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FRUITS AND SEEDS

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Cherries, peaches, and plums. Exocarp. Mesocarp. Endocarp. Pome ... Often collected from wild although cultivation is spreading. Not available outside of Asia ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FRUITS AND SEEDS


1
FRUITS AND SEEDS
2
Fruits
  • Part of sexual reproduction unique to angiosperms
  • Develops from fertilized ovary
  • Protect the enclosed seeds and aids in seed
    dispersal
  • Widely utilized as a significant food source

3
Fruit wall or Pericarp
  • Develops from the ovary wall
  • Composed of three layers
  • outer exocarp
  • middle mesocarp
  • inner endocarp
  • Appearance of these three layers varies among
    different fruit types

4
Fruit Types I Simple Fruits
  • Derived from the ovary of a single carpel or
    several fused carpels
  • Can be fleshy or dry

5
Type I.a Simple fleshy fruit
  • Derived from the ovary of a single carpel or
    several fused carpels
  • Often soft and juicy
  • Seed dispersal occurs when an animal eats the
    fruit
  • Types of simple fleshy fruits
  • BERRY -HESPERIDIUM -PEPO
  • DRUPE -POME

6
Berry
  • Thin exocarp
  • Soft fleshy mesocarp
  • Endocarp with one to many seeds
  • Tomatoes, grapes and dates

7
Hesperidium
  • Berry with a tough leathery rind
  • Oranges, lemons, and other citrus fruitS

8
Pepo
  • Tough outer rind that has both receptacle tissue
    and exocarp
  • Mesocarp and endocarp are fleshy
  • All members of the squash family (pumpkins,
    melons, and cucumbers)

9
Drupe
  • Thin exocarp
  • Fleshy mesocarp
  • Hard stony endocarp which encases the seed
  • Cherries, peaches, and plums

Exocarp
Mesocarp
Endocarp
10
Pome
  • Fleshy part develops from the enlarged base of
    the perianth (calyx and corolla) that is fused to
    the ovary wall
  • Apples and pears

11
Accessory fruits
  • Contain flower parts other than the ovary
  • Both the pepo and pome are example

12
Type I.b Simple dry fruits
  • Derived from the ovary of a single carpel or
    several fused carpels
  • Pericarp may be tough and woody or thin and
    papery
  • Two types
  • dehiscent
  • indehiscent

13
Dry dehiscent fruits
  • Split open at maturity to release seeds
  • Wind often aids seed dispersal
  • Types characterized by how they open
  • Follicle - splits open along one seam (magnolia
    and milkweed)
  • Legume - splits open along two seams (beans and
    peas)
  • Capsule - several pores or slits (cotton and
    poppy)

14
Legume - pea
  • Legume pod splits along two seams to disperse
    seeds

15
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16
Capsule
  • Cotton fruit is a capsule splitting open along
    five lines
  • Seeds are covered with long hairs (trichomes)
    which are the commercial cotton fiber

17
Indehiscent fruits
  • Do not split open to release seeds
  • Common types
  • Achene
  • Samara
  • Grain
  • Nut

18
  • SAMARAS
  • Winged achenes
  • Dispersed by wind
  • Fruit in maple trees and ash trees
  • ACHENES
  • One-seeded fruit
  • Pericarp free from the seed
  • Sunflower seeds

19
Grains
  • Also called caryopsis
  • Single seeded fruits
  • Pericarp fused to seed coat
  • Fruits of all cereal grasses wheat, rice, corn
    and barley

20
Wheat grain
Fused seed coat and ovary wall layers
21
Nuts
  • One-seeded fruits
  • Hard stony pericarps
  • Hazelnuts, chestnuts, and acorns
  • Other things commonly called nuts that are not
    true nuts but are actually seeds

22
Fruit Types II Aggregate fruits
  • Develop from a single flower with many separate
    carpels
  • Raspberries and blackberries
  • Strawberries also contain accessory tissue
  • Seeds on the surface are actually separate
    achenes inserted on the enlarged, fleshy, red
    receptacle

23
Raspberries and Blackberries
24
Aggregate-Accessory Fruit
  • Strawberries also contain accessory tissue
  • Seeds on the surface are actually separate
    achenes on enlarged, fleshy receptacle

25
Fruit Types III Multiple fruits
  • Result from the fusion of ovaries from many
    separate flowers on an inflorescence
  • Figs and pineapples are examples of multiple
    fruits

one of many ovaries that are fused together
26
Seed Structure and Germination
27
Seeds
  • Develop from the fertilized ovules
  • Include an embryonic plant and some form of
    nutritive tissue within a seed coat
  • Because of the stored nutrients many seeds are
    valuable foods

28
Dicots and monocots
  • Refers to the number of seed leaves or cotyledons
    present in the seed
  • Dicot seeds have two cotyledons
  • Monocots have one cotyledons

29
Dicot seed
  • Cotyledons attached to and enclose the embryonic
    plant
  • Cotyledons occupy the greatest part of the seed
  • Cotyledons have absorbed the nutrients from the
    endosperm which may be entirely used up

30
Dicot seed - Lima bean
  • Thin seed coat
  • Hilum and micropyle visible on surface
  • Hilum - attachment
  • Micropyle - opening in the integuments
  • If the seed coat is removed the two large
    food-storing cotyledons are visible

31
Dicot embryo
  • Consists of
  • Epicotyl - part that develops into the shoot
    typically has embryonic leaves - also called a
    plumule
  • Hypocotyl - portion of embryo between cotyledon
    attachment and radicle (between stem and root)
  • Radicle - the embryonic root

32
Monocot seed
  • Cotyledon transfers food from the endosperm to
    the embryo
  • In several monocot families large amounts of
    endosperm are present

33
Monocot seeds - Corn kernel
  • Reminder a grain is a one-seeded fruit in which
    the seed coat is fused to the pericarp
  • Extensive endosperm occupies much of the seed
  • Small embryo with a single cotyledon
  • Presence of a coleoptile and the coleorhiza

34
Seed germination
  • Absorption of water
  • Emergence of the radicle
  • Shoot emerges
  • In dicots the hypocotyl elongates and breaks
    through the soil
  • In monocots the coleoptile emerges protecting the
    epicotyl tip
  • Soon after the tissues are exposed to sunlight,
    they develop chlorophyll and begin to
    photosynthesize

35
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36
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37
Tomatoes
  • Native to Andes Mts in South America
  • First cultivated in Mexico
  • Spanish Conquistadors introduced tomatoes to
    Europe in the 16th century

38
What is in a name?
  • Name among native peoples in Mexico was tomatl
  • In Europe there were lots of names for this fruit
    - love apple or pomme damour was the French name
  • Scientific name Lycopersicum esculentum (meaning
    edible wolf peach)

39
Poisonous Relatives
  • Member of the family Solanaceae (called the
    potato or tomato family)
  • Family known for its poisonous plants
  • Also called the nightshade family because of
    deadly nightshade and henbane
  • Also called tobacco family

40
Suspect Plant
  • Because of the poisonous relatives, tomatoes were
    suspected by many as poisonous
  • Hard reputation to live down
  • In 1820 Col. Robert Johnson ate a bushel of
    tomatoes in front of a crowd to prove they were
    safe

41
Popular vegetable
  • Although botanically it is simple fleshy fruit (a
    berry), in 1893 the Supreme Court ruled it was a
    vegetable
  • Widely used in fresh, canned, dried, pickled, and
    processed varieties
  • Also a favorite experimental tool - used in space
    shuttle, genetic engineering, and cloning
    experiments

42
Apples - Malus pumila
  • Family Rosaceae
  • Long history of use
  • One of the first trees cultivated
  • Native to Caucasus Mts of western Asia
  • Many legends associated with apples

43
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44
Apple Varieties
  • Pome - simple accessory fruit
  • Hundreds of varieties exist but only a few
    dominate the market
  • Delicious, Rome, Gala, McIntosh
  • Most apple trees are produced by grafting rather
    than by seeds
  • Grafting creates thousands of identical copies
    with the desired traits

45
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46
Citrus Fruits
47
Citrus Fruits - Oranges
  • Members of the family Rutaceae
  • Fruit is a hesperidium
  • Rind impregnated with oil glands (oils important
    for perfumes and cosmetics)
  • Individual carpels filled with one-celled juice
    sacs
  • Fruits high in Vitamin C

48
Citrus Fruits
  • Most citrus are native to southeast Asia
  • Citrons first citrus fruit introduced to
    Mediterranean countries during Greek and Roman
    times
  • Sweet oranges not introduced till 16th century

49
Introduction to New World
  • Spanish and Portuguese explorers introduced
    citrus to New World
  • Sour oranges grown in Florida by 1565
  • Sweet oranges introduced after 1821 - grafted
    onto sour orange rootstock
  • Florida remains leading orange-producing state
    for juices
  • Grapefruit developed in Caribbean (pummelo x
    orange)

50
Pummelos
51
Navel Orange
  • Seedless orange - propagated asexually
  • First developed in Brazil by an American
    missionary in 19th century
  • Two seedlings introduced to California in 1873 -
    believed that all navel oranges today are
    descendants of these two trees

52
Chestnuts - Castanea dentata
  • Member of the Fagaceae - Oak Family
  • Nuts have a long history of use
  • Nuts produced in groups of 3 surrounded by spiny
    burr (actually bracts)

53
Spiny bracts
Individual nuts
54
Chestnuts
  • American chestnut tree was once one of the most
    abundant trees in North American forests
  • Wood widely used for furniture, shingles, poles,
    ships masts

55
Chestnut Blight
  • Fungal disease first reported in 1904 in New York
  • Spread throughout range from Atlantic Coast to
    Mississippi River
  • Estimated 1 billion chestnut trees died
  • Chestnuts can resprout from roots but eventually
    will succumb to disease
  • Research on blight resistant trees

56
Durian
  • Fruit native to southeast Asia, Malaysia,
    Thailand, Indonesia
  • Called King of Fruits

57
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58
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59
Durians
  • Large fruits - 10-15 lbs
  • Often collected from wild although cultivation is
    spreading
  • Not available outside of Asia
  • Custard-like pulp that is said to be heavenly

60
Durians
  • Said to be the most delicious fruit on Earth and
    the worst smelling
  • Sold in open markets but prohibited in many
    cities
  • No durians allowed
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