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OBESITY

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Obesity is a condition in which the natural energy reserve, stored ... Wikepedia.com. Calculating Obesity. Determine Your Status. MCDONALDS NUTRITIONAL FACTS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: OBESITY


1
OBESITY
  • BY NII ASHIE

2
WHAT IS OBESITY
  • Obesity is a condition in which the natural
    energy reserve, stored in the fatty tissue of
    humans and other mammals, is increased to a point
    where it is a risk factor for certain health
    conditions or increased mortality.
  • Wikepedia.com

3
Calculating Obesity
4
Determine Your Status
5
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8
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9
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10
MCDONALDS NUTRITIONAL FACTS
  • Average McDonalds sandwich contains about 40 of
    an individuals daily intake requirement. (thats
    excluding the fries)

11
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12
Obesity Rates
13
HYPOTHALAMUS
  • An area of the forebrain which lies beneath the
    thalamus.
  • Eating Center

14
Neural Factors of Energy Balance
  • Leptin
  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY)
  • NPY 5 Receptor
  • Orexines
  • Leptin receptor
  • Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)
  • Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R)
  • Proconvertase (PC1)

15
LEPTIN
  • Greek term Leptos meaning Thin
  • Hormone released by adipose cells
  • Fat Gain Leptin have a direct relationship
  • Leptin and Energy balance have an direct
    relationship. (Columbia University Study).

16
Leptin Pathway
17
LEPTIN RECEPTOR
  • The leptin receptor is a member of the cytokine
    receptor super-family, which plays an important
    role in mammalian body weight homeostasis and
    energy balance.

18
Leptin Pathway
19
When You Are Hungry
20
Neuropeptide Y
  • Neuropeptide Y A candidate anabolic
    effector-signalling molecule, stimulates energy
    intake.
  • Injection of NPY into cerebral ventricles or
    directly into the hypothalamus of rats
  • Potently stimulates food intake
  • Decreases energy expenditure
  • Meanwhile, releasing lipogenic enzymes in liver
    and white adipose tissue.
  • Continuous or repeated central administration of
    NPY leads readily to obesity

21
Leptin Pathway
22
NPY Y5 receptor (Y5R)
  • The Y5R selectively rebuilds diet-induced obesity
    (DIO) in rodents
  • by suppressing body weight gain and adiposity.
  • Did not affect lean mice or genetically obese
    leptin receptor-deficient

23
Leptin Pathway
24
OREXINES
  • Greek Orexis meaning Appetite
  • Neuropeptides that stimulate appetite
  • Produced by a small number of hypothalamus
    neurons

25
Leptin Pathway
26
Orexine A (OXA)
  • 33 amino acid peptide
  • Consisting of 2 chains connected by the Cys
    6--Cys 12 and Cys 7--Cys 14 bridges.
  • It is a potential food intake and gastric juice
    secretion stimulant. (linked with Anorexia
    Nervosa)

27
Leptin Pathway
28
Orexine B (OXB)
  • 28 amino acid peptide
  • With no connecting bridges between the chains.
  • It mainly plays a role in the energy metabolism
    of an organism
  • Does not influence the secretion of gastric
    juice.

29
Oxerine Receptors
  • OXR-1 receptor is a selective receptor for OXA
  • OXR-2 receptor is not privileged for any of the
    two orexines (both of them can connect to it )

30
When You Are Full
31
Leptin Pathway
32
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC)
  • Precursor polypeptide with 241 amino acid
    residues.
  • It is synthesized by corticotrope cells of the
    anterior pituitary gland
  • POMC is an important factor in biologically
    activities.
  • Appetite

33
Leptin Pathway
34
Proconvertase (PC1)
  • The enzyme PC1 cleaves POMC to yield ACTH and
    alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)

35
Leptin Pathway
36
Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R)
  • MC4-R is a 332-amino acid protein encoded by a
    single exon gene localized on chromosome 18q22
  • Reduces food intake when it binds to the
    brain-specific alpha-MSH

37
Leptin Pathway
38
Transgenic Foods
  • Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
    (accomplished by DNA recombination)
  • More than 60 - 70 percent of food products on
    store shelves may contain at least a small
    quantity of crops produced with these new
    techniques.
  • Purpose Resistance to pesticides, viruses, and
    insects

39
Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)
40
Transgenic Foods
  • Soybeans (63)
  • Cotton (13)
  • Corn (19)
  • Canola (63)
  • Papaya (unknown)
  • Potatoes - Probably not on the market
    (discontinued in March 2001)
  • Tomatoes - Not on the market
  • Squash - Not on the market
  • Radicchio - Not on the market
  • Sugarbeets - Not on the market
  • Rice - Not on the market
  • Flax - Not on the market

41
Advantages of Transgenic Foods
  • Bt corn and cotton
  • have had DNA from Bacillus thuringiensis,
    incorporated into their genome
  • It kills pests of these crops (European and
    southwestern corn borers, and cotton budworms and
    bollworms) when they feed on the plant, while
    beneficial insects are evidently left unaffected.
  • Glyphosate-resistant soybeans
  • Are unharmed by the broad-spectrum herbicide
    glyphosate, a characteristic that allows farmers
    to kill yield-reducing weeds in soybean fields
    without harming the crop.

42
Disadvantages
  • Allergies
  • Modify other living organisms
  • Lack the usual amount of nutrients

43
THE END
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