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The Language of Negotiation

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Title: The Language of Negotiation


1
The Language of Negotiation Modern Diplomacy for
Small States8-17 June 2009 Dr Biljana Scott
2
Language Diplomacy
3 essentials Linguistic mastery Psychological
acuity Political acumen 3 insights Language
as action Meaning in context Us vs Them
3
Language Negotiation
3 topics Suggestion / Implications Ambiguity Ca
tegories / labelling 3 skills Disagreeing
without being disagreeable Persuasiveness
Ethos, Logos, Pathos Humour
4
The Language of Negotiation Modern Diplomacy for
Small States8 -17 June 2009
1. Language as Action
5
Exercise speech acts
Utterances Sorry Indeed Go! / Stop! /
Start! I wonder whether we might consider
looking into... I'll think about
it Actions        An enquiry         An
entreaty An order          A threat A
criticism An apology A promise An assertion
A rejection etc
6
Language as action

G20 statement 2 April 2009 We recognise.. We
will notify.. We agree.. We will ensure.. We
affirm.. We will minimise.. We
reaffirm.. We call on.. We are
determined.. We remain commited We have
committed ourselves to work together with
urgency and determination to translate these
words into action. We agreed to meet again
before the end of this year to review progress
on our commitments.
7
The Language of Negotiation Modern Diplomacy for
Small States8 -17 June 2009
2. Meaning in Context
8
Context Inference Duane Michals Things are
Queer
9
Context Inference
Eugene Manos
Elliott Erwitt
10
Context Inference
Spencer Platt, 2006
11
Inference
The image that shamed the world
Bosnian Serb camp at Trnopolje,filmed by British
crew, 1992.
12
Exercise parataxis
Q What is the connection, if any, between
each sentence a) The ambassador walked into
the reception. The journalist quickly
left. b) Saddam Hussein is a threat to our
nation. September 11 changed the strategic
thinking for how to protect our
country. c) Bush "wants to divert attention
from his domestic problems. It's a classic
tactic. It's one that Hitler used." (Däubler-Gmel
in, September 2002)
13
Exercise compounds
Q What is the connection bt the words in each
compound a) Headache pill b) Longevity
pill c) Crocodile shoes baby shoes house
shoes, ballet shoes d) Public diplomacy
14
Exercise connotations
Q What is the connection bt each pair of
words Terrorist vs freedom
fighter Apartheid wall vs security
fence Honour killing vs misogynist
murder Ethnic cleansing vs genocide Law of the
jungle vs fair play Common sense vs utter
madness HSBC ads
15
Meaning in Context
Nikita Krushchev's shoe-banging at the UN,
1960 Prime Minister Harold Macmillan
calmly looked to an interpreter and asked
''Could I have that translated, please?''
16
(No Transcript)
17
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18
Language Diplomacy Workshop DG RELEX,
Brussels21-22 April 2009
3. Divisiveness inclusion
19
Divisiveness
  • Henri Tajfel Social Identity Theory
  • Fear versus responsibility
  • Hofstedes basic values
  • The expanding circle

20
Inclusiveness
Soon the circle... includes first a class, then
a nation, then a coalition of nations, then all
humanity, and finally, its influence is felt in
the dealings of man with the animal world. (W
E H Lecky, A History of European Morals.
1869) I do not believe in the law of hate. I
may not be true to my ideals always, but I
believe in the law of love, and I believe you can
do nothing with hatred. I would like to see a
time when man loves his fellow man, and forgets
his color or his creed. We will never be
civilized until that time comes. (Clarence
Darrow, Henry Sweet trial 1926)
21
Inclusiveness
Power in the Information Age will come not just
from strong defences but from strong sharing
because sharing enhances the inclination and
ability to co-operate (Joseph Nye,
2004). These people are a part of me. And they
are a part of America, this country that I love.
Let us find that common stake we all have in one
another, and let our politics reflect that spirit
as well. (Barack Obama A More Perfect
Union, March 2008) For let us remember there
is a common bond that unites us as human beings
across different beliefs, cultures and
nationalities. It is at the core of my
convictions, the essence of America's spirit and
the heart of all faiths. And it must be at the
centre of our response to the crisis of today.
(Gordon Brown, US Congress, 4 March 2009)
22
Exercise reverse polarities
So once again I say we should seize the moment
because never before have I seen a world so
willing to come together. Never before has that
been more needed. And never before have the
benefits of cooperation been so far-reaching.
Gordon Brown, US Congress, 4 March 2009)
23
503 photographs 68 countries 2 million submissions
The Family of Man has been created in a
passionate spirit of devoted love and faith in
man. It was conceived as a mirror of the
essential oneness of mankind throughout the
world. Edward Steichen, curator, 1955.
24
(No Transcript)
25
Us vs Them
OLD/Traditional VS NEW DIPLOMACY - state  vs.
people power - coercion vs. attraction -
imposing vs. convincing - ideologies vs.
preferences and perception - secrecy vs.
credibility - power-play vs. mutual benefit -
self-serving vs. partnerships networks -
directing vs. facilitating - win/lose wars for
land vs. win/win for values, stability Adapted
from Mark Leonard, Going Public. 2000
26
Language Negotiation
3 topics Suggestion / Implications Ambiguity Ca
tegories / labelling 3 skills Disagreeing
without being disagreeable Persuasiveness
Ethos, Logos, Pathos Humour
27
The Language of Negotiation Modern Diplomacy for
Small States8 -17 June 2009
The language of suggestion
28
Exercise Inference
  • headache pill versus longevity pill
  • now this is worth considering
  • I like eating pizza with my hands, my parents,
    wine...
  • Power over versus power to
  • Laugh at versus laugh with
  • to restore honour and dignity
  • We shall fight them on the beaches, we shall
    fight them in the air
  • UNSCR 1441 provides a final opportunity
  • Old men, women and children
  • War on terror

29
Exercise Presupposition
1. Negotiation exercise 2. We have today
therefore pledged to do whatever is necessary
to restore confidence, growth, and jobs
repair the financial system to restore
lending strengthen financial regulation to
rebuild trust fund and reform our
international financial institutions to
overcome this crisis and prevent future ones
promote global trade and investment and reject
protectionism, to underpin prosperity and
build an inclusive, green, and sustainable
recovery. G20 Statement, London, 2 April 2009
30
Exercise Implications
Q What are the implications of 'war on
terror'?
31
Implications
Use of "war on terror" implied a fight against a
shared single enemy In fact, the forces of
violent extremism remain diverse. Terrorism is a
deadly tactic, not an institution or an
ideology. The phrase also implies that the
best response to terrorism is a military one,
tracking down and killing hardcore extremists.
In fact the coalition there could not kill its
way out of the problems of insurgency and civil
strife. David Miliband, January 2009
32
Exercise implication
The UK September 2003 Iraq Dossier e) Iraqs
Programme for Weapons of Mass Destruction. Sadda
m is prepared to use chemical and biological
weapons if he believes his regime is under
threat. vs Iraqs Weapons of Mass
Destruction. Saddam is willing to use chemical
and biological weapons, including against his
own Shia population.
33
Exercise implication
Hidden triggers in UNSCR 1441 a) Iraq
may/will face serious consequences as a result
of continuous violations b) Iraq is/was in
breach of past resolutions c) Instances of
Iraqi non-compliance are to be recorded, and the
UNSC reconvened in accordance with
paragraphs11 and/or 12. d) Other
facilities could be / are capable of being
used to support the production of chemical
agent . . .
34
Inference
Re Iraq Dossier Campbell merely made some
presentational changes Brian Jones when it
comes to intelligence assessments,
wording is substance
35
Exercise implications
Rule 51.3 in Chapter 5 of the Olympic
charter No kind of demonstration or political,
religious or racial propaganda is permitted in
the Olympic areas (pre-2007) No kind of
demonstration or political, religious or racial
propaganda is permitted in any Olympic sites,
venues or other areas. (post-2007)
36
Connotations
  • Sense versus reference distinction
  • Reference maps between a word and the
    world (denotation)
  • Sense maps between a word and other words
  • (connotation)

37
Exercise translation
Q How would you translate the following
terms soft power public
diplomacy outreach Q Is there a difference in
meaning from the English? Q How might you use
the sense/reference distinction to help you
define the meaning?
38
Exercise connotations
Define and describe your reactions to Soft
power Hard power Sticky power Smart power What
other compounds do the terms 'soft' and 'hard'
occur in?
39
Connotations
40
Connotations
physically WEAK SOFT IS morally
STRONG STRONG HARD IS IMMORAL
STICKY? SMART?
41
Connotations
Q What are the connotation and denotations
of But let us be candid about the consequences
of leaving Saddam Hussein in power. We're seeking
all the facts. Already, the Kay Report identified
dozens of weapons of mass destruction-related
program activities and significant amounts of
equipment that Iraq concealed from the United
Nations. Had we failed to act, the dictator's
weapons of mass destruction programs would
continue to this day. G. W. Bush 20 January
2004 State of the Union address http//www.whiteho
use.gov/news/releases/2004/01/20040120-7.html
42
Connotations
  • Same connotation different denotation
  • WMD gt WMD programs gt WMD related program
    activities
  • Q What would an example of the inverse be?
  • Same denotation different connotation
  • nigger gt black gt coloured gt Afro-Carribean
  • Global warming gt Climate change gt Climate
    security

43
Connotations
Language isnt racist, sexist or prejudiced,
people are! In social situations, such as
negotiations, variables never interact
individuals do! (Kevin Auruch)
44
Suggestion Context summary
  • Inference coffee? crocodile shoes
  • Presuppositions restore rebuild stop
  • Implications
  • 'war on terror' 'axis of evil'
  • 'terrorist' vs 'freedom fighter'
  • modals (may, should..)

45
Suggestion Context summary
  • Parataxis bridge between sentences
  • Irony bridge between opposites
  • Connotations 'between the lines'
  • Suggestion / spin 'between us'

46
The Language of Negotiation Modern Diplomacy for
Small States8 -17 June 2009
Ambiguity
47
Ambiguity
  • Q Identify the triggers for ambiguity in these
    headlines
  • Drunk Gets Nine Months in Violin Case
  • Iraqi Head Seeks Arms
  • Prostitutes Appeal to Pope
  • Kids Make Nutritious Snacks
  • New Vaccine May Contain Rabies
  • New Study of Obesity Looks for Larger Test Group
  • Include your Children when Baking Cookies
  • Police Begin Campaign to Run Down Jaywalkers
  • Red Tape Holds Up New Bridge
  • Local High School Dropouts Cut in Half

48
Ambiguity
  • Definitions (Webster)
  • Capable of being understood in two or more ways
  • Doubtful or uncertain
  • Narrow definition (either/or)
  • In order to qualify as an ambiguity an
    expression must generate not only at least two
    different meanings, but also two incompatible
    and unrelated meanings. (Pehar, Language and
    Diplomacy 2001164)
  • Broad definition (multivalent)
  • Any verbal nuance, however slight, which gives
    room for alternative reactions to the same piece
    of language. (William Empson, Seven Types of
    Ambiguity 1927)

49
Ambiguity NARROW
  • Homophones cheque/chick herbal tea / property
  • Homonyms/polysemes to dust, chasser, bank
  • Negative scope The president may not sign the
    treaty
  • -ing form Attacking civilians can be
    dangerous
  • Anaphora Who do you want to play on centre
    court?
  • Irony He is an honourable man
  • HSBC ads (broad connotations into binary
    opposition)

50
Ambiguity BROAD
  • Connotations 'war on terror', ethnic
    cleansing
  • Euphemisms friendly fire, collateral damage
  • Semantic vagueness sexing up, WMD, with
  • Analogy Iraq is becoming another Vietnam
  • Fudging Thatcher an honorary man in M-E
  • Rising intonation He is unable to come (?)
  • Double-speak This war is all about peace

51
Ambiguity
  • Q What ambiguities can you find in the
    following
  • They may not go to war (Ibis, redibis numquam
    peribis in bello)
  • A diplomat is an honest man sent to lie abroad
    for the good of his country
  • (Henry Wotton, 1521 - 1587)
  • 3. To sex up a dossier

52
Ambiguity
Lord Huttons definition of 'sexing up' It
could mean that the dossier was embellished with
items of intelligence known or believed to be
false. Or, it could mean that while
intelligence contained in the dossier was
believed to be true and reliable - it was drafted
in such a way as to make the case against Saddam
Hussein as strong as possible.
53
Exercise Ambiguity
  • Q List the PROs CONs in diplomacy of
  • Precision
  • Ambiguity

54
Precision pros and cons
  • PROs of Precision WYSIWYG
  • CONs of Precision
  • May cause offence- World Bank avoids the term
    corruption
  • May trigger hostility or rejection- major
    concessions replaced by leap of the
    imagination (Sinn Fein request to Downing St.
    re arms decommissioning)
  • May calcify positions and eliminate room for
    manoeuvre
  • catastrophic when diplomacy turns into hard
    fact. (Bernstein)

55
Ambiguity PROS
  • A diplomatic necessity?
  • Buys room for manoeuvre and time for
    negotiation
  • Chinese/US spy-plane incident April 2001
    Chinese daoqian (apology) US insisted on yihan
    (regret)
  • Challenge to come up with sentences in English
    and Chinese that
  • are close enough to be considered a single
    statement... yet distant
  • enough to allow subtly different
    interpretations in each country.
  • (International Herald Tribune, 10 April 2001).
  • Constructive ambiguity
  • just as nuances in translation can create
    misunderstandings, they can create
    opportunities too, allowing diplomats to leave a
    fuzzy middle between words that is palatable to
    both sides.

56
Ambiguity CONS
  • Gives rise to disputes
  • See WTOs Dispute Settlement Mechanism (Uruguay
    Round)and its meticulous interpretation of
    possible ambiguities.
  • Causes loss of trust See George Orwells
    Politics and the English Language.
  • Invites bad-faith interpretations
  • See UNSC Resolution 242 withdrawal of
    Israeli armed forces from territories
  • occupied in the recent conflict (1967 war)
  • Q Some or all territories?

57
Ambiguity
  • Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties,Section
    3 Rules of Interpretation
  • Articles 31
  • - ordinary meaning of terms
  • in the light of the treatys object and
    purpose
  • appeals to context (text and beyond)
  • Article 32
  • Recourse may be had to supplementary means of
    interpretation
  • when the interpretation according to article 31
  • (a) leaves the meaning ambiguous or obscure or
  • (b) leads to a result which is manifestly absurd
    or unreasonable.

58
Ambiguity
Dogs may not swim in ponds in the park Q
Does it refer to all dogs and all ponds, or
just some? By analogy, how should UNSCR 242 be
read withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from
territories occupied in the recent conflict.
59
Ambiguity context
  • Meaning is largely context dependent - 3
    consequences for ambiguity
  • Recognition we rarely notice ambiguities.
  • Disambiguation when we do notice them, we
    appeal to immediate context for the most likely
    reading.
  • Monitoring we continually monitor meaning in
    the light of changing contexts.

60
Ambiguity context
  • Context building
  • Ambiguity pervades political life precisely
    because of our capacity to construct ever novel
    contexts of interpretation
  • The linguistic turn
  • The recognition that language is not just a tool
    for describing objective reality, but a means of
    creating the social worlds we experience, a
    means of constructing alternative realities.

61
The Language of Negotiation Modern Diplomacy for
Small States8 -17 June 2009
Categories, labelling typecasting
62
Semantic Categories
  • Humpty Dumpty Theres glory for you
  • I dont know what you mean by glory, Alice
    said.
  • HD smiled contemptuously. Of course you dont
    till I tell you. I meant theres a nice
    knock-down argument for you!
  • But glory doesnt mean a nice knock-down
    argument! Alice objected.
  • When I use a word HD said, in a rather scornful
    tone, it means just what I choose it to mean
    neither more nor less!
  • The question is said Alice, whether you can
    make words mean so many different things.
  • The question is said HD, which is to be master
    thats all.
  • Fixity vs flexibility

63
Semantic Categories

64
Connotations context
65
Osocio
Olympic Watch
GrouCHOS
66
(No Transcript)
67
Exercise Prototypes
  • Q What are the prototypical meanings of
  • Diplomacy
  • Refugee
  • Sovereignty
  • Genocide

68
Semantic Categories
69
Semantic Categories
Refugee
70
Semantic Categories
Sovereignty
71
Semantic Categories
Genocide
72
Semantic Categories
  • Diplomacyprototypically involves peaceful
    means (Gunboat coercive diplomacy?)
  • Refugee a dispossessed and politically
    persecuted person who has fled their country
    (dispossessed but not persecuted and vice
    versa?)
  • Sovereignty
  • Involves independence, self-rule,
    autonomy (BUT supra-sovereign authority
    divided sovereignty negative sovereignty and
    quasi-states?)

73
Semantic Categories
  • Aristotelian versus Prototype categories
  • Aristotelian
  • every category has a checklist of defining
    features
  • category boundaries are fixed
  • all members are of equal status
  • features may be essential or incidental
  • Prototype
  • Category boundaries are negotiable Category
    members do not have equal status
  • Non-members have unequal status

74
Exercise Semantic Categories
  • Q What problem do the following raise?
  • amputees
  • babies
  • mutes
  • Q What is the difference in connotation between
  • My sister is a real bachelor
  • My brother is a real spinster

75
Semantic Categories

Procrustes / Damastes
- EITHER/OR constraints vs BOTH/AND - Fixed vs
flux and adaptability
76
Language Negotiation
3 topics Suggestion / Implications Ambiguity Ca
tegories / labelling 3 skills Disagreeing
without being disagreeable Persuasiveness
Ethos, Logos, Pathos Humour
77
The Language of Negotiation Modern Diplomacy for
Small States8 -17 June 2009
The language of disagreement
78
Disagreement
Rush Limbaugh (Dec 2007) Will Americans want to
watch a woman get older before their eyes on a
daily basis? when men age they look more
authoritative, accomplished and distinguished.

She-devil Nurse Ratched Madame Defarges
Castrating, overbearing and scary ball-crusher
owns a testicle lockbox Cold, cackling, witchy
etc... MSNBC's Chris Matthews (radio
shock-jock) http//mediamatters.org/items/2008011
10014
79
Disagreement
  • Ad Hominem attack on person, not substance
  • Ad H abusive (belittling, ridiculing,
    insulting) What do you know, youre ugly!
  • Ad H circumstantial (attack on bias) She
    smokes, of course she defends smoking
  • He would say that, wouldnt he
  • Ad H tu quoque (also to you!) You say smoking
    is wrong, but you smoke!
  • Guilt by association (reductio ad Hitlerum)
    (Obama // Jeremiah Wright)

80
Exercise Ad Hominem attack
Attack your neighbour, based on Appearance Ex
perience Affiliation Authenticity
81
Disagreement
Taiwan Parliament brawl (clip) http//www.youtube
.com/watch?v1xCn3ZYTU0Y Rath and Macek, Czech
republic (clip) http//www.youtube.com/watch?vfM-
fGw_Pgkkfeaturerelated Daniel Hannan, MEP
(clip) http//www.youtube.com/watch?v94lW6Y4tBXs

82
Disagreement


83
Exercise
One participant explains and illustrates an
idiom The other attacks and ridicules it I
couldnt disagree more That is an absurd
proposition Nothing could be further from the
truth On what evidence do you say that? Quite
on the contrary Surely youre not suggesting
... How can you possibly believe that
84
Disagreement
  • Incredulity / irony surely you dont do
    you?
  • Contrastive stress YOU may think.. THEY say
  • Type casting the type of person/policy
  • Overgeneralisations Everyone / Nobody /
    Always
  • Ethos subversion Who are you to say
  • Ad hominem Youre too X to know
  • Ridicule, derision, mockery, mimicry, taunts
  • Intimidation / threats
  • Labelling gt name calling gt abuse gt volume
    violence

85
The Language of Negotiation Modern Diplomacy for
Small States8 -17 June 20099
Persuasion
86
Persuasion
  • Rhetoric the art of persuasion or hot air?
  • Substance, frame or flourish?
  • Ethos authority credibility
  • Logos reasoned argument
  • Pathos emotional appeal
  • Music

87
Ethos

Caroline Kennedy you know
Obama attack ad
88
Pathos
The political brain is emotional. In a conflict
between data and desire, desire wins We cant
change the structure of the political brain,
which reflects millions of years of evolution.
But we can change the way we appeal to it. Drew
Westen, The Political Brain The role of emotion
in deciding the fate of the nation
(2008) Narrative, metaphor connotations
89
Narratives
The words have been spoken during rising tides of
prosperity and the still waters of peace. Yet,
every so often the oath is taken amidst gathering
clouds and raging storms. America, in the face
of our common dangers, in this winter of our
hardship, let us remember these timeless words
with hope and virtue, let us brave once more the
icy currents, and endure what storms may come
let it be said by our children's children that
when we were tested we refused to let this
journey end, that we did not turn back nor did we
falter and with eyes fixed on the horizon and
God's grace upon us, we carried forth that great
gift of freedom and delivered it safely to future
generations. (Obama, Inaugural speech)
90
Narratives
A story is a fact, wrapped in an emotion that
compels us to take an action that transforms our
world. A myth is a traditional story typically
involving gods and/or heroes that explains why
the world is as it is. It may be believed
literally or figuratively, and is perceived as
more than true.
91
Inference
Nick Ut, S Vietnam, 1972
Charlie Cole, Beijing, 1989
92
Oded Balilty, 2007
Anthony Suau, S Korea, 1987
Luiz Vasconcelos, Brazil, June 2008
Marc Riboud, USA, 1960s
93
Inference
Therese Frare, Aids victim,1990
Eugene Smith, Minimata,1971
94
Narratives
People began to shout, to rise from their seats
and clap and cry out, a forceful wind carrying
the reverend's voice up into the rafters....And
in that single note - hope! I heard something
else at the foot of that cross, inside the
thousands of churches across the city, I
imagined the stories of ordinary black people
merging with the stories of David and Goliath,
Moses and Pharaoh, the Christians in the lion's
den, Ezekiel's field of dry bones. Those stories
- of survival, and freedom, and hope became
our story, my story the blood that had spilled
was our blood, the tears our tears
95
Narratives
until this black church, on this bright day,
seemed once more a vessel carrying the story of
a people into future generations and into a
larger world. Our trials and triumphs became at
once unique and universal, black and more than
black in chronicling our journey, the stories
and songs gave us a means to reclaim memories
that we didn't need to feel shame
about... memories that all people might study and
cherish and with which we could start to
rebuild.
Barack Obama, Dreams from my Father
96
Persuasion
Metaphor to speak of one thing in terms of
another Analogy to map a correspondence bt two
things Simile to draw out a similarity bt two
things Symbol to make one thing stand for
another Metonymy attribute for thing
meant Synecdoche part for whole Ambiguity two
or more meanings in one Irony echoic
mention Hyperbole exaggeration Litotes understat
ement
97
Exercise metaphors/analogies
  • Q Explain the following metaphors/analogies
  • The roadmap to peace
  • War on poverty
  • Iraq is another Vietnam
  • Knowledge as a cathedral OR as a bazaar
  • The body as a fortress against illness
  • The State as a person

98
With the average wedding now costing 16,000,
analysts are openly speculating whether the
spouse-price bubble will burst. First-time
wedders are particularly vulnerable and many can
no longer afford to get on to the first step of
the marriage ladder. They are forced to rent
their partners on short-term, usually verbal
contracts, and can no longer look forward to the
security of fully owning a spouse in old age.
Some, however, are beginning to question the
British obsession with spouse-owning. What's
wrong with leasing a partner? Ownership brings
extra responsibilities and pressures and severely
limits your freedom. Spouse ownership also
brings the risk of negative equity ending up
with less than you put into the relationship. Nor
is a spouse necessarily a guarantee of security
many are forced to sell up when things go wrong,
leaving them with large legal and maintenance
bills. Why is it, then, that people continue to
dream of a spouse of their own? One explanation
is that renting becomes tiresome. All that
partner hunting, dragging yourself off to see
something that is either thoroughly decrepit or
way out of your league, and then having to
compromise with something that never really
feels as if it's yours.
99
Metaphors / Analogies
  • What IS said
  • how apt is the analogy? How does one measure
    its aptness?
  • What is NOT said Are the omissions
    significant? Can it stand up to ridicule?
  • What ELSE might be said? How much more apt are
    the alternatives?
  • What IMPACT has it had? Is there a causal
    relationship between analogies, public
    reactions and subsequent actions?

100
Logos
  • Logical fallacies
  • Non Sequitur (fallacy of false cause) e.g. Our
    nation will prevail because God is great.
  • post hoc ergo propter hoc temporal gt causal
  • cum hoc ergo propter hoc correlation gt
    causation
  • red herring
  • appeal to the majority (argumentum ad populum)
  • appeal to authority (ipse dixit he himself
    said it)
  • appeal to fear (argumentum ad baculum)
  • slippery slope
  • false dilemma
  • Bandwagon (what is popular is good / right)

101
Logos
  • Fallacy of Many Questions e.g. Is it true
    that you no longer beat your wife?
  • Proof by verbosity (argumentum verbosium)
  • Use of an overwhelming volume of material,
  • so laborious to untangle and check supporting
    facts
  • that the argument might be allowed to
  • slide by unchallenged.

102
Music of Persuasion
Refrains 'yes we can!', 'I have a dream' Rhyme
and alliteration Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too
(1840 William Henry Harrison) Go clean for Gene
(1968 Eugene McCarthy) Tricolons Life, Liberty,
and Landon (1936 Alfred M. Landon) Rum, Romanism
and Rebellion (1884 presidential election) Acid,
Amnesty, and Abortion (1972 anti-Democratic
Party) My fellow citizens I stand here today
humbled by the task before us, grateful for the
trust you have bestowed, mindful of the
sacrifices borne by our ancestors. (BO
Inaugural, 20 January 2009)
103
Music of Persuasion
 Chiasmus (ABBA criss-cross structure) Work to
live dont live to work Never let a fool kiss
you or a kiss fool you The pessimist sees the
difficulty in every opportunity The optimist
sees the opportunity in every difficulty. Ask
not what your country can do for you ask what
you can do for your country (JFK) Better a witty
fool than a foolish wit (Shakespeare) We make a
living by what we get, we make a life by what we
give. (Churchill)
104
Music of Persuasion
 Cadence of counterbalance Where there is
discord, may we bring harmony. Where there is
error, may we bring truth. Where there is doubt,
may we bring faith. And where there is despair,
may we bring hope. (Margaret Thatcher) I have
a dream that my four little children will one day
live in a nation where they will not be judged by
the color of their skin but by the content of
their character. (MLK) This union may never be
perfect, but generation after generation has
shown that it can always be perfected. (BO)
105
The Language of Negotiation Modern Diplomacy for
Small States8 -17 June 20099
Humour
106
Repartee
Wilde "I wish I'd said that." Whistler "You
will, Oscar, you will" Nancy Astor ''Winston,
if you were my husband, I'd put poison in your
coffee.'' Churchill ''Nancy, if you were my
wife, I'd drink it.'' Voltaire, on being invited
to a second orgy ''Ah no, my good friends. Once,
a philosopher. Twice, a pervert.'' JFK on being
asked why he read prepared texts at press
conferences ''Because I am not a textual
deviant.''
107
Repartee
Noel Coward on inviting Winston Churchill to the
opening of his new play "Bring a friend - if you
have one." Churchill "Can't attend first night
please send tickets for second night - if you
have one." We make a living by what we get, we
make a life by what we give.
108
Humour
Pros and cons / Perils and pleasures 3
insights Language as action Meaning in
context Us vs Them
109
Language Diplomacy www.diplomacy.edu/links/LD h
ttp//campus.diplomacy.edu80/env/scripts/Pool/Get
Bin.asp?IDPool6161
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