding Students Want?
71
So What Do Students Want?
  • Relevant Information
  • Organization and Structure
  • Clear Expectations
  • Modeling and Guidance
  • Prompt and Informative Feedback
  • Personal Touch and Caring
  • Address Diverse Needs and More Visual Lrng
  • Application to Their Job Setting
  • Choice and Challenge
  • Success

72
Storm 3 Pedagogy
73
There are problems
74
How to Avoid Shovelware?This form of
structure encourages teachers designing new
products to simply shovel existing resources
into on-line Web pages and discourages any
deliberate or intentional design of learning
strategy. (Oliver McLoughlin, 1999)
75
Must education be boring?
76
Traditional Teachers
  • Supposed sage, manager, conveyer
  • King of the mountain, sets the agenda
  • Learner is a sponge
  • Passive learning discrete knowledge
  • Objectively assess, competitive
  • Text- or teacher-centered, transmission model
  • Lack interconnections inert
  • Squash student ideas

77
Consultative Teachers
  • Co-learner, mentor, tour guide, facilitator
  • Student and problem-centered
  • Learner is a growing tree and on a journey
  • Knowledge is constructed and intertwined
  • Many resources (including texts teachers)
  • Authentic, collaborative, real-world tasks
  • Subjective, continual, less formal assess
  • Display student ideas--proud and motivated

78
Active Learning Principles
  • 1. Authentic/Raw Data
  • 2. Student Autonomy/Inquiry
  • 3. Relevant/Meaningful/Interests
  • 4. Link to Prior Knowledge
  • 5. Choice and Challenge
  • 6. Teacher as Facilitator and Co-Learner
  • 7. Social Interaction and Dialogue
  • 8. Problem-Based Student Gen Learning
  • 9. Multiple Viewpoints/Perspectives
  • 10. Collab, Negotiation, Reflection

79
Must Online Learning be Boring?
What Motivates Adult Learners to Participate?
80
Intrinsic Motivational Terms?
  • Tone/Climate Psych Safety, Comfort, Belonging
  • Feedback Responsive, Supports, Encouragement
  • Engagement Effort, Involvement, Excitement
  • Meaningfulness Interesting, Relevant, Authentic
  • Choice Flexibility, Opportunities, Autonomy
  • Variety Novelty, Intrigue, Unknowns
  • Curiosity Fun, Fantasy, Control
  • Tension Challenge, Dissonance, Controversy
  • Interactive Collaborative, Team-Based, Community
  • Goal Driven Product-Based, Success, Ownership

81
Intrinsic Motivation
  • innate propensity to engage ones interests and
    exercise ones capabilities, and, in doing so, to
    seek out and master optimal challenges
  • (i.e., it emerges from needs, inner strivings,
    and personal curiosity for growth)

See Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic
motivation and self-determination in human
behavior. NY Plenum Press.
82
1. Tone/Climate Ice Breakers
  • A. Eight Nouns Activity
  • 1. Introduce self using 8 nouns
  • 2. Explain why choose each noun
  • 3. Comment on 1-2 peer postings
  • B. Coffee House Expectations
  • 1. Have everyone post 2-3 course expectations
  • 2. Instructor summarizes and comments on how they
    might be met

83
1. Tone/Climate Social Ice Breakers
  • C. KNOWU Rooms
  • Create discussion forums or chat room topics for
    people with diff experiences (e.g., soccer
    parent, runner, pet lovers, like music, outdoor
    person). Find those with similar interests.
  • Complete eval form where list people in class and
    interests. Most names wins.
  • D. Public Commitments
  • Have students share how they will fit the
    coursework into their busy schedules.

84
Tone/Climate Social Ice Breakers
  • E. Scavenger Hunt
  • 1. Create a 20-30 item online scavenger hunt
    (e.g., finding information on the Web)
  • 2. Post scores
  • F. Two Truths, One Lie
  • Tell 2 truths and 1 lie about yourself
  • Class votes on which is the lie

85
1. Tone/Climate Social Ice Breakers
  • G. Storytelling Cartoon Time Find a Web site
    that has cartoons. Have participants link their
    introductions or stories to a particular cartoon
    URL. Storytelling is a great way to communicate.
    http//www.curtoons.com/cartooncoll.htm
  • H. Chat Room Buds Create a discussion prompt in
    one of X number of chat rooms. Introduce
    yourself in the chat room that interests you.

86
Tone B. Thiagi-Like Ice Breakers
  • I. Introductions require not only that students
    introduce themselves, but also that they find and
    respond to two classmates who have something in
    common (Serves dual purpose of setting tone and
    having students learn to use the tool)
  • J. Peer Interviews Have learners interview each
    other via e-mail and then post introductions for
    each other.

87
2. FeedbackA. Web-Supported GroupReading
Reactions
  • Give a set of articles.
  • Post reactions to 3-4 articles that intrigued
    them.
  • What is most impt in readings?
  • React to postings of 3-4 peers.
  • Summarize posts made to their reaction.
  • (Note this could also be done in teams)

88
2. Feedback.B. Annotations in Word Track
Changes and Commenting
89
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90
2. Feedback C. Critical/Constructive Friends,
Email Pals
  • Assign a critical friend (based on interests?).
  • Post weekly updates of projects, send reminders
    of due dates, help where needed.
  • Provide criticism to peer (i.e., what is strong
    and weak, whats missing, what hits the mark) as
    well as suggestions for strengthening.
  • In effect, critical friends do not slide over
    weaknesses, but confront them kindly and
    directly.
  • Reflect on experience.

91
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93
Overview of TICKIT
  • In-service teacher education program
  • Rural schools in southern Indiana
  • Yearlong, 25 teachers from 5 schools
  • Primarily school-based
  • Supported by participating school systems, Arthur
    Vining Davis Foundations and Indiana University

94
2. FeedbackD. Acknowledgement via Web, E-mail,
Live Chats, Telephone (Acknowledge questions or
completed assignments)
95
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96
2. FeedbackE. Secret Coaches and Protégés
  • Input learner names into a Web site.
  • When learners arrive it randomly assigns them a
    secret protégé for a meeting.
  • Tell them to monitor the work of their protégé
    but to avoid being obvious by giving feedback to
    several different people.
  • Give examples of comments.
  • At end of mtg, have proteges guess coaches.
  • Discuss how behavior could be used in other
    meetings.

97
2. FeedbackF. Requiring Peer Feedback
  • Alternatives
  • 1. Require minimum of peer comments and give
    guidance (e.g., they should do)
  • 2. Peer Feedback Through Templatesgive templates
    to complete peer evaluations.
  • 3. Have e-papers contest(s)

98
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2. Feedback (Instructor)G. Anonymous Suggestion
Box
  • George Watson, Univ of Delaware, Electricity and
    Electronics for Engineers
  • Students send anonymous course feedback (Web
    forms or email)
  • Submission box is password protected
  • Instructor decides how to respond
  • Then provide response and most or all of
    suggestion in online forum
  • It defuses difficult issues, airs instructor
    views, and justified actions publicly.
  • Caution If you are disturbed by criticism,
    perhaps do not use.

100
2. FeedbackH. Double-Jeopardy Quizzing
  • Gordon McCray, Wake Forest University, Intro to
    Management of Info Systems
  • Students take objective quiz (no time limit and
    not graded)
  • Submit answer for evaluation
  • Instead of right or wrong response, the quiz
    returns a compelling probing question, insight,
    or conflicting perspective (i.e., a counterpoint)
    to force students to reconsider original
    responses
  • Students must commit to a response but can use
    reference materials
  • Correct answer and explanation are presented

101
2. FeedbackI. Synchronous Testing
Assessment(Giving Exams in the Chat Room!, Janet
Marta, NW Missouri State Univ, Syllabus, January
2002)
  • Post times when will be available for 30 minute
    slots, first come, first serve.
  • Give 10-12 big theoretical questions to study
    for.
  • Tell can skip one.
  • Assessment will be a dialogue.
  • Get them there 1-2 minutes early.
  • Have hit enter every 2-3 sentences.
  • Ask qs, redirect, push for clarity, etc.
  • Covers about 3 questions in 30 minutes.

102
2. Feedback (Instructor mainly)J. Summary or
Reflection Writing (David Brown, Syllabus,
January 2002, p. 23 October 2001, p. 18)
  • Nutshell, Abstract, Summing Up
  • Pros and Cons, K-W-L,
  • Muddiest Pt Papers, Minute Papers
  • PMI (Plus, Minus, Interesting)
  • Wet Ink, Diaries, Freewriting, Blogs
  • Roundrobin, Forced Wrap Arounds
  • Email instructor after class on what learned or
    failed to learn

103
3. Engagement A. Questioning(Morten Flate
Pausen, 1995 morten_at_nki.no)
  • Shot Gun Post many questions or articles to
    discuss and answer anystudent choice.
  • Hot Seat One student is selected to answer many
    questions from everyone in the class.
  • 20 Questions Someone has an answer and others
    can only ask questions that have yes or no
    responses until someone guesses answer.

104
3. EngagementB. Electronic Voting and Polling
  • 1. Ask students to vote on issue before class
    (anonymously or send directly to the instructor)
  • 2. Instructor pulls our minority pt of view
  • 3. Discuss with majority pt of view
  • 4. Repoll students after class
  • (Note Delphi or Timed Disclosure Technique
    anomymous input till a due date
  • and then post results and
  • reconsider until consensus
  • Rick Kulp, IBM, 1999)

105
3. EngagementC. Instructor and Student
Generated Polls in SiteScape Forum
106
Survey Student Opinions (e.g., InfoPoll,
WebSurveyor, Zoomerang, SurveyShare, SurveyKey)
107
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109
4. MeaningfulnessA. Field Reflections
  • Instructor provides reflection or prompt for job
    related or field observations
  • Reflect on job setting or observe in field
  • Record notes on Web and reflect on concepts from
    chapter
  • Respond to peers
  • Instructor summarizes posts

110
4. MeaningfulnessB. Case-Based Learning
Student Cases
  • Model how to write a case
  • Practice answering cases.
  • Generate 2-3 cases during semester based on field
    experiences.
  • Link to the text materialrelate to how how text
    author or instructor might solve.
  • Respond to 6-8 peer cases.
  • Summarize the discussion in their case.
  • Summarize discussion in a peer case.
  • (Note method akin to storytelling)

111
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112
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113
10 Ways of Using Cases on Web
  • 1. Build Web weekly work around case.
  • 2. Include cases on Web exams or readings.
  • 3. Put video of case on Web.
  • 4. Read diff cases form database.
  • 5. Use prepackaged Web simulations or cases.
  • 6. One team writes case another answers.
  • 7. Small interest groups post cases.
  • 8. Publish class cases and enter competitions.
  • 9. Students generate discuss cases.
  • 10. Instructor repurposes student cases.

114
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115
4. MeaningfulnessC. Case-Based Laboratories
  • Virginia Polytechnic Institute Veterinary
    Medicine
  • Instructors provide all materials for case-based
    labs WP files, patient photos materials, color
    slides of specimens
  • Create Web images through scanning photos,
    slides, radiographs, and computed scans.
  • Find approp sound files on ed sites.
  • Students view patient info (photo, lesion photos,
    history, physical exam findings)
  • Active links of sounds (breath, cardiac, etc.)
  • Answer questions, and might discuss cases.

116
4. MeaningfulnessD. Authentic Data Analysis
  • Jeanne Sept, IU, Archaeology of Human Origins
    Components From CD to Web
  • A set of research qs and problems that
    archaeologists have posed about the site
  • A complete set of data from site and background
    info
  • A set of methodologies and addl background info
    (TimeWeb tool to help students visualize and
    explore space/time dimensions)
  • Students work collaboratively to integrate
    multidisciplinary data interpret age of site
  • Interpret of ancient environments
  • Analyze artifacts and fossils from the site

117
4. MeaningfulnessE. Job interviews Internships
  • Learners interview someone about their job and
    post to the Web or Instructor provides reflection
    or prompt for job related or field observations
  • Reflect on job setting or observe in field
  • Record notes on Web and reflect on concepts from
    chapter
  • Respond to peers
  • Instructor summarizes posts

118
4. Meaningfulness F. E-mail Expert Job
Interviews
  • 1. Field Definition Activity Have student
    interview (via e-mail, if necessary) someone
    working in the field of study and share their
    results
  • As a class, pool interview results and develop a
    group description of what it means to be a
    professional in the field

119
4. Meaningfulness G. Perspective Taking
Foreign Languages
  • Katy Fraser, Germanic Studies at IU and Jennifer
    Liu, East Asian Languages and Cultures at IU
  • Have students receive e-newsletters from a
    foreign magazine as well as respond to related
    questions.
  • Students assume roles of those in literature from
    that culture and participate in real-time chats
    using assumed identity.
  • Students use multimedia and Web for self-paced
    lessons to learn target language in authentic
    contexts.

120
4. Meaningfulness H. Perspective Taking Oral
Histories and Interviews
  • Have learners relate the course material to a
    real-life experience.
  • Example In a course on Technology Culture,
    students freely shared experiences of visiting
    grandparents on rural farms.

121
5. ChoiceA. Multiple Topics
  • Generate multiple discussion prompts and ask
    students to participate in 2 out of 3
  • Provide different discussion tracks (much like
    conference tracks) for students with different
    interests to choose among
  • List possible topics and have students vote
    (students sign up for lead diff weeks)
  • Have students list and vote.

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5. ChoiceB. Multiple Task Options
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5. ChoiceC. Discussion Starter-Wrapper (Hara,
Bonk, Angeli, 2000)
  • Starter reads ahead and starts discussion and
    others participate and wrapper summarizes what
    was discussed.
  • Start-wrapper with roles--same as 1 but include
    roles for debate (optimist, pessimist, devil's
    advocate).
  • D. Alternative Facilitator-Starter-Wrapper
    (Alexander, 2001)
  • Instead of starting discussion, student acts as
    moderator or questioner to push student thinking
    and give feedback

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5. ChoiceE. Web Resource Reviews
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6. VarietyA. Roundrobin
  • Select a topic
  • Respond to it
  • Pass answer(s) to next person in group
  • Keep passing until everyone contributes or ideas
    are exhausted
  • Summarize and/or report or findings

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6. Variety A. Just-In-Time-Teaching
  • Gregor Novak, IUPUI Physics Professor (teaches
    teamwork, collaboration, and effective
    communication)
  • Lectures are built around student answers to
    short quizzes that have an electronic due date
    just hours before class.
  • Instructor reads and summarizes responses before
    class and weaves them into discussion and changes
    the lecture as appropriate.

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6. VarietyC. Just-In-Time Syllabus(Raman,
Shackelford, Sosin) http//ecedweb.unomaha.edu/j
its.htm
  • Syllabus is created as a "shell" which is
    thematically organized and contains print, video,
    and web references as well as assignments.
  • Goal critical thinking e.g., Economics
    instructors incorporate time-sensitive data,
    on-line discussions as well as links to
    freshly-mounted websites into the delivery of
    most of the undergraduate courses in economics.
    Instructor summarizes responses before class and
    weaves them into discussion and changes the
    lecture as appropriate.
  • e.g., add new links in the Just-in-Time Syllabus
    to breaking news about gasoline prices or the
    energy blackouts in California.

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6. Variety D. Virtual Classroom
  • Joachim Hammer, University of Florida, Data
    Warehousing and Decision Support
  • Voice annotated slides on Web 7 course modules
    with a number of 15-30 minutes units
  • Biweekly QA chat sessions moderated by students
  • Bulletin Board class discussions
  • Posting to Web of best 2-3 assignments
  • Exam Qs posted to BB answers sent via email
  • Team projects posted in a team project space
  • Addl Web resources are structured for students
    (e.g., white papers, reports, project and product
    home pages)
  • Email is used to communicate with students

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7. CuriosityA. Synchronous Chats
  • Find article or topic that is controversial
  • Invite person associated with that article
    (perhaps based on student suggestions)
  • Hold real time chat
  • Pose questions
  • Discuss and debrief (i.e., did anyone change
    their minds?)
  • (Alternatives B. Email Interviews with experts
  • C. Assignments with expert reviews)

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7. CuriosityB. Electronic Seance
  • Students read books from famous dead people
  • Convene when dark (sync or asynchronous).
  • Present present day problem for them to solve
  • Participate from within those characters (e.g.,
    read direct quotes from books or articles)
  • Invite expert guests from other campuses
  • Keep chat open for set time period
  • Debrief

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7. CuriosityC. Multi-room Special Interest Chats
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8. TensionA. Instructor Generated Virtual
Debate (or student generated)
  • Select controversial topic (with input from
    class)
  • Divide class into subtopic pairs one critic and
    one defender.
  • Assign each pair a perspective or subtopic
  • Critics and defenders post initial position stmts
  • Rebut person in ones pair
  • Reply to 2 positions with comments or qs
  • Formulate and post personal positions.

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8. Tension Role Play
  • B. Assume Persona of Scholar
  • Enroll famous people in your course
  • Students assume voice of that person for one or
    more sessions
  • Post a 300-700 word debate to one or more of the
    readings as if you were that person. Enter
    debate topic or Respond to debate topic
  • Respond to rdg reflections of others or react to
    own

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8. Tension Role Play
  • C. Role Play Personalities
  • List possible roles or personalities (e.g.,
    coach, optimist, devils advocate, etc.)
  • Sign up for different role every week (or 5-6 key
    roles)
  • Reassign roles if someone drops class
  • Perform within rolesrefer to different
    personalities

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Role 1 Starter/MediatorReporter/Commentator
  • Summarizes the key terms, ideas, and issues in
    the chapters, supplemental instructor notes,
    journal articles, and other assigned readings and
    asks thought provoking questions typically before
    ones peers read or discuss the concepts and
    ideas. In effect, the starter is a reporter or
    commentator or teacher of what to expect in the
    upcoming readings or activities. Once the
    start is posted, this student acts as a
    mediator or facilitator of discussion for the
    week.

140
Role 2 Wrapper/SummarizerSynthesizer/Connector/R
eviewer
  • Connects ideas, synthesizes discussion,
    interrelates comments, and links both explicit
    and implicit ideas posed in online discussion or
    other activities. The learner looks for themes
    in online coursework while weaving information
    together. The wrapping or summarizing is done at
    least at the end of the week or unit, but
    preferably two or more times depending on the
    length of activity.

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Role 3 Conqueror or Debater/Arguer/Bloodletter
  • Takes ideas into action, debates with others,
    persists in arguments and never surrenders or
    compromises nomatter what the casualties are when
    addressing any problem or issue.

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Role 4 Devil's Advocate or Critic/Censor/Confeder
ate
  • Takes opposite points of view for the sake of an
    argument and is an antagonist when addressing any
    problem posed. This might be a weekly role that
    is secretly assigned.

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Role 5 Idea Squelcher/Biased/Preconceiver
  • Squelches good and bad ideas of others and
    submits your own prejudiced or biased ideas
    during online discussions and other situations.
    Forces others to think. Is that person you
    really hate to work with.

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Role 6 Optimist/Open-minded/Idealist
  • In this role, the student notes what appears to
    be feasible, profitable, ideal, and "sunny" ideas
    when addressing this problem. Always sees the
    bright or positive side of the situation.

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Role 7 Emotional/Sensitive/Intuitive
  • Comments with the fire and warmth of emotions,
    feelings, hunches, and intuitions when
    interacting with others, posting comments, or
    addressing problems.

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Role 8 Idea Generator Creative Energy/Inventor
  • Brings endless energy to online conversations
    and generates lots of fresh ideas and new
    perspectives to the conference when addressing
    issues and problems.

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Role 9 Questioner/Ponderer/Protester
  • Role is to question, ponder, and protest the
    ideas of others and the problem presented itself.
    Might assume a radical or ultra-liberal tone.

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Role 10 Coach Facilitator/Inspirer/Trainer
  • Offers hints, clues, supports, and highly
    motivational speeches to get everyone fired-up or
    at least one lost individual back on track when
    addressing a problem or situation.

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Role 11 Controller/Executive Director/CEO/Leader
  • In this role, the student oversees the process,
    reports overall findings and opinions, and
    attempts to control the flow of information,
    findings, suggestions, and general problem
    solving.

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Role 12 Slacker/Slough/Slug/Surfer Dude
  • In this role, the student does little or nothing
    to help him/herself or his/her peers learn.
    Here, one can only sit back quietly and listen,
    make others do all the work for you, and
    generally have a laid back attitude (i.e., go to
    the beach) when addressing this problem.

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9. Interactive Online Co-Laborative Psych
Experimentshttp//psychexps.olemiss.edu/
  • PsychExperiments (University of Mississippi)
  • Contains 30 free psych experiments
  • Run experiments over large number of subjects

Ken McGraw, Syllabus, November, 2001
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9. InteractiveB. Symposia of Experts
  • Find topic during semester that peaks interest
  • Find students who tend to be more controversial
  • Invite to a panel discussion on a topic or theme
  • Have them prepare statements
  • Invite questions from audience (rest of class)
  • Assign panelists to start

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9. Interactive
  • C. Panels of Experts Be an Expert/Ask an Expert
    Have each learner choose an area in which to
    become expert and moderate a forum for the class.
    Require participation in a certain number of
    forums (choice)
  • D. Press Conference Have a series of press
    conferences at the end of small group projects
    one for each group)

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9. Interactive E. Thoughtful Team Reflection
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9. InteractiveF. Moderated Online Team Meetings
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10. Goal DrivenA. Team Product
  • Team or Course White Paper, Business Plan, Study
    Guide, Glossary, Journal Have students work in
    teams to produce a product and share with other
    groups
  • Post work to online gallery. Expert Review and
    rate projects (authentic audience)

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10. Goal DrivenB. Group Problem Solving
  • Provide a real-world problem
  • Form a committee of learners to solve the problem
  • Assign a group reporter/manager
  • Provide interaction guidelines and deadlines
  • Brainstorming, Research, Negotiation, Drafting,
    Editing, Reflecting
  • C. Jigsaw Technique
  • Assign chapters within groups
  • (member 1 reads chapters 1 2 2 reads 3 4,
    etc.)

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10. Goal DrivenD. Gallery Tours
  • Assign Topic or Project
  • (e.g., Team or Class White Paper, Bus Plan, Study
    Guide, Glossary, Journal, Model Exam Answers)
  • Students Post to Web
  • Experts Review and Rate
  • Try to Combine Projects

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10. Goal DrivenE. Problem-Based
LearningLearning to Teach with Technology Studio
160
10. Goal DrivenF. Inspire students with someone
famous as a reward
161
The Perfect Storm.1. Innovative Technology2.
Demanding Learners3. Creative Pedagogy
162
So, which direction do we go?
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