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Physical Education and Recreation for Students who are BlindVisually Impaired

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Asking More Questions. Collecting and Interpreting Data. Drawing ... Trivia... Yes, VI kids CAN do sports but it is not accommodating their disability to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physical Education and Recreation for Students who are BlindVisually Impaired


1
Physical Education and Recreation for Students
who are Blind/Visually Impaired
  • Sheila Amato, Ed.D.
  • Teacher of Students who are Blind/Visually
    Impaired
  • East Meadow School District
  • brltrans_at_verizon.net
  • Health and Physical Education teacher
  • Long Island Ladies Soccer League goalkeeper
  • Geocacher

2
The quest and the importance of having a
professional network
  • Hi, all - I have been asked to give a one-hour
    presentation to a group of future physical
    education teachers (some of them may become
    adapted physical education teachers) about
    working with our population of students in grades
    K-12. I'd appreciate any resources... online..
    print... or experiential. What should I include?
    I want it to be fun and hands-on/movement
    oriented, while still giving them the knowledge. 
    Your thoughts, activities and resources are
    appreciated in advance.

3
Our Best Practice as teachers (also called
Promising Practice)is based on
  • Having a Question
  • Research
  • Asking More Questions
  • Collecting and Interpreting Data
  • Drawing Conclusions
  • Implementing Recommendations
  • Re-evaluation

4
John Dewey
  • A constructivist philosopher and educator
  • Developed experiential learning theory
  • Everything occurs within a social environment.
    Knowledge is socially constructed and based on
    experiences. This knowledge should be organized
    in real-life experiences that provide a context
    for the information.
  • The teacher's role is to organize this content
    and to facilitate the actual experiences.
  • Thats YOU!

5
The physical education teacher (Thats you!) is
one of the most important influences on
socialization within a physical education class
Suomi, J., Collier, D., Brown, L. (2003).
Factors affecting social experiences of students
in elementary physical education classes. Adapted
Physical Activity Quarterly, 22 , 186202.
6
  • The psychological well-being and social
    development of a student can be enhanced through
    opportunities to participate in a variety of
    age-appropriate physical activities
  • Houston-Wilson, C., Lieberman, L. J. (1999).
    The Individualized Education Program in physical
    education A guide for regular physical
    educators. Journal of Physical Education
    Recreation and Dance , 70 (3), 6064.

7
  • Physical activity improves the health-related
    quality of life by enhancing psychological
    well-being, which, in turn, contributes to human
    growth and social development. Social development
    is considered to be an essential characteristic
    of self-determined behavior.
  • (American Alliance for Health, Physical
    Education, Recreation and Dance AAHPERD, 1999
    Graham, Holt-Hale, Parker, 1998).

8
What you can do
  • An effective way to teach problem solving,
    socialization, cooperative skills, and team
    skills is through effective physical education
    programming
  • American Alliance for Health, Physical Education,
    Recreation and Dance. (1999). Physical best
    activity guide, elementary level . Champaign, IL
    Human Kinetics.

9
YOU can truly make a difference in the life of a
child with your
  • Knowledge
  • Skills
  • Attitude
  • Creativity
  • High expectations

10
Its time to move!
  • Put your arms out in front of you.
  • Hold the position while holding it,
  • Look around what do you see?

11
Use imagery and help to focus your minds eye
on what each arm is doing. 
  • Saying Put your arms out in front of you
    creates a different image than saying
  • Imagine there is a brick wall in front of you-
  • now put your arms out against that brick wall
    and push on it to keep yourself standing up! 
  • Being able to talk about what that would look
    like your head drops between your arms, your
    feet get planted in place- about shoulder width
    apart creates that image for students who are
    blind of what it should look like and moreover,
    what it should feel like.

12
The main function of the eye is to work with the
brain to provide us with vision. The eye and
brain translate light waves into a sensation we
call vision.
  • The eye
  • The brain

13
What is the difference between sight and vision???
  • Sight is the ability to see clearly at any
    distance. Sight depends on the anatomical
    structures of the eye.
  • Vision is the ability to take this clear image
    and bring it into the eye in a smooth and
    accurate manner, then transmit the image through
    the optic nerve to the back of the brain where it
    is interpreted and made sense of by combining it
    with past learning experiences.

14
A sensory/visual impairment
  • Affects your perception of your body in space
    (visual/spatial awareness)
  • May affect your balance/equilibrium
  • Affects your estimation of distance
  • Affects eye-hand-body coordination
  • Affects scanning and tracking (the ability to
    follow a moving object)
  • How many sports involve one or more of these
    factors?

15
Trivia
  • Did you know that your eye is the only part of
    your brain that is visible from the outside?

16
Real students who are blind doing real
physical education activities
17
Its time to . Move!
  • Pretend youre walking
  • Through tall underbrush
  • Through a dark, dangerous alley
  • Across a wide street on a rainy, windy night
  • Through a forest of man-eating plants!
  • Down a road of sticky asphalt and tar
  • Across a log over a creek full of crocodiles
  • Across a street of broken glass
  • Through a snowstorm
  • Through a bowl of chewed-up bubblegum.
  • How does a child who is blind gain these
    real-life (or creatively designed) experiences?

18
Comments from the Field
  • There are three main messages that I would share
    with mainstream PE teachers  One is that the
    game is not sacred, the kids are, so adapt it so
    that it is a meaningful and enjoyable experience
    for all.  That said, if the game must be adapted
    to the point that it is neither, then don't
    bother with it. 

19
Comments from the Field
  • The sighted students should not miss out on games
    like basketball simply because their blind
    classmate cannot participate equally in a game.
  • In that instance, the blind student should be
    allowed to learn and develop basketball skills-
    such as free throws to a hoop with a beeper on it
    for sonar location, as well as be taught the
    rules so that he/ she has the as much knowledge
    of the game as their sighted peers.  Including
    the student in ways such as making him/her the
    designated free throw shooter for a team, or
    adapting the rules for inclusion (such as they
    may be chest-passed the ball with a verbal
    comment, then may take a free throw at the
    beepered hoop for double points) could be
    helpful.
  • But the success of that sort of adaptation
    depends on the class and the student. If it does
    not work, then having the student do an alternate
    activity during that time, such as learning or
    practicing weight-lifting, swimming, goalball,
    Swish, yoga or any number of suitable activities
    would be perfectly acceptable

20
Comments from the Field
  • And lastly, sport and recreation are vital parts
    of life and participation in these activities
    afford students with low vision or blindness a
    chance for freedom, independence, pride and
    social opportunities that they need.

21
My colleague had a lot to say
  • I was the only VI kid in my school.  If you
    combine my trying to 'keep up' with the sighted
    kids with my oblivious gym teacher who thought
    she was doing me a favor by pushing me to do
    things, it was a disaster.  How do you push a VI
    kid to play tennis?  Every time you miss the ball
    and everyone starts laughing at you, you just
    want to run away.  My teacher was either
    thoughtless or clueless.
  • Even worse is the modern tendency to include a
    blind child in ball games by assigning them a
    buddy who runs with them and tells them what to
    do.  This isn't participation, it is being a
    puppet.  You can't enjoy a sport playing like
    that and it is even more embarrassing then what
    we went through trying to pretend we could see.
  • It just seems so obvious to find a sport the
    blind child CAN do then to try to have them do
    what everyone else is doing just to fit
    in.

22
My colleague is still talking
  • Recess in elementary school, and PE in junior
    high and high school are among my most
    excruciatingly unhappy memories when I think
    about my experiences as one of two visually
    impaired students in the public school system in
    my very rural Maryland county.  Imagine
    subjecting a child who could not see to daily
    games of dodge ball during 4th, 5th and 6th
    grades!  No wonder I misbehaved to get out of
    having to endure recess!  I would have done
    anything to avoid that ball hitting me -- hard --
    in the head over and over again during afternoon
    recess!
  • When I was in high school, I was pretty seriously
    injured when I was expected to run the hurdles. 
    Of course I couldn't jump over the hurdle when I
    didn't even know it was there until I was about
    10 inches away!  Softball, volleyball (how I
    hated that!), basketball (I could make a basket
    but could not function in a fast-moving game),
    even field hockey -- all of these were disastrous
    experiences for me!  And embarrassing.  And
    demoralizing.
  • PE has to be tailored to the capabilities, skill
    levels, and needs of each child with a visual
    impairment.  It is cruel to subject a child who
    cannot see to activities and games that he or she
    cannot actually participate in effectively.

23
Final words from my colleague
  • MOST PE activities are centered around ball
    games, field hockey, tennis, volleyball,
    softball, etc.  Even when gymnastics are
    introduced it included running at a vaulting
    horse.I was excused from regular PE class
    because I was 'incompetent at sports.' On one
    hand I was relieved because I didn't have to go
    home crying because no one wanted me on their
    team, but I loved doing things - and I hated the
    label of 'incompetent.'Then my life changed and
    I COULD do judo, hiking, swimming, cross country
    skiing, tandem bike riding, and on and on.Yes,
    VI kids CAN do sports but it is not accommodating
    their disability to expect them to play ball
    games with a buddy to tell them where to go and
    when to swing etc.  This is not participation, it
    is politically correct accommodation.  A VI
    child is truly participating when they can fully
    participate without someone holding their hand.

24
Its time to . Move!
  • While wearing simulators
  • Throw and catch a fleece ball with a partner
  • Play volleyball with a beach ball
  • Kick (gently were indoors!) a soccer ball that
    has bells inside of it.
  • Read a print page from this handout
  • Find your friend across the room (are you sure
    its your friend?)

25
Still more from the field
  • Yes, its all about setting proper expectations
    for the VI student, and even those students with
    multiple impairments. They have had ways of
    surprising us.  
  • Im also convinced that a physically fit child
    can also be motivated to channel his energies
    towards other goals such as exceptional grades in
    school and working towards a career.
  • In my observations and experiences in some public
    schools, physical education is probably one of
    the most dreaded subjects by teachers, because of
    the VI child being hurt and the litigation that
    might result. More than three-quarters of our VI
    kids have multiple disabilities, and they attend
    their local schools, with the expectation they
    will participate in age-appropriate activities.

26
about the real world
  • Then there is the issue of limitations on
    physical activities that are often  written in
    the IEP of what the blind/VI child should or
    shouldn't do, based on medical info.
  • I have always felt that public school teachers
    may have good intentions, but the medical
    conditions of most of our VI kids, plus
    unsuitable school infrastructures, and behaviors
    of some parents, impose major limitations on
    their creativity and responsiveness, and these
    teachers (and their administrators) often are
    unable to articulate their concerns for fear of
    being seen as anti-disability. 

27
Geocaching
  • www.geocaching.com
  • Using multi-million dollar military satellites
    to find Tupperware hidden in the woods.
  • Need a GPSr (Global Positioning System receiver)
    and access to the above website
  • And a spirit of adventure!

28
Sports Video Clips featuring athletes who are
blind
  • Actionnaires Sports Club
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vRaGegItuQRM
  • Australian Goalball World Championships
  • http//www.goalball.com.au/
  • Bay Area Goalball
  • http//video.google.com/videoplay?docid1232846902
    873989249
  • Beep Baseball
  • http//espn.go.com/swf/eticket/beep/beep.html 
  • Blind Powerlifting
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vaRLew6yAxzg
  • Blind Soccer (indoor)
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vFUzxCLdPuB0
  • Blind Soccer Match - China (outdoor)
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vgPZQEohMssI
  • Cross Country Skiing
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vhNLxFF_x28I
  • Skiing, Wrestling, Goalball Running, and Judo,  
  • http//www.ibsa.es/eng/galeria/main.htm
  • USABA

29
People Resources
  • Dont miss Dr. Lauren Lieberman's excellent work
    related to P.E. She's on faculty at SUNY
    Brockport, and you can read more about her and
    her work here http//www.brockport.edu/pes/facult
    y/lieberman.html
  • Kathy Zawald - kzwald_at_aol.com. She just finished
    her PhD at the University of Arizona in the area
    of physical education for students with visual
    impairments.
  • Larry L. Lewis, Jr.President and
    FounderFlying-Blind, LLCOffice Phone 1 (216)
    381-8107E-Mail Larry.Lewis_at_Flying-Blind.comWeb
    http//www.Flying-Blind.comSkype Name
    Larry.L.Lewis

30
Its time to . Move!
  • Be a Household Appliance
  • Making appropriate sound effects, 5 to 7 students
    together pantomime a single, large, household
    appliance.
  • Vacuum cleaner
  • Blender
  • Washing machine
  • Toaster
  • Alarm clock
  • Electric toothbrush
  • Can opener

31
Websites of Interest
  • Judo for Blind Athletes http//www.judoinfo.com/us
    aba.htm
  • The United States Association of Blind Athletes
    (USABA) has an area on its website with
    information on sport adaptations.
    http//www.usaba.org/home.html
  • Camp Abilities does a nice job of preparing
    adaptive phys ed students to work with
    individuals with visual impairments.
    http//www.campabilities.org
  • Some thoughts about Physical education and blind
    kids http//www.nfb.org/images/nfb/Publications/fr
    /fr14/Issue1/f140111.html
  • Physical Education and Recreation
    http//www.nfb.org/images/nfb/Publications/fr/fr26
    /Issue2/fr07sum07.htm

32
More websites of interest
  • Me and My PE Teacher http//www.nfb.org/images/nfb
    /Publications/fr/fr26/Issue2/fr07sum06.htm
  • Fit for Life http//www.nfb.org/images/nfb/Publica
    tions/fr/fr26/Issue2/fr07sum05.htm
  • Listing of blind sports www.blind.msstate.edu/i
    rr/sport.html
  • International Blind Sports Association
    (www.ibsa.es)
  • Overcoming the Barriers to Including Students
    with Visual Impairments because it addresses low
    expectations, lack of opportunity and more - and
    gives possible solutions. http//sun1.aph.org/pe/a
    rt_l_hw.html
  • Adapted Physical Education National
    Standardswww.cortland.edu/apens/15standards.htm

33
The Internet has become our new classroom
  • American Alliance for Health, Physical Education,
    Recreation, and Dance www.aahperd.org
  • APE Aerobicswww.turnstep.com/Adaptive/index.html
  • California State Council on Adapted Physical
    Education (SCAPE) sc-ape.org/index.htm
  • National Center on Physical Activity and
    Disability (NCPAD) www.ncpad.org
  • National Consortium of Physical Education and
    Recreation for Individuals with Disabilities
    (NCPERID)www.uwlax.edu/sah/ncperid/
  • PE Centralwww.pecentral.org/adapted/adaptedmenu.h
    tml
  • Project Inspirevenus.twu.edu/inspire/

34
Research/Bibliography
  • Gronmo, J., Augestad, B. (2001). Blind youth,
    self-concept and physical activity. Melhus,
    Norway National Resource Centre of the Visually
    Impaired.
  • Korhonen, K. (2000). Physical activity of
    visually impaired high school students.
    Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Arla
    Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
  • Lieberman, L. J., Houston-Wilson, C., Kozub, F.
    (2002). Perceived barriers to including students
    with visual impairments in general physical
    education. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly,
    19, 365378.
  • Lieberman, L. J., McHugh, E. (2001).
    Health-related fitness of children who are
    visually impaired. Journal of Visual Impairment
    Blindness, 95, 272286.
  • Lieberman, L., Stuart, M. (2002)
    Self-determined recreational and leisure choices
    of individuals with deaf-blindness . Journal of
    Visual Impairment Blindness, 96, 724735.
  • Ponchillia, P. E., Strause, B., Ponchillia, S.
    V. (2002). Athletes with visual impairments
    Attributes and sports participation. Journal of
    Visual Impairment Blindness, 96, 267272.
  • Winnick, J. (1985). The performance of visually
    impaired youngsters in physical education
    activities Implications for mainstreaming.
    Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 2 , 292299.

35
Lets end with some introspective thoughts
  • Greetings, while I dont have any sort of
    education-based material for you, I can speak
    from the voice of experience.  Being totally
    blind, and having been always fairly physically
    active, I can tell you that the underlying
    message that you can impart to these phys-ed
    teachers is  physical fitness is one of the
    greatest gifts you can give to your vision
    impaired students.  I was very fortunate to have
    had family and teachers who took the time to make
    sure that I was physically active and included in
    general phys-ed classes as much as possible.
     Engaging the students hands and body limbs at a
    young age is key when getting them interested in
    physical activity and the environment around
    them. 
  • Also, for the adaptive phys-ed teacher, have them
    spend a class explaining and having the child
    participate in aspects of games like football or
    baseball.  I had a wonderful teacher in
    elementary school who spent a whole class period
    outside with me and a football that beeped
    explaining to me all the aspects of the game of
    football and teaching me how to throw a football.
     He did the same with a baseball and bat as well.
     He did so because he knew how badly I wanted to
    experience playing these games, and Ill always
    be eternally grateful for him doing so.

36
From here to competition
  • Also, strength training, wrestling, and a variety
    of different Martial Arts are wonderful
    activities for laying a healthy fitness-based
    foundation for these students be careful with
    the strength training with younger students who
    are still growing.  Feel free to contact me off
    list to further discuss, or you can check out the
    personal section of my company website for more
    of my thoughts regarding physical fitness and
    blindness.
  • And, I echo your sentiments about blind students
    surpassing their sighted peers.  Ill never
    forget one wrestling match that I had in high
    school where I pinned my opponent within 45
    seconds its pretty funny when a 16 year old
    goes back to his teammate in tears because he
    lost to a blind guysmiles!  And what a
    confidence builder that was for meit set the
    tone for the rest of the wrestling season, and
    was one of the events that laid the foundation
    for me to know in my heart that I can compete
    with my sighted peers on any level and succeed.
  •  
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