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Physical Activity

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Title: Physical Activity


1
Physical Activity Health
  • This lecture has been dedicated to Olympics games
    in Beijing, China
  • Aug 08-24, 2008
  • By Supercourse Team

2
Physical Activity Health
  • Lecture Developers (Supercourse Team)
  • Soni Dodani MD, PhD
  • Others Ali Ardalan, Eugene Shubnikov, Francios
    Sauer,Faina Linkov, Mita Lovelaker, Jesse Huang,
    Nicholas Padilla, Rania Saad, Ron LaPorte
  • Questions  Super1_at_pitt.edu
  • How to join the Supercourse  www.pitt.edu/super1
    /

3
Learning Objectives
  • To encourage students to be physically active
  • To illustrate Exercise and its effect on disease
    prevention
  • To provide examples of simple, moderate intensity
    physical activity
  • To encourage regular physical activity in
    developing countries with focus on women
  • To encourage physical fitness in people with
    disabilities
  • To build an Olympic Physical activity and health
    supercourse

4
The Olympic Games This YearBeijing 2008
  • Numbers
  •  
  •         Population 14,000,000
  •         Visitors 2-2.5,000,000
  •         Athletes 18,000
  •         Helpers 5,000
  •         Referees 2,500
  •         Volunteers 6,000
  •         Journalists 15,000

5
What is Physical Activity
  • Physical activityBodily movement produced by
    skeletal muscles that results in an expenditure
    of energy
  • Physical fitnessA measure of a person's ability
    to perform physical activities that require
    endurance, strength, or flexibility.
  • Regular physical activityA pattern of physical
    activity is regular if activities are performed
    in some order
  • CDC,1997

6
Physical activity is something you do. Physical
fitness is something you acquire, a
characteristic or an attribute one can achieve by
being physically active. And exercise is
structured and tends to have fitness as its
goal"
Anonymous

7
Spectrum of Physical Activity
and Health
Physically Fit
Physically disabled
Physically Active
LaPorte RE Am J Epidemiol. 1984
Oct120(4)507-17
8
Differences between Exerciseand Sport
  • Exercise
  • Its a form of physical activity done primarily
    to improve ones health and fitness.
  • Sports
  • Is complex, institutionalized,
  • competitive and these very characteristics
    works against moderate and rhythmical exercise.

  • CDC 1999

9
Common Reasons Not To Exercise
  • I dont have the time
  • I dont like to sweat
  • Ill look silly
  • It hurts
  • I dont know what to do
  • Its not important

10
Why Exercise ???
11
Do you know?
  • 13.5 million people have coronary heart disease.
  • 1.5 million people suffer from a heart attack in
    a given year.
  • 250,000 people suffer from hip fractures each
    year.
  • Over 60 million people (a third of the
    population) are overweight.
  • 50 million people have high blood
    pressure.
    (WHO, 2003)

12
Do you Know that.
Adjusted RR for CVD Mortality by Fitness and
Body Fat
13
Do you Know that.
Adjusted RR for All-Cause Mortality by Fitness
and Body Fat

14
Do you know that
  • Childhood obesity has reached epidemic
    proportions in most part of the world
  • Children are eating more and exercising less.
  • Time spent watching television or using computers
  • This lack coupled with poor dietary habits has
    led to significant increases in the number of
    children with Type II diabetes and predisposition
    to hypertension, coronary artery disease and
    others

15
All of these can be Prevented by Regular Physical
Activity !!!
16
How Physical Activity Impacts Health
  • Helps control weight.
  • Reduces feelings of depression and anxiety.
  • Helps build and maintain healthy bones, muscles,
    and joints.
  • Reduces the risk of developing colon cancer.
  • Helps reduce blood pressure in people who already
    have high blood pressure.
  • Causes the development of new blood vessels in
    the heart and other muscles.
  • Enlarges the arteries that supply blood to the
    heart. WHO
    2002

17
Health Risk of Physical Inactivity
  • Leading causes of disease and disability
    associated with physical inactivity
  • Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
  • Stroke
  • Obesity
  • Type II Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Stress and Anxiety
  • Osteo-arthritis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Low back pain

18
What Can Exercise do for You?
  • Reduce the risk of the three leading causes of
    death Heart Disease, stroke, and cancer
  • Control or prevent development of Disease
  • Enhance Mental Abilities
  • Improve Sleeping Habits and Increase Energy
    Levels
  • Lift Depression and Help Manage Stress
  • Control Weight, improving self-image, appearance
    and health

19
Exercise Cardiovascular Disease
  • FACT
  • Sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for CVD,
    according to the American Heart Association
  • Exercise reduces Blood Pressure
  • High blood pressure (above 140/90) is the main
    cause of Heart Attack and Stroke
  • Exercise prevents Atherosclerosis (clogged
    arteries)
  • Exercise reduces cholesterol plaques that clog
    arteries and can lead to stroke and heart
    attack WHO 2002

20
Exercise and Cancer
  • The Basics
  • Exercise helps to prevent obesity, a major risk
    factor for several types of cancer
  • Exercise enhances immune function
  • Exercise activates antioxidant enzymes that
    protect cells from free radical damage
    WHO 2002

21
Exercise and Diabetes
  • Increase insulin sensitivity
  • Control blood glucose
  • Control Weight/Lower body fat
  • Reduce risk of cardiovascular disease
  • WHO 2002

22
Exercise and Depression
  • Exercise can help prevent depression. In fact,
    recent studies have shown that exercise was
    found to be just as effective (despite a slower
    initial response) as antidepressant medication
    for treatment of depression.
  • Exercise reduces health problems , making you
    feel better
  • Exercise helps you sleep better
  • Exercise controls weight, enhancing self-esteem

    WHO 2002

23
Exercise and Your Mind
  • Short-term benefits
  • Boost alertness (possibly by triggering the
    release of epinephrine and nor epinephrine)
  • Improve memory
  • Improve intellectual function
  • Spark creativity
  • Long-term benefits
  • Exercise has been shown to slow and even reverse
    age-related decline in mental function and loss
    of short-term memory
  • A report of Surgeon general, Physical Activity
    and health, 1996

24
Opportunities for Physical Activity
  • At work
  • For transport
  • In domestic duties
  • In leisure time
  • The majority of people do very little or no
    physical activity in any of these domains

25
Getting Started.Setting Goals
  • What will motivate you?
  • Think about your reasons for exercising
  • Are your goals important enough to keep you
    motivated long-term?
  • Think short-term and long-term
  • How will you benefit from your fitness plan
    day-to-day?
  • In 1 year? In 5 years? In 10 years?

26
Before You Start...
  • If you are over 40 or have health problems (heart
    disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity,
    muscle or joint problems) see a physician before
    beginning exercise
  • Be informed
  • Learn as much as you can about exercise by
    reading and talking to other people
  • Learn safety precautions before you do any
    exercise

27
Fitness Equipment / Safety
  • Fitness Equipment / Safety
  • Buy Appropriate SHOES
  • Wear Comfortable Clothing
  • TOO HOT! TOO COLD!
  • Run and Walk with a Friend
  • More fun, safer, with a physical and mental
    support system
  • Night Time stay to the well lit areas
  • Select activities that are fun .. To YOU!

28
Get Moving!
  • Components of an exercise program
  • Aerobic Activity
  • Strength Training
  • Flexibility Training
  • Use an exercise log to help you plan and keep
    track of your exercise program
  • WHO 2002

29
Aerobic Activity
  • Definition
  • Continuous movement that uses big muscle groups
    and is performed at an intensity that causes your
    heart, lungs, and vascular system to work harder
    than at rest
  • Cardio respiratory Fitness is built through
    aerobic exercise
  • Aerobic exercise conditions and strengthens our
    heart, respiratory system, muscles, and immune
    system
  • CDC physical activity report 1999

30
Types of Aerobic Exercise
  • Outdoor Activities
  • Walking
  • Jogging/running
  • Bicycling
  • Swimming
  • Basketball
  • Soccer
  • Jumping Rope
  • Indoor Activities
  • Treadmill machine
  • Stair climbing machine
  • Stationary bike
  • Elliptical trainer
  • Rowing machine
  • Aerobics, boxing...

31
Strength Training
  • Definition
  • Muscle work against resistance that improves
    strength and endurance
  • Strength allows us to move, and endurance allows
    us to perform work over time
  • Muscles 40 of our lean body mass
  • Use it or lose it unused muscle disappears
    (atrophy)

32
Types of Strength Training
  • Free Weights
  • use of dumbbells and/or bars with weights on the
    ends
  • involves balance and coordination useful for
    enhancing function in daily activities and
    recreational sports
  • Bonuses convenient, cheap, and provides a wide
    variety of exercises that work several muscle
    groups together
  • Your body, your weight
  • The most convenient form of resistance exercise
  • Pushups, pull-ups,. Lunges, squats.

33
Flexibility Training
  • Flexibility The ability to move a joint through
    its range of motion
  • We lose flexibility with disuse and aging
  • Benefits
  • Decreased chance of muscular injury, soreness,
    and pain
  • Helps prevent and reduce lower back pain
  • Improves joint health (tight muscles stress our
    joints)
  • Activities stretching, yoga, pilates, tai chi

34
How Much and How Hard?
  • Frequency 3-5 days per week
  • Aerobic exercise a minimum if 3 days a week are
    necessary to reach most exercise goals and
    minimize health benefits
  • Strength training a minimum of 2 days per week
  • Flexibility training a minimum of 3-5 days per
    week
  • Duration
  • Aerobic 20-60 minutes of continuous aerobic
    activity
  • Strength 1-3 sets of 8-12 repetitions
  • Stretching Stretch all muscle groups and hold
    positions for 10-30 seconds

35
Timing Questions
  • What time of day is best?
  • Choose the most convenient time for your schedule
  • Choose a regular time--the same time every day
  • Timing may depend on the activity you choose
  • Can I eat before exercise?
  • It is best not to eat a meal for 2 hours
    beforehand
  • Be sure to drink plenty of water before and
    during exercise
  • Should I exercise when Im sick?
  • No, especially if you have a fever

36
Exercise for people with special needs
  • People with disabilities are less likely to
    engage in regular moderate physical activity than
    people without disabilities, yet they have
    similar needs to promote their health and prevent
    unnecessary disease
  • Exercise is for everyone!!!!!!!
  • Individuals who have physical disabilities or
    chronic, disabling conditions such as arthritis
    can improve muscle stamina and strength with
    regular physical activity

37
Exercise for people with special needs
"You don't stop exercising because you grow old.
You grow old because you stop exercising."
Anonymous
  • People with disabilities should first consult a
    physician before beginning a program of
    physical activity to which they are
    unaccustomed
  • Provide community-based programs to meet the
    needs of persons with disabilities.
  • Ensure that environments and facilities conducive
    to being physically active are available and
    accessible to people with disabilities, such as
    offering safe, accessible, and attractive trails
    for bicycling, walking, and wheelchair
    activities.

38
Exercise for Women in developing countries
  • There has been several studies which have shown
    that less emphasis is given to exercise
    especially in women
  • The reasons are several and most important one
    is awareness.
  • Women sports are not encouraged in most of
    developing countries
  • There is stigma that women should not be
    involved in outdoor sports

39
Exercise is for everyone
  • There is need for awareness for physical fitness
    in developing countries
  • Exercise is not only for men but for everyone
  • With commitment, opportunities can be developed.
  • Even shopping malls provide opportunities for
    fitness walking
  • CDC 1997

40
Health Risks of Physical Activity
  • Most musculo-skeletal injuries sustained during
    physical activity are likely to be preventable
  • Injuries sustained during competitive sports have
    been shown to increase the risk of developing
    osteoarthritis
  • Serious cardiac events can occur with physical
    exertion.
  • The overall benefit of regular physical
    activity is lower all-cause mortality

41
Injury
  • Prevention
  • exercise regularly
  • gradually increase intensity
  • rest between sessions
  • warm-up and cool down
  • stay flexible
  • dont exercise when sick
  • dont exercise when muscles are fatigued and
    straining
  • know proper form for any activity you do
  • Caring for Injuries
  • Rest stop immediately
  • Ice apply immediately and repeat every few hours
    for 15-20 minutes
  • Compress wrap injured area with elastic bandage
  • Elevation raise injured area above heart
  • After 2 days, apply heat if there is no swelling
  • Gradually ease back into activity when pain is
    gone

42
Summary
  • Physical inactivity is one of the top 10 leading
    causes of death and disability in the developed
    world
  • Exercise improves our body and minds
  • Even moderate exercise has many health benefits
  • It is important to set fitness goals that are
    realistic and meaningful for you
  • It takes time to make fitness part of a
    lifestyle, and we will all have ups and downs in
    following our exercise programs
  • Exercise feels good!

43
The first wealth is health." Ralph Waldo
Emerson
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