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Week 12 day 2, Energy Systems and Physical Fitness


Discuss the relationship of flexibility and golf fitness ... UCCS office (SB 136) hours Wednesdays, 2-4pm. Thank you and a have a great golf season! ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Week 12 day 2, Energy Systems and Physical Fitness

Week 12 day 2, Energy Systems and Physical Fitness
  • William L. Elliott, M.B.S., F.T., C.P.T.,
    C.N.M.T., L.M.T.

Todays Class
  • Continue discussion on the essential principles
    of strength and conditioning for improved
    fitness, performance, and health
  • Discuss the relationship of flexibility and golf
  • Discuss the relationships of ROM (range of
    motion), low back function and golf performance
  • Learn the basic energy systems used in golf and
    other physical activities
  • Learn about cardiorespiratory endurance and body
    composition, and how they relate to golf
    performance and health
  • Learn to develop safe and effective fitness
    programs for golfers

Strength Conditioning for Golf Continued
  • Wayne Westcott, Ph.D. studies (article Should
    Golfers Do Strength Exercise?)
  • Review of Previously Discussed Important Points
  • A basic resistance training program consists of a
    minimum of one set (i.e., 8 to 12 repetitions) of
    8 to 10 exercises for the major muscle groups,
    performed at least 2 days per week (ACSM)
  • The primary components of physical fitness
    include Muscular endurance, muscular strength,
    flexibility, Cardiorespiratory endurance, and
    body composition

Flexibility ROM Fitness
  • Flexibility …refers to the range of motion ROM
    or to the looseness or suppleness of the body or
    specific joints, and reflects the
    interrelationships between muscles, tendons,
    ligaments, skin, and the joint itself. (Costill)
  • Few people (including athletes) attain optimal
    levels of flexibility, as with most parameters of
    physical fitness
  • In fact, normal, healthy muscle tissue can be
    stretched to about twice its resting length.

Flexibility ROM Fitness Continued
  • Types of stretching (e.g., static, dynamic,
    ballistic, yoga, PNF, active/passive)
  • Resistance training (properly done i.e., full
    ROM) can augment flexibility
  • Stretch duration 20-60 seconds
  • Stretch intensity Point of mild discomfort
  • Stretching vs. warming-up
  • Injury prevention and Thacker et al. study MSSE,
    Vol 36(3), 2004

Low Back Function/Dysfunction
  • Greater than 30 million Americans are afflicted
    with LBP with an estimated 24 million (80) due
    to weak muscles, inadequate flexibility, or
    improper posture (Sharkey)
  • Low back injuries are among common golf injuries
    (Gosheger, 2003)
  • Low back injuries often occur with bending and
    twisting movements
  • Chronic flexibility and strengthening exercises
    may help to prevent such injuries Refer to the
    Strength Conditioning for Golf Lab Activities
    (Part II) list for specific exercises

Low Back Function and Dysfunction Continued
  • Common low back injuries involve spinal ligaments
    (e.g., ligamentum flavum, interspinous ligament,
    and supraspinous ligament) and intervertebral
  • The L5-S1 disc is most vulnerable to injury
    (Axler McGill, 1997)
  • An anterior pelvic tilt increases stress to
    ligaments, discs, an paraspinal musculature

Low Back Function and Dysfunction Continued
  • Intervertebral discs are comprised of two parts
    (Illustration from Howley Franks, 2003)
  • 1.) The nucleus pulposus (no pain receptors)
  • 2.) The anulus fibrosis

Low Back Function and Dysfunction Continued
  • The paraspinal muscles e.g., multifidis,
    iliocostalis, longissimus, and spinalis (the
    latter three are known as the erector spinae)
    are also commonly involved in low back injuries
    (Illustration from Howley Franks, 2003)

Energy Systems Involved in Physical Activity
  • Energy necessary for humans to perform physical
    activity comes from the light energy of the Sun
  • Plants eat light energy (photosynthesis) and we
    eat plants or other animals that eat plants
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a high energy
    compound formed from the energy of chemical bonds
    from the food we eat (i.e., fat, protein, and
  • ATP is the currency of the human body and is
    necessary fuel for physical activity and bodily

Energy Systems Involved in Physical Activity
  • ATP is generated through different metabolic
    processes or metabolic pathways. These
    pathways are
  • 1.) The ATP-PCr system (occurs in cell cytosol)
  • Provides 1 mol of ATP per mol of PCr
  • 2.) The glycolytic system (occurs in cell
  • Provides 2 mols of ATP per mol of glucose
  • Provides 3 mols of ATP per mol of glycogen
  • 3.) The oxidative system (occurs in cell
  • Provides 36-38 mols of ATP per mol of glucose
  • Provides 37-39 mols of ATP per mol of glycogen

Energy Systems Involved in Physical Activity
  • Patterns of Energy Use (See p1A, Figure 11.1
    From Sharkey, 2002)
  • The duration and intensity of exercise are
    important in determining witch pathways of energy
    production are used to produce ATP (See p2A,
    Figure 7.8 From McArdle, Katch, Katch, 2001)
  • Accordingly, different sources of energy (i.e.,
    energy substrates) are used to produce ATP (See
    p3A, Figure 12.1 From Sharkey, 2002)

Energy Systems Involved in Physical Activity
  • Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE)
  • Thermic effect of feeding (TEF 10)
  • For example, food intake and drug use
  • Thermic effect of physical activity (TEA 15-30)
  • Depending on duration and intensity of activity
  • Resting metabolic rate (RMR 60-75)
  • For example, fat-free body mass, protein
    turnover, hormonal activity

Energy Systems Involved in Physical Activity
  • In humans, energy is expressed in kilocalories
  • A kcal is the amount of heat energy needed to
    raise 1 kg of water by 1C (specifically, from
    14.5 to 15.5C)
  • Since it is known that each liter of oxygen (O2)
    consumed is equivalent to 5 kcals, the energy
    used during aerobic exercise can be expressed in
    terms of oxygen equivalents

Expressing Energy Expenditure During Physical
  • In exercise physiology, Caloric expenditure is
    commonly expressed in terms of total kcals,
    kcals/minute, L/min, ml/kg min, and METs
    (metabolic equivalents or 3.5 ml/kg min)
  • To convert from one energy equivalent to another,
    carry out the calculation in the direction of the
    arrow (Adapted from Sharkey, 2002)
  • Total kcals__
  • ? min ? / min
  • kcals/minute
  • ? 5 ? / 5
  • L/min______
  • ? kg ? / kg
  • ml/kg min_
  • ? 3.5 ? / 3.5
  • METs______

Cardiorespiratory Endurance Aerobic Fitness
  • Aerobic fitness cardiorespiratory endurance or
    CRE is the maximal capacity to take in,
    transport, and utilize oxygen. (Sharkey, 1997)
  • Aerobic metabolism (the oxidative system) is the
    most efficient system of ATP production 37 to 39
    mols of ATP per molecule of glycogen vs. 3 mols
    using the anaerobic (glycolytic) system
  • CRE is measured in terms of maximal oxygen
    consumption (VO2max) and expressed in terms of
    L/min, ml/kg min, and METs equivalent to the
    resting metabolic rate (approximately) or 3.5
    ml/kg min

Cardiorespiratory Endurance Continued
  • Aerobic fitness declines by 8 to 10 per decade
  • Regular, moderate intensity physical activity can
    decrease that decline by 50 (i.e., 4 to 5)
  • Regular fitness training (beyond moderate
    intensity) can decrease that decline by 50
    (i.e., to 2 or less)
  • Aerobic fitness is influenced by heredity, age,
    gender, body fat, and training

Cardiorespiratory Endurance Continued
  • The FITT(E) principle and aerobic training
  • Frequency
  • 3 to 5 days per week (ACSM, 2000)
  • Intensity
  • Heart Rate (HR) Method 220-AgeHRmax
  • Exercising at 70 to 85 of HRmax (equal to 60 to
    80 of VO2max) will enable most individuals to
    achieve health, fitness, and weight management
    goals (Pollock et al., 1998 ACSM, 2000)
  • Time (duration)
  • 20 to 30 minutes per session, excluding warm-up
    and cool-down time (Pollock et al., 1998 ACSM,
  • Type (mode of exercise)
  • Enjoy (do something you enjoy)

Cardiorespiratory Endurance Continued
  • Note The 220-AgeHRmax formula has a standard
    deviation (SD) of 12 bpm (68 of the population
    fall within one SD, 95 are within two SDs, 99
    are within three SDs)
  • This means that one out of every one-hundred
    40-year-olds may have a HRmax below 144 or above
  • Alternatives to 220-age
  • Borgs scale of perceived exertion (RPE scale)
  • From 3 to 6 and 12 to 16 (in-between light and
    very hard), on Borgs 0 to 10 and 6 to 20
    scales, approximates 60 to 85 of MHR (Burke)
  • The talk test

Cardiorespiratory Endurance Continued
  • Format of a typical aerobic workout (See p4A,
    Figure 7-2 From ACSM, 2000)
  • Additional information on Aerobic fitness
  • Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire or
    PAR-Q (See pp5A 6A from the Canadian Society
    for Exercise Physiology, 1994)
  • Aerobic Fitness Field Tests
  • Rockport Walking Test (See p7A From Sharkey,
  • Cooper 1.5-Mile Running Test (See pp7A 8A
    From Sharkey, 2002)
  • Aerobic Fitness Categories (See p9A, In a
    Practical Sense From McArdle, Katch, Katch,

Body Composition What Youre Made of Fitness
  • Body composition refers to the bodys chemical
  • In physical fitness, body composition is often
    express in terms of the relative amounts of fat
    mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) comprising the
    body (or body fat)
  • Measuring body fat
  • There are many ways to measure body composition.

Body Composition Continued
  • BMI vs. body composition See pp7A (From Sharkey,
    2002) 8A (From Wilmore Costill, 2004).
  • Body mass index (BMI) is calculated by dividing
    the body mass (kg) by the height (m) squared
  • Simple bodyweight vs. body fat/lean mass ratio (
    body fat).
  • body fat (BF) can be calculated by using the
    waist circumference (WC)
  • BF for women 0.439 waist (cm) 0.221 age (y)
  • BF for men 0.567 waist (cm) 0.101 age (y)
  • WC is should be taken with a calibrated
    fiberglass measuring tape, midway between the
    lateral lower ribs and the iliac crests, after a
    gentle expiration, with clothes loosened around
    the waist area. The tape should be pulled snugly
    but not tight (Lean et al., 1996)

Body Composition Continued
  • Body Fat Guidelines
  • Body Fat
  • Classification Men Women
  • Essential Fat 3-5 11-14
  • Athletes 2-13 12-22
  • Generally Fit 12-18 16-25
  • Moderate Risk 19-24 26-31
  • High to Very High Risk gt or 25 gt or 32
  • Or lt 3 Or lt11
  • Obesity gt20 gt30
  • Obesity Not Simply a Cosmetic Disorder
  • 27 of Americans are obese (CDC, 1999) almost
    double the rate from 2 decades ago.
  • Obesity is associated with a number of serious
    diseases and illnesses (e.g., CAD, CVA, diabetes,
    and cancer).

Body Composition Continued
  • While body composition, in part, is genetically
    determined exercise and diet can do a lot to
    control it.
  • Resistance training, in addition to a good diet,
    will make the most notable changes in body
    composition (see Fitness Talk article).
  • The importance of caloric balance.
  • According to obesity researcher Claude Bouchard,
    35 to 40 of the variance in body weight among
    individuals of similar stature can be attributed
    to genetics, which leaves 60 to 65 up to the
    individual (Malina Bouchard, 1991, as cited in
    Sharkey, 1997).
  • You can be overweight and still be fit and
    inversely, you can be underweight and unfit.
    (these are the exceptions, not the rules).

Todays Lab Activity Fitness Programming
  • Using the principles that you have learned in
    previous classes, design a basic fitness program
    for a golfer
  • Make sure to include all of the primary
    components of physical fitness
  • Refer to the Strength Conditioning for Golf
    Lab Activities (Part II) list for specific
  • When you are finished, present and discuss your
    program with me, Aubrey, or Aaron
  • Please dont hesitate to ask questions while you
    are working

Concluding Remarks
  • The fitter golfer is a better golfer
  • A good understanding of basic human physiology
    can be used to improve golf performance and/or
    performance in any other sport
  • Please feel free to contact me if you have any
    questions (e-mail is the best way to contact me)
  • Billy Elliott
  • welliott_at_uccs.edu
  • (719) 487-0931 (message phone)
  • UCCS office (SB 136) hours Wednesdays, 2-4pm
  • Thank you and a have a great golf season!!!
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