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The Link Between Language and Literacy Using Treasures K2


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Title: The Link Between Language and Literacy Using Treasures K2

The Link Between Language and Literacy Using
Treasures (K-2)
  • Erin Knoll, Kathy Hillner,
  • Erin Naughton, and Kathy Fox
  • February 2009

  • The Link Between Language and Literacy
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Assessment Data
  • Balanced Literacy
  • Scaffolding
  • Strategies
  • Questioning Techniques

  • Literacy development is intertwined
  • with language acquisition
  • from a very young age.

Preventing Reading Difficulties In Young
Children National Reading Council Report
STATE GOAL 4Listen and speak effectively in a
variety of situations.
  • STANDARD A Listen effectively in formal and
    informal situations.
  • Listen with understanding and respond to
    conversations and a series of directions.
  • STANDARD B Speak effectively using language
    appropriate to the situation and audience.
  • Communicate needs, ideas and thoughts.
  • 2. Use expanded vocabulary and language for a
    variety of purposes.

The Connection Between Written Language and Oral
Facts About Language
  • Spoken language is innate. It is instinctive.
    Language does not have to be taught. All that is
    necessary is for humans to be exposed to their
    mother tongue.
  • Chomsky and Pinker in Overcoming Dyslexia
    (Shaywitz, 2003)
  • Born with an equal potential to learn any
  • Language-Literacy Link (M. Burns, 2002)

Brain Basics
  • Groups of neurons, interconnected by synapses,
    form neural networks.

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Brain Basics
  • Growth of the brain occurs from the inside out
    and the bottom up
  • You are born with100 billion brain cells
  • There are 15,000 synaptic connections for each

Miller (2004)
The organization of the human brain for language
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The Brain Function for Language and Reading
Stanford Report, February 25, 2003
Facts About Learning Language
  • Phonemes are the smallest units of sounds. There
    are 44 phonemes in the English language.
  • At 1 year we begin to build the phonemes specific
    to our native language
  • Early language development is marked by rapid
    attainment of obvious milestones in all major
    areas, including phonology, morphology, syntax,
    semantics, and pragmatics.

How does reading become superimposed on language?
Reading is not a natural or instinctive process.
It is acquired and must be taught..In order to
read, man has to take advantage of what nature
has provided a biological module for
language. Shawitz
Reading development pyramid -- upper levels
depend upon a solid base below
Grade 3
Grade 2
Grade 1
4 to 5 year old skills
3 to 4 year old development
2 - 3 year old development
Birth to 2 year development
Birth to 2 years
  • Makes generalizations about sounds around him/her
  • speech sounds versus environmental sounds
  • recognizes speech sounds of own language
  • Participate more actively in listening to simple
    stories, rhymes, and songs.
  • Uses own language sounds in babbling then early
  • full repertoire of native language phonemes by
    18mo.-2 years
  • early adjectives (good, hot), verbs (see, want,
    go), pronouns (me)
  • vocabulary and concepts needed for reading begin

10-12 months first word 18 months - 10-20
words 2 yr.- two word phrases 200 words
Two to Three Years
  • Word play - Higglety, pigglety, pop Hickory,
    Dickory, Dock
  • Rhymes and alliterative stories
  • Little Miss Muffett
  • Sat on a tuffett
  • Peter piper picked a peck of pickled peppers
  • Understand differences in meaning (ex. In-on,

30 months - 300 words (38.6 nouns, 21 verbs,
7.1 adverbs 14.6 pronouns 3 years - 900 words
MLU 3.1
  • 30 months - 300 words (38.6 nouns, 21
    verbs, 7.1 adverbs 14.6 pronouns)
  • 3 years - 900 words MLU 3.1

Three to Four Years
91 can recognize incorrect productions of words
they know 27 can be enticed to do sound play
25 can rhyme Poor speech discrimination will
lead to poor phonological awareness Syntax delay
predicts poor reading at 7-9 years of age Can
listen to books with simple plot and talk about
story line
  • Vocabulary is 900-1500 words
  • Speech should be intelligible
  • Grammatically complete compound and complex
    sentences of 4 or more words

Four to Five Year
Sentences are more detailed. Can stick to
topic Can string ideas together in an
understandable sequence
  • MLU 4.3 words
  • full complete sentences used with good, but not
    perfect, grammatical form

  • Follow simple oral directions in a sequence
  • Listen to and understand age-appropriate stories
    read aloud
  • Answer simple yes/no questions
  • Produce speech that is understood by most people
    in their environment 80 correct
  • Understands and uses 2000 words
  • Answer open ended questions (e.g., tell me, what
    did you do at Grandmas?)
  • Use many types of sentences to express needs and
    thoughts, and to give or ask for information
  • Participate appropriately in conversations (e.g.,
    turntaking, staying on topic)
  • Show interest in and initiate conversation

1st Grade
  • Demonstrate listening comprehension in recalling
    information and responding to instruction
  • Answer more complex yes/no questions
  • Stay on topic and take turns in conversation
  • Initiate conversations
  • Give directions
  • Reading vocabulary 200 to 500 words
  • Recognizes common irregular sight words
  • Decodes 1-syllable words
  • Creates written texts for others to read
  • Produce all English sounds with understandable
  • Express ideas with a variety of complex sentences
  • Use most parts of speech (grammar) correctly
  • Tell and retell stories and events in a logical
  • Follow 2-3 directions in a sequence
  • Ask and respond to wh questions in small group
    settings (who, what, where, why, when)

2nd Grade
  • Produce all English sounds using speech that is
    understood by unfamiliar listeners
  • Use increasingly complex sentence structures in
    oral communication
  • Follow 3-4 oral directions in a sequence
  • Demonstrate understanding of direction words
    (e.g., location, space, and time words)
  • Answer more complex yes/no questions
  • Ask and answer wh questions (e.g., who, what,
    where, when, why
  • Indicate understanding of a grade-level story
    read aloud by answering questions
  • Clarify and explain words and ideas
  • Give directions with 3-4 steps
  • Use oral language for different purposes to
    inform, to persuade, to entertain
  • Stay on topic, take turns, and use appropriate
    eye contact during conversation
  • Open and close conversations appropriately

3rd Grade and Higher
Language continues to develop throughout
childhood and adolescence. Later language
development is marked by gradual and subtle
improvements.. (Nippold, M.A.) The frontal
lobes keep developing until 35 years old. They
develop most quickly in adolescence. The frontal
lobes job is to slow down and be reflective.
(Levine, 2000) Those not on track by third grade
are at greater risk for lasting reading problems
( Shaywitz et al, 1992)
  • SyntaxSentence length slowly increases in both
    spoken and written contexts.
  • SemanticsWords and expressions that have
    abstract or multiple meanings are
  • learned gradually through metalinguistic
    activities in which meaning is inferred
  • from spoken and written contexts.
  • PragmaticsImprovement in use of interpersonal
    negotiation strategies and
  • broadening their knowledge of slang
    expressions used by peers.
  • Reads aloud with fluency and expression
  • Can identify words or wordings that are causing
    comprehension problems
  • Infers meanings from taught roots, prefixes and

Language Skills and Reading Success
Early studies showed a strong association
between a childs ability to read and the ability
to segment words into phonemes ...Dozens of
subsequent studies have confirmed that there is a
close relationship between phonemic awareness and
reading ability, not just in the early grades
but throughout the school years. Preventing
Reading Difficulties in Young Children (Snow, et
al., 1998)
Why are language and reading difficulties so
closely linked?
What We Know
  • NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and
    Human Development) found 50 of our nations
    children find reading a formidable challenge
  • studied 10,000 children over the past 15 years
  • at greatest risk for reading failure are children
    who enter school with deficient oral language

  • The best early identification predictor
  • of reading success or difficulty is
  • oral language milestones
  • Up to 75 of preschoolers with early language
    impairment will develop significant reading
  • Snow et al., National Research Council, 1998
    Shapiro et al., 1990

The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language on
Reading Growth
5.2 years difference
Measures of Parent and Child Language
Torgesen Meaningful Differences by Hart
Torgesen Meaningful Differences by Hart
What Could it be?
  • 1. Where are _________
  • 2. They went _________
  • 3. When is _________
  • 4. Baby Bear went ________

  • As many as 30 of children begin school with poor
    language learning skills
  • Over half of classroom instruction is oral
    language based
  • Reading Writing are the most complex forms of
    language expression

  • Research in both fields
  • has implicated oral language skills as
    predictors of and as causal factors in reading

Preventing Reading Difficulties In Young
Children National Reading Council Report
What have you learned about language and its
connection to literacy?
  • Spoken language and reading
  • have much in common.
  • If the printed words
  • can be effectively recognized, comprehension of
    connected text
  • depends heavily
  • on the readers oral-language abilities
  • Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children
    (Snow, et al., 1998)

Building blocks of oral language development and
  • Decoding
  • the ability to use the alphabetic principle to
    sound out words when reading
  • Phonics
  • reading instructional practices that stress
    sound-letter (phoneme-grapheme) relationships and
  • Phonemic awareness
  • the ability to understand that words are made up
    of a sequence of phonemes - key to the alphabetic
  • Phonological awareness
  • the ability to segment words into syllables and
    sounds and identify similarities in sound
    patterns (first sounds, rhymes, etc.)
  • Phonemes
  • the smallest elements of speech that signal
    differences in meaning (speech sounds)

PA TasksEasiest to Most Difficult
  • Phoneme Isolation
  • Phoneme Identity
  • Phoneme Categorization/Oddity Task
  • Phoneme Blending
  • Phoneme Segmentation
  • Phoneme Deletion
  • Phoneme Addition
  • Phoneme Substitution

Identification of a PA Problem
  • Difficulty decoding quickly
  • Difficulty attacking words
  • Difficulty with vowels
  • Difficulty with the alphabetic principle (letters
    represent phonemes)
  • Use of initial letter sound only (decodes initial
    phoneme then guesses the rest of the word)
  • Good readers read what is there.
  • Poor readers read what they think should be
    there. (Mann, 2000)

What Supports Do We Have?
  • Assessment
  • ISEL
  • MAP
  • MacMillan
  • Instructional Materials
  • MacMillan Kindergarten and Grade 1 Activities
  • Treasures Photo Cards
  • Sound Boxes
  • Letter Tiles

PA Assessment
  • Screening Tools
  • Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation
  • TAAS (Test of Auditory Analysis Skills)
  • Quick Developmental Spelling Assessment
  • Assessment Tools (SLP Administered)
  • Test of Phonological Awareness Pro Ed
  • The Phonological Awareness Test LinguiSystems
  • CTOPP Comprehensive Test of Phonological
    Processing Pearson Assessments
  • CELF 4 - Subtest

Additional Resources
Link to Additional Resources http//
Additional Supports
  • http//
  • http//

How Do We Define Language?
  • Language Form
  • Syntax - the way language is organized and rules
    for using grammatical words and word endings
  • Language Content
  • Semantics - the meaningful elements of language
    vocabulary words and grammatical meaning
  • Language Use
  • Pragmatics - the communicative value of language
  • Organizational Strategies
  • Memory, sequencing and comprehension of language

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Observational Data to Consider
  • Sentence length- Does the student 1-4 word
    phrases or complete sentences?
  • Grammar- Does the student sound different from
    his/ her same-aged peers? Does he/ she make
    frequent unusually immature grammar errors?
    (e.g. Him -- dancing for He is dancing.)
  • Vocabulary- Does the student have a rich
    vocabulary is he/ she able to learn and use
    classroom vocabulary? Does he/ she over-use of
    non-specific vocabulary such as stuff, things,
    this, that?
  • Question comprehension asking- Is the student
    able to ask answer questions accurately?
  • Use- Is the student able to successfully converse
    for multiple turns with peers or adults?
  • Speech sound production- Is the student
    understandable or do frequent multiple errors
    make him/ her hard to understand?

Change Over Time
  • He put it. Lesson 1
  • Student 1
  • He go the zoo. Lesson 6
  • Student 1
  • Sam is going to get wet.Lesson 12
  • Student 1

Oral Language
Shared Reading
  • During Shared Reading, the teacher works with the
  • whole class or a group of students to process a
  • piece of text (ISBE). 

Guided Reading
  • Guided Reading is the bridge between
  • Shared and Independent Reading.

Independent Reading
  • Independent reading describes a time set aside
  • students to read an appropriate, interesting, and
  • self-selected text.

Read Aloud
  • Read Aloud is a time during the day that
  • enables children to hear the rich language of
  • stories and text they might not be able to read
  • on their own or they might not have ever chosen
  • to read (Routman). 

Shared Writing
  • During Shared Writing, the teacher models and
  • demonstrates the process of putting ideas into
  • written language (Cunningham and Allington).

Guided Writing
  • Guided Writing is the bridge between Shared and
  • Independent Writing. The goal is to target
  • individual writing needs of students.

Independent Writing
  • Independent Writing is the best result of good
  • instruction and provides students with the
  • opportunity to practice their writing skills.

ScaffoldingScaffolding With Storybooks, Justice
Pence, 2005
  • Scaffolding must enable children to work at a
    higher level of performance than they would be
    able to do on their own. (Bruner, 1978
    Vygotsky, 1986)
  • The adult uses scaffolding to help children
    perform at a level that is much higher than the
    children can achieve on their own.

Types of ScaffoldingScaffolding With Storybooks,
Justice Pence, 2005
  • Distancing Scaffolds-gradually reduce amount of
  • Commenting on childs competence and past
    performance (Youre doing so well. Remember
    youve done this before.)
  • Decreasing physical assistance (pointing)
  • Linguistic Scaffolds-adult presents advanced
    models of language and literacy that build on
    childs level of knowledge/skill
  • Asking open-ended questions (whats going to
    happen next?)
  • Describe unfamiliar concepts (He feels
    frustrated. See his face? Sort of sad,
    angrythats frustrated.)
  • Expanding childs own verbalizations (Ch Its a
    B. T Thats right, its an uppercase B.)

Types of ScaffoldingScaffolding With Storybooks,
Justice Pence, 2005
  • Regulatory Scaffolds-adult helps child understand
    the task and how it applies to a larger goal
  • Describe how task applies to larger whole
    (Knowing the letters will help you read the
  • Discussing task components (To read the word, you
    need to look at each letterr)
  • Help child evaluate his own performance (How do
    you think you did?)
  • Structural Scaffolds-aspects of the context that
    help to improve/support the childs learning
  • Working in a known/familiar routine (child-adult
    shared reading reading books repeatedly
  • Working with motivating and appealing materials
    (engaging books, peer models)

Essential Characteristics of High Quality Reading
InteractionsScaffolding With Storybooks, Justice
Pence, 2005
  • Adult sensitivity and responsiveness
  • Observing-childs facial expressions, body
    posture, eye gaze
  • Waiting-time to formulate response, count to 10,
    lean forward, look expectantly to show interest
  • Listening-respond appropriately to keep
    conversation with child going
  • Being face to face-brings special physical and
    emotional connection to the interaction helpful
    with reluctant responders

P.E.E.R.Ways to Encourage Students Responses to
  • Prompts the child to say something about the
  • Evaluates the childs response,
  • Expand the childs response by rephrasing and
    adding information to it, and
  • Repeats the prompt to make sure the child has
    learned from the expansion.

P.E.E.R. Example
  • T I wonder what happened to Baby Bear?
  • S He go in the bush and eat.
  • T Baby Bear sat down by thebush to eat his

P.E.E.R. Example
  • T I wonder what Mom is making for Ben?
  • S He make a dinosaur cake to give Ben
  • T Yes, she is making a dinosaur cake for Bens

Essential Characteristics of High Quality Reading
  • Child Engagement -foster engagement and
    persistence by manipulating the context, such as
    allowing child to
  • label pictures and ask/answer questions during
  • set pace of the reading interaction (pausing to
    look at pictures, talk about a word)
  • handle reading materials and to turn pages

Essential Characteristics of High Quality Reading
  • Repeated Readings
  • Children gain ownership of the experience and
    familiarity with the text that enable them to
    make new discoveries
  • Single readings have been found to be
    insufficient for childrens retention of new
  • Multiple readings have been found to facilitate
    the acquisition of both receptive and expressive
  • Creates a sense of familiarity and reinforces
    known concepts

Is there something puzzling you or you want to
know more about?
Teacher Considerations
  • What opportunities do I provide for conversation
    and discussions?
  • What kind of questions do I ask and how often?
  • Do I focus on language skills during all content
    areas and not just during literacy?
  • What prompts do I use? (Open ended-choice-
  • Do I use cooperative groups and pair-share?
  • Do I match pictures/gestures with vocabulary

How Do I Support Comprehension?
  • Building Background Knowledge
  • provide experience, pictures, videos, discussion
  • Facilitating connections between what the child
    knows and the targeted concept
  • Role playing, act out words or stories (e.g.
    Readers Theater)
  • Think-Pair-Share

How Do I Support Comprehension?
  • Set a purpose before reading to promote reading
    with comprehension.
  • How does the author describe the setting?
  • Find words to describe the character.
  • Be careful of following up each page or passage
    with comprehension questions
  • Too many questions can segment the understanding
    of the passage.
  • Repeated readings with different purposes each
    time builds better comprehension.

How Do I Support Comprehension?
  • Visuals
  • Graphic Organizers
  • For students who struggle with following
    directions, have the student repeat or explain
    the steps he/ she needs to complete
  • Break directions into smaller steps
  • Pair with a peer
  • Check for students understanding of passages
    after reading to make certain the student is

How Do I Support Vocabulary?
  • Vocabulary Toolkit (i.e. teaching pre-fixes
    suffixes, word roots, antonyms, synonyms, etc.)
  • Pair pictures with word wall words
  • Flip books- define target vocabulary using their
    own words, pictures, sentence
  • Games, songs, movements vs. worksheets
  • Treasure vocabulary link \\ats01\ATS\Word\subject_

How Do I Support Oral Language?
  • Cooperative Groups
  • Think pair share
  • Language Experience Stories
  • Use for multiple purposes
  • Generate ideas, model sentence structure
  • Identify site words, important content words,
    initial sounds/blends, rimes, punctuation
  • Publish story to be used in classroom library

How Do I Support Oral Language?
  • Turn the writing prompts from the MacMillan
    Writing Station into an oral expression task to
    spark evaluative discussions and for examples of
    open-ended questions.

How Do I Support Oral Language?
  • Explicit teaching of Listening and Speaking
  • One message at a time
  • One speaker at a time
  • Taking turns
  • On topic (add or maintain)
  • Vague vocabulary (stuff, thing)
  • Question when dont understand

How Do I Support Language Form (Grammar)?
  • Model and expand complete sentences to students
    who speak in short phrases or who have
    grammatical errors
  • Use writing to develop students awareness of
    correct grammatical form repeated errors

The Use of Questions
  • Research found that teachers ask about 70
    questions on average within a 30 minute lesson
    (Bromley, K. D., 1988)
  • 75 of those questions focused on the literal or
    factual level
  • There is no hierarchy for questioning different
    situations, different language proficiency levels
    and different experiences lend themselves to wide
    range of responses.
  • Not all responses to questions must be verbal
    use nonverbal vehicles as well so students with
    limited language can express their thoughts and
    ideas in another form.

  • Guided Listening by Lisa Donohue
  • GL is an instructional tool that effectively
    links elements of oral language with independent
    reading through the use of metacognitive
    strategies. Handout is enclosed.
  • For K-2 grades
  • The question prompts can expand ones questioning
  • The teacher may model the graphic organizer.
  • The students may identify the purpose for
    listening/reading through discussion or drawing.

10 Questioning Techniques
  • Yes/No questions - use to clarify, confirm and
    redirect way to model correct grammar/syntax
  • OR Questions adds choice
  • Short Answer Questions usually begin with who,
    what, where, and when question word identifies
    what is specifically being asked
  • Thought Questions usually begin with how or
    why develop understanding that answers can have
    different interpretations

10 Questioning Techniques
  • 5. Series Recall Questions recall a number
    of facts from a story or related a series of
  • Description Questions verbally describe what
    they have just seen use of adjectives and
    adverbs great vehicle to use webbing.
  • Why and How Questions ask about an event in a
    story use of critical thinking skills drawing
    conclusions, empathizing with a
    character/reaction, or relating to past experience

10 Questioning Techniques
  • 8. Recalling A Series in Correct Order tell
    about events spread over an entire story more
    demands linguistically and cognitively from
    series recall questions
  • Retelling the Story uses recall and sequencing
    of events able to engage in connected discourse
    in a meaningful way.
  • Changing the Story ask to change the characters
    or events able to use critical thinking skills
    while applying creative forms of language.

  • Reading and writing are forms of language
    processing. When we teach reading and writing,
    we are teaching language at one or all of its
    many layers. Reading, after all, is not a rote
    exercise in recitation of words but a translation
    of print to speech to meaning that is mediated by
    the language centers of the brain.
  • Language itself is the substance of instruction.
  • Speech to Print (Moats)

What strategies are you currently using and which
might you like to try?
All students can achieveliteracy success, given
sufficient time andappropriate support.
  • Burns, Martha , Ph.D. Access to Reading The
    link between language acquisition and
    reading success . January 21, 2000
  • ASHA (American Speech Language Hearing
    Association) website
  • Brain
  • Donohue, Lisa Guided Listening Pembroke
    Publishers Limited 2007
  • Gebers, Jane Books Are For Talking Too! 3rd
    Edition Pro-Ed 2003
  • Hansen, Jill Tell Me a Story Developmentally
    Appropriate Retelling Strategies IRA 2004
  • Herrara, Harriette The LTL Connection The
    Keys to Successful Academic Achievement Grades
    K-12, April 25, 2008
  • Justice, Laura Pence, Khara Scaffolding With
    Storybooks International Reading Association
    Inc. 2005
  • Levine, Mel, Ph.D. Enabling Without Labeling
    and When What They Produce Just Isnt Profuse.
    Illinois Branch of the International Dyslexia
    Association, October 20, 2000

  • Miller, Steve, Ph. D. Using Neuroscience to
    Unlock Reading Potential. May, 2004
  • Montgomery, Judy. Making Meaning Literacy
    Strategies for Students with Special Needs.
    March, 2002
  • Moats, Louisa Cook. Speech to Print Language
    Essentials for Teachers Baltimore Paul Brookes
    Publishing, 2000.
  • Nippold, Marilyn A., Adolescent Language
    Developmental Markers in Adolescent Language
    Syntax, Semantics, and Pragmatics University of
    Oregon, Eugene.
  • Shaywitz, Sally, M.D. Overcoming Dyslexia. New
    York Alfred A. Knopf, 2003
  • Sousa, David A. How the Brain Learns to Read
    Corwin Press 2005
  • Torgesen, Joseph, Ph.D. The Role of the
    Speech-Language Pathologist in Literacy. ASHA
    Schools Conference, June, 2001
  • Topics in Language Disorders (1999) . From Oracy
    to Literacy A Millennial Perspective.
    Frederick, MD Aspen Publication.
  • Wolfe, Patricia and Nevills, Pamela Building the
    Reading Brain, PreK-3 Corwin Press 2004