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War and Peace


The main enemies were the United States and the Soviet Union. ... The United States also led the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: War and Peace

War and Peace
  • Introduction to Worldwide Weapons Control
  • By Pete Riley

Titan II nuclear missile in its silo
The Cold War History
  • The Cold War began after World War Two. The
    main enemies were the United States and the
    Soviet Union. The Cold war got its name because
    both sides were afraid of fighting each other
    directly. In such a "hot war," nuclear weapons
    might destroy everything. So, instead, they
    fought each other indirectly. They supported
    conflicts in different parts of the world. They
    also used words as weapons. They threatened and
    denounced each other. Or they tried to make each
    other look foolish.

  • The United States and the Soviet Union were
    the only two superpowers following the Second
    World War. The fact that, by the 1950s, each
    possessed nuclear weapons and the means of
    delivering such weapons on their enemies, added a
    dangerous aspect to the Cold War. The Cold War
    world was separated into three groups. The United
    States led the West. This group included
    countries with democratic political systems. The
    Soviet Union led the East. This group included
    countries with communist political systems. The
    non-aligned group included countries that did not
    want to be tied to either the West or the East.

  • As World War II neared its conclusion, the
    future of Eastern Europe became a point of
    contention between the Soviet Union and its
    Western allies. The Soviet Union had been invaded
    via Eastern Europe in both the First and Second
    World Wars. In both conflicts, some of the
    nations of Eastern Europe had participated in
    those invasions. Both Wars had devastated the
    Soviet Union. An estimated twenty-five million
    Russians were killed during the Second World War.
    The Soviet Union was determined to install
    "friendly" regimes throughout Eastern Europe
    following the War. The strategic goal was to
    protect its European borders from future
    invasions. Since the Soviet Union was a communist
    state, the Soviet government preferred to install
    communist regimes throughout Eastern Europe. The
    Red Army was liberating the nations of Eastern
    Europe and therefore, the Soviet Union was in a
    position to influence the type of governments
    that would emerge following the War.

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  • The cold war began because of this struggle for
    control of the politics of these nations. By
    1948, pro-Soviet regimes were in power in Poland,
    Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, and Czechoslovakia.
  • The Western democracies, led by the United
    States, were determined to stop the spread of
    communism and Soviet power.

  • While not being able to stop the Soviets in
    Eastern Europe, the U.S. and Britain were
    determined to prevent communist regimes from
    achieving power in Western Europe. During the
    Second World War, communists parties throughout
    Western Europe, had gained popularity in their
    resistance to Nazi occupation. There was a real
    possibility the communist parties would be
    elected in both France and Italy.

  • Harry Truman was the first American president to
    fight the Cold War. He used several policies. One
    was the Truman Doctrine. This was a plan to give
    money and military aid to countries threatened by
    communism. The Truman Doctrine effectively
    stopped communists from taking control of Greece
    and Turkey. Another policy was the Marshall Plan,
    which provided financial and economic assistance
    to the nations of Western Europe. This
    strengthened the economies and governments of
    countries in western Europe, and as the economies
    of Western Europe improved, the popularity of
    communist parties declined.

  • The United States also led the formation of the
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. NATO
    was a joint military group. Its purpose was to
    defend against Soviet forces in Europe (or, as
    the saying went, "to keep Russia out, America in
    and Germany down). The first members of NATO
    were Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France,
    Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,
    Portugal, and the United States. The Soviet Union
    and its east European allies formed their own
    joint military group -- the Warsaw Pact -- six
    years later.

  • Cold War tensions increased, then eased, then
    increased again over the years. The changes came
    as both sides actively tried to influence
    political and economic developments around the
    world. For example, the Soviet Union provided
    military, economic, and technical aid to
    communist governments in Asia. The United States
    then helped eight Asian nations fight communism
    by establishing the Southeast Asia Treaty
    Organization. In the mid 1950s, the United States
    began sending military advisers to help South
    Vietnam defend itself against communist North
    Vietnam. That aid would later expand into a long
    and bloody period of American involvement in

A sign in Russian, English, and French near the
Berlin Wall warned "You are leaving the American
sector." The east side of Berlin can be seen over
the top of the wall.
  • Tens of thousands of East Germans had fled to the
    west. East Germany's communist government decided
    to stop them. It built a wall separating the
    eastern and western parts of the city of Berlin.
    Guards shot at anyone who tried to flee by
    climbing over.

  • During Kennedy's second year in office, American
    intelligence reports discovered Soviet missiles
    in Cuba. The Soviet Union denied they were there.
    American photographs proved they were. The Cuban
    Missile Crisis easily could have resulted in a
    nuclear war. But it ended after a week.
    Khruschchev agreed to remove the missiles if the
    United States agreed not to interfere in Cuba.
  • The Berlin Blockade and the Cuban Missile Crisis
    were major confrontations of the cold war

  • Some progress was made in easing Cold War
    tensions when Kennedy was president. In 1963, the
    two sides reached a major arms control agreement.
    They agreed to ban tests of nuclear weapons above
    ground, under water, and in space.
  • Relations between east and west also improved
    when Richard Nixon was president. He and Leonid
    Brezhnev met several times. They reached several
    arms control agreements. One reduced the number
    of missiles used to shoot down enemy nuclear
    weapons. It also banned the testing and
    deployment of long-distance missiles for five

Key Treaties in nuclear Disarmament
  • Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT) - 1963 Prohibited
    all testing of nuclear weapons except
  • Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) - signed
    1968, into force 1970 An international treaty
    (currently with 189 member states) to limit the
    spread of nuclear weapons. The treaty has three
    main pillars nonproliferation, disarmament, and
    the right to peacefully use nuclear technology.

World map with nuclear weapons development status
represented by color.       Five "nuclear
weapons states" from the NPT (red)       Other
states known to possess nuclear weapons
 (orange)     States formerly possessing nuclear
weapons  (purple)     States suspected of being
in the process of developing nuclear weapons
and/or nuclear programs  (yellow)     States
which at one point had nuclear weapons and/or
nuclear weapons research programs
(blue)      States that possess nuclear weapons,
but have not widely adopted them (pink)
Key Treaties cont.
  • Interim Agreement on Offensive Arms (SALT I) -
    1972 The Soviet Union and the United States
    agreed to a freeze in the number of
    intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and
    submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs)
    that they would deploy.
  • Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM) - 1972 The
    United States ans Soviet Union could deploy ABM
    interceptors at two sites, each with up to 100
    ground-based launchers for ABM interceptor
    missiles. In a 1974 Protocol, the US and Soviet
    Union agreed to only deploy an ABM system to one
  • Strategic Arms Limitation Treat (SALT II) - 1979
    Replacing SALT I, SALT II limited both the Soviet
    Union and the United States to an equal number of
    ICBM launchers, SLBM launchers, and heavy
    bombers. Also placed limits on Multiple
    Independent Reentry Vehicles (MIRVS).

Nuclear warhead stockpiles of the United States
and the Soviet Union/Russia, 1945-2006.
Key Treaties cont.
  • Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF) -
    1987 Created a global ban on short- and
    long-range nuclear weapons systems, as well as an
    intrusive verification regime.
  • Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I) -
    signed 1991, ratified 1994 Limited long-range
    nuclear forces in the United States and the newly
    independent states of the former Soviet Union to
    6,000 attributed warheads on 1,600 ballistic
    missiles and bombers.
  • Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty II (START II) -
    signed 1993, never put into force Signed in 1993
    but never entered into force, START II was a
    bilateral agreement between the U.S. and Russia
    which attempted to commit each side to deploy no
    more than 3,000 to 3,500 warheads by December
    2007 and also included a prohibition against
    deploying multiple independent reentry vehicles
    (MIRVs) on intercontinental ballistic missiles

Key Treaties cont.
  • Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT or
    Moscow Treaty) - signed 2002, into force 2003 A
    very loose treaty that is often criticized by
    arms control advocates for its ambiguity and lack
    of depth, Russia and the United States agreed to
    reduce their "strategic nuclear warheads" (a term
    that remain undefined in the treaty) to between
    1,700 and 2,200 by 2012.
  • Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) - signed
    1996, not yet in force The CTBT is an
    international treaty (currently with 177 state
    signatures) that bans all nuclear explosions in
    all environments. While the treaty is not in
    force, Russia has not tested a nuclear weapons
    since 1990 and the United States has not since

Rogue States
  • While the vast majority of states have adhered to
    the stipulations of the Nuclear Nonproliferation
    Treaty, a few states have either refused to sign
    the treaty or have pursued nuclear weapons
    programs while not being members of the treaty.
    The United States and the global community at
    large view the pursuit of nuclear weapons by
    these states as a threat to nonproliferation and
    world peace, and therefore seek policies to
    discourage the spread of nuclear weapons to these
    "rogue states".
  • There are three known nuclear powers outside NPT
  • Indian Nuclear Weapons - 70-120 active warheads
  • Pakistani Nuclear Weapons - 30-80 active
  • North Korean Nuclear Weapons - 1-10 active

Rogue States
  • Undeclared nuclear weapons states outside NPT
  • Israeli Nuclear Weapons - 75-200 active
  • Former Nuclear Weapons States
  • South African Nuclear Weapons
  • Non-Nuclear Weapons States who have been
    suspected of having nuclear weapons programs
  • Iran Nuclear Weapons Program
  • Iraqi Nuclear Weapons Program
  • Libyan Nuclear Weapons Program

Indias Nuclear Program
  • After 24 years without testing India resumed
    nuclear testing with a series of nuclear
    explosions known as "Operation Shatki." Prime
    Minister Vajpayee authorized the tests on April
    8, 1998, two days after the Ghauri missile
    test-firing in Pakistan.
  • On May 11, 1998, India tested three devices at
    the Pokhran underground testing site, followed by
    two more tests on May 13, 1998. The nuclear tests
    carried out at 345 pm on May 11th were claimed
    by the Indian government to be a simultaneous
    detonation of three different devices - a fission
    device with a yield of about 12 kilotons (KT), a
    thermonuclear device with a yield of about 43 KT,
    and a sub-kiloton device. The two tests carried
    out at 1221 pm on May 13th were also detonated
    simultaneously with reported yields in the range
    of 0.2 to 0.6 KT.
  • However, there is some controversy about these
    claims. Based on seismic data, U.S. government
    sources and independent experts estimated the
    yield of the so-called thermonuclear test in the
    range of 12-25 kilotons, as opposed to the 43-60
    kiloton yield claimed by India. This lower yield
    raised skepticism about India's claims to have
    detonated a thermonuclear device.
  • Observers initially suggested that the test could
    have been a boosted fission device, rather than a
    true multi-stage thermonuclear device. By late
    1998 analysts at Lawrence Livermore National
    Laboratory had concluded that the India had
    attempted to detonate a thermonuclear device, but
    that the second stage of the two-stage bomb
    failed to ignite as planned.

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Pakistan Nuclear Program
  • India's 1974 testing of a nuclear "device" gave
    Pakistan's nuclear program new momentum. Through
    the late 1970s, Pakistan's program acquired
    sensitive uranium enrichment technology and
    expertise. The 1975 arrival of Dr. Abdul Qadeer
    Khan considerably advanced these efforts. Dr.
    Khan is a German-trained metallurgist who brought
    with him knowledge of gas centrifuge technologies
    that he had acquired through his position at the
    classified URENCO uranium enrichment plant in the
    Netherlands. Dr. Khan also reportedly brought
    with him stolen uranium enrichment technologies
    from Europe. He was put in charge of building,
    equipping and operating Pakistan's Kahuta
    facility, which was established in 1976. Under
    Khan's direction, Pakistan employed an extensive
    clandestine network in order to obtain the
    necessary materials and technology for its
    developing uranium enrichment capabilities.

  • On May 28, 1998 Pakistan announced that it had
    successfully conducted five nuclear tests. The
    Pakistani Atomic Energy Commission reported that
    the five nuclear tests conducted on May 28
    generated a seismic signal of 5.0 on the Richter
    scale, with a total yield of up to 40 KT
    (equivalent TNT). Dr. A.Q. Khan claimed that one
    device was a boosted fission device and that the
    other four were sub-kiloton nuclear devices.
  • On May 30, 1998 Pakistan tested one more nuclear
    warhead with a reported yield of 12 kilotons. The
    tests were conducted at Balochistan, bringing the
    total number of claimed tests to six. It has also
    been claimed by Pakistani sources that at least
    one additional device, initially planned for
    detonation on 30 May 1998, remained emplaced
    underground ready for detonation.
  • Pakistani claims concerning the number and yields
    of their underground tests cannot be
    independently confirmed by seismic means, and
    several sources, such as the Southern Arizona
    Seismic Observatory have reported lower yields
    than those claimed by Pakistan. Indian sources
    have also suggested that as few as two weapons
    were actually detonated, each with yields
    considerably lower than claimed by Pakistan.
    However, seismic data showed at least two and
    possibly a third, much smaller, test in the
    initial round of tests at the Ras Koh range. The
    single test on 30 May provided a clear seismic

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North Korea Nuclear Program
  • Current Status
  • North Korea conducted an underground nuclear
    explosive test on October 9, 2006. The estimated
    yield of the test was less than one kiloton.
  • In a roundtable discussion with the United States
    and China in Beijing on April 24, 2003, North
    Korean officials admitted for the first time that
    they possessed nuclear weapons. Furthermore,
    North Korean officials claim to have reprocessed
    spent fuel rods and have threatened to begin
    exporting nuclear materials unless the United
    States agrees to one-on-one talks with North

  • Tensions between the United States and North
    Korea have been running especially high since, in
    early October of 2002, Assistant Secretary of
    State James Kelly informed North Korean officials
    that the United States was aware that North Korea
    had a program underway to enrich uranium for use
    in nuclear weapons. Initially North Korea denied
    this, but later confirmed the veracity of the US
    claim. In confirming that they had an active
    nuclear weapons program, they also declared the
    Agreed Framework nullified.
  • The Agreed Framework signed by the United States
    and North Korea on October 21, 1994 in Geneva
    agreed that
  • North Korea would freeze its existing nuclear
    program and agree to enhanced International
    Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards
  • Both sides would cooperate to replace the
    D.P.R.K.'s graphite-moderated reactors for
    related facilities with light-water (LWR) power
  • Both countries would move toward full
    normalization of political and economic
  • Both sides will work together for peace and
    security on a nuclear-free Korean peninsula.
  • And that both sides would work to strengthen the
    international nuclear non-proliferation regime.

  • Prior to the establishment of the Agreed
    Framework, intelligence sources believed that
    North Korea could have extracted plutonium from
    their reactors for use in nuclear weapons
    perhaps enough for one or two nuclear weapons.
  • Nevertheless, it has remained unclear whether
    North Korea had actually produced nuclear weapons
    due to difficulties in developing detonation

Seismic record of explosion from digital station
Vladivostok, Russia
To be continued…
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