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Coaching for Differentiation

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that kids differ, and the most effective. teachers do whatever it takes ... It just becomes 'traipsing over trivia' because it doesn't make much sense to them. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Coaching for Differentiation


1
Coaching for Differentiation By Lori
Comallie-Caplan
2
The success of education depends on adapting
teaching to individual differences among learners.
  • Yuezheng, in fourth century B.C. Chinese
    treatise, Xue Ji

(Snow, 1982)
3
Differentiation
Is a teachers response to learners needs
Guided by general principles of differentiation
Respectful tasks
Flexible grouping
Continual assessment
Teachers can differentiate through
Building Community
Quality Curriculum
Content
Product
Affect/Environment
Process
According to students
Readiness
Interest
Learning Profile
Through a variety of instructional strategies
such as Choice Menus, Anchor Activities,
Cubing, RAFTS, 6 Thinking Hats, Structured
Academic Controversy, The profiler, Tri-minder,
etc
4
Ways
to Differentiate Content
  • Reading Partners / Reading Buddies
  • Read/Summarize
  • Read/Question/Answer
  • Visual Organizer/Summarizer
  • Parallel Reading with Teacher Prompt
  • Choral Reading/Antiphonal Reading
  • Flip Books
  • Split Journals (Double Entry Triple Entry)
  • Books on Tape
  • Highlights on Tape
  • Digests/ Cliff Notes
  • Notetaking Organizers
  • Varied Texts
  • Varied Supplementary Materials
  • Highlighted Texts
  • Think-Pair-Share/Preview-Midview-Postview
  • Tomlinson 00

5
TO DIFFERENTIATE PROCESS
WAYS
  • Fun Games
  • RAFTs
  • Cubing, Think Dots
  • Choices (Intelligences)
  • Centers
  • Tiered lessons
  • Contracts

6
Ways
to Differentiate Product
  • Choices based on readiness, interest, and
    learning profile
  • Clear expectations
  • Timelines
  • Agreements
  • Product Guides
  • Rubrics
  • Evaluation

7
A Differentiated Classroom in Balance
Teacher-Student Partnerships
F L E X I B L E
Solid Curriculum
Shared Vision
Shared goals
Inviting
Shared responsibility
Focused
A Growth Orientation
Concept- based
Product Oriented
Sense Of Community
Resource
On-going assessment to determine need
Feedback and grading
Time
Groups
Respect For Group
ZPD Target
Approaches to teaching and learning
Safe
Respect for individual
Shared Challenge
Affirming
Tomlinson-oo
8
Differentiation is responsive teaching rather
than one-size-fits-all teaching.
9
It means teachers proactively plan varied
approaches to what students need to learn, how
they will learn it, and/or how they will show
what they have learned in order to increase the
likelihood that each student will learn as much
as he or she can, as efficiently as possible.
10
What is differentiation?
  • Differentiation is
  • classroom practice
  • that looks
  • eyeball to eyeball
  • with the reality
  • that kids differ, and the most effective
  • teachers do whatever it takes to hook
  • the whole range of kids on learning.
  • -Tomlinson (2001)

11
Differentiation is making sure that the right
students get the right learning tasks at the
right time. Once you have a sense of what each
student holds as given or known and what he
or she needs in order to learn, differentiation
is no longer an option it is an obvious
response.
Assessment as Learning Using Classroom
Assessment to Maximize Student Learning Lorna M.
Earl Corwin Press, Inc. 2003 pp. 86-87
12
Its a way of thinking about the classroom with
the goals of honoring each students learning
needs and maximizing each students learning
capacity while developing a solid community of
learners.
13
Differentiation doesnt suggest that a teacher
can be all things to all individuals all the
time. It does, however, mandate that a teacher
create a reasonable range of approaches to
learning much of the time, so that most students
find learning a fit much of the time.
14
At its most basic level, differentiating
instruction means shaking up what goes on in
the classroom so that students have multiple
options for taking in information, making sense
of ideas, and expressing what they learn.
15
Its teaching so that typical students
students with disabilities students who are
gifted and students from a range of cultural,
ethnic, and language groups can learn together,
well. Not just inclusion, but inclusive
teaching.
Based on Peterson, J., Hitte, M. (2003).
Inclusive teaching Creating effective schools
for all learners. Boston Allyn Bacon, p.
xix.
16
Differentiating InstructionRules of Thumb
  • Be clear on the key concepts and generalizations
    or principles that give meaning and structure to
    the topic, chapter, unit, or lesson you are
    planning.
  • Lessons for all students should emphasize
    critical thinking.
  • Lessons for all students should be engaging.
  • In a diffentiated classroom, there should be a
    balance between student-selected and
    teacher-assigned tasks and working arrangements.

17
It Begins with Good Instruction
  • Lynn Erickson We know from brain research that
    students need to see patterns and connections,
    and any learner is looking at information and
    trying to pattern and sort it into what they
    already have in their brains as far as past
    experience, past learnings. And if they have no
    way to make sense of this massive amount of
    information that's coming at them, then they tend
    to get confused. We also know that they tend to
    forget a lot of what they have learned. It just
    becomes "traipsing over trivia" because it
    doesn't make much sense to them. So, moving to a
    conceptual level for the structure of that
    information is going to be beneficial to
    students.

18
Planning a Focused Curriculum Means Clarity About
What Students Should
  • KNOW
  • Facts
  • Vocabulary
  • Definitions
  • UNDERSTAND
  • Principles/ generalizations
  • Big ideas of the discipline
  • BE ABLE TO DO
  • Processes
  • Skills

19
KNOW
  • Facts, names, dates, places, information
  • There are 50 states in the US
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • 1492
  • The Continental Divide
  • The multiplication tables

20
UNDERSTAND
  • Essential truths that give meaning to the topic
  • Stated as a full sentence
  • Begin with, I want students to understand THAT
    (not HOW or WHY or WHAT)
  • Multiplication is another way to do addition.
  • People migrate to meet basic needs.
  • All cultures contain the same elements.
  • Entropy and enthalpy are competing
  • forces in the natural world.
  • Voice reflects the author.

21
Understanding
  • Understanding is more a matter of what people can
    DO than something they HAVE. Understanding
    involves action more than possession.

D.N. Perkins, Educational Leadership, 10/91
22
BE ABLE TO DO
  • Skills (basic skills, skills of the discipline,
    skills of independence, social skills, skills of
    production)
  • Verbs or phrases (not the whole activity)
  • Analyze
  • Solve a problem to find perimeter
  • Write a well supported argument
  • Evaluate work according to specific criteria
  • Contribute to the success of a group or team
  • Use graphics to represent data appropriately

23
There is no such thing as genuine knowledge and
fruitful understanding except as the offspring of
doing This is the lesson which all education
has to learn. --John Dewey
24
KNOW (facts, vocabulary, dates, rules, people,
etc.) ecosystem, elements of culture
(housing/shelter, customs, values,
geography) UNDERSTAND (complete sentence,
statement of truth or insight - want
students to understand that . . .) DO (basic
skills, thinking skills, social skills, skills of
the discipline, planning skills---verbs)
Compare and contrast Draw conclusions Work
collaboratively Develop a timeline Use maps
as data Compare and contrast Write
a unified paragraph Examine varied
perspectives Tomlinson 02
25
Ongoing Assessment The Key to A Differentiated
Classroom
26
Assessment is todays means of understanding how
to modify tomorrows instruction. Carol
Tomlinson
27
WHAT CAN BE ASSESSED?
READINESS
LEARNING PROFILE
INTEREST
  • Areas of Strength
  • and Weakness
  • Work Preferences
  • Self Awareness
  • Interest Surveys
  • Interest Centers
  • Self-Selection

Content Knowledge
Skills
Concepts
28
Assessment should always have more to do with
helping students grow than with cataloging
their mistakes. Carol Tomlinson
29
When Do You Assess?
Most teachers assess students at the end of an
instructional unit or sequence. When assessment
and instruction are interwoven, both the students
and the teacher benefit. The next slide
suggests a diagnostic continuum for ongoing
assessment.
30
On-going AssessmentA Diagnostic Continuum
Preassessment (Finding Out)
Formative Assessment (Keeping Track Checking
-up)
Summative Assessment (Making sure)
31
On-going AssessmentA Diagnostic Continuum
Feedback and Goal Setting
Pre-test Graphing for Greatness Inventory KWL Chec
klist Observation Self-evaluation Questioning
Conference Exit Card Peer evaluation Portfolio
Check 3-minute pause Quiz Observation Journal
Entry Talkaround Self-evaluation Questioning
Unit Test Performance Task Product/Exhibit Demonst
ration Portfolio Review
32
Preassessment Is...
  • Any method, strategy or process used to determine
    a
  • students current level of readiness or interest
    in order to
  • plan for appropriate instruction.
  • Preassessment
  • provides data that can determine options for
    students to
  • to take in information, construct meaning, and
    to
  • demonstrate understanding of new information
  • helps teachers anticipate differences before
    planning
  • challenging and respectful learning experiences
  • allows teachers to meet students where they are

33
Formative Assessment Is...
  • A process of accumulating information about a
    students
  • progress to help make instructional decisions
    that will
  • improve his/her understandings and achievement
    levels.
  • Formative Assessment
  • depicts students life as a learner
  • used to make instructional adjustments
  • alerts the teacher about student misconceptions
  • early warning signal
  • allows students to build on previous experiences
  • provides regular feedback
  • provides evidence of progress
  • aligns with instructional/curricular outcomes

34
Summative Assessment Is...
  • A means to determine a students mastery and
  • understanding of information, skills, concepts,
    or
  • processes.
  • Summative Assessment
  • should reflect formative assessments that
    precede it
  • should match material taught
  • may determine students exit achievement
  • may be tied to a final decision, grade or report
  • should align with instructional/curricular
    outcomes
  • may be a form of alternative assessment

35
GET TO KNOW YOUR KIDS
36
Student Traits
  • There are four student traits that teachers must
    often address to ensure effective and efficient
    learning. Those are readiness, interest,
    learning profile, and affect.

37
Student Traits
  • Readiness refers to a students knowledge,
    understanding, and skill related to a particular
    sequence of learning. Only when a student works
    at a level of difficulty that is both challenging
    and attainable for that student does learning
    take place.

Tomlinson, 2003
38
Student Traits
  • Interest refers to those topics or pursuits that
    evoke curiosity and passion in a learner. Thus,
    highly effective teachers attend both to
    developing interests and as yet undiscovered
    interests in their students.

Tomlinson, 2003
39
Student Traits
  • Learning profile refers to how students learn
    best. Those include learning style, intelligence
    preference, culture and gender. If classrooms
    can offer and support different modes of
    learning, it is likely that more students will
    learn effectively and efficiently.

Tomlinson, 2003
40
Student Traits
  • Affect has to do with how students feel about
    themselves, their work, and the classroom as a
    whole. Student affect is the gateway to helping
    each student become more fully engaged and
    successful in learning.

Tomlinson, 2003
41
Learner Profile Card
Gender Stripe
Auditory, Visual, Kinesthetic
Analytical, Creative, Practical
Students Interests
Multiple Intelligence Preference
Favorite Subject
NOTE Put the students name on the back of the
card so decisions can initially be made without
knowing the particular student.
42
Intelligence Preference
Human brains are wired differently in different
individuals. Although all normally functioning
people use all parts of their brains, each of us
is wired to be better in some areas than in
others (Gardner, Sternberg). Differentiation
based on a students intelligence preference
generally suggests allowing the student to work
in a preferred mode to develop that capacity
further. Sometimes teachers also ask students to
extend their preferred modes of working, or they
opt to use a students preferred areas to support
growth in less comfortable areas.
43
Sternbergs Three Intelligences
Creative
Analytical
Practical
  • We all have some of each of these intelligences,
    but are usually stronger in one or two areas
    than in others.
  • We should strive to develop as fully each of
    these intelligences in students
  • but also recognize where students strengths
    lie and teach through those intelligences as
    often as possible, particularly when introducing
    new ideas.

44
Using Anchor(ing) Activities
45
Anchor Activities
A task to which a student automatically
moves when an assigned task is finished, TRAITS
OF EFFECTIVE ANCHOR ACTIVITIES Importantrelated
to key knowledge, understanding, and
skill, Interestingappeals to student curiosity,
interest, learning preference, Allow
Choicestudents can select from a range
of options Clear Routines and Expectationsstuden
ts know what they are to do, how to do it, how
to keep records, etc. Seldom Gradedteachers
should examine the work as they move around the
room. Students may turn in work for feedback.
Students may get a grade for working
effectively, but seldom for the work itself.
The motivation is interest and/or improved
achievement.
46
RAPID ROBIN
The Dreaded Early Finisher
47
Im Not Finished Freddie
It takes him an hour-and-a-half to watch 60
Minutes.
48
One premise in a differentiated classroom
  • In this class we are never finished---

Learning is a process that never ends.
49
Anchor Activities
  • Anchor activities are ongoing assignments that
    students can work on independently throughout a
    unit of study or longer.

50
The Purpose of an Anchor Activity is to
Provide meaningful work for students when they
finish an assignment or project, when they first
enter the class or when they are
stumped. Provide ongoing tasks that tie to the
content and instruction. Free up the classroom
teacher to work with other groups of students or
individuals.
51
Using Anchor Activities to Create Groups
1
Teach the whole class to work independently
and quietly on the anchor activity.
2
Flip-Flop
Half the class works on anchor activity.
Other half works on a different activity.
3
1/3 works with teacher---direct instruction.
1/3 works on anchor activity.
1/3 works on a different activity.
52
ANCHOR ACTIVITIES
Can be
used in any subject whole class
assignments small group or individual
assignments tiered to meet the needs of
different readiness levels Interdisciplinary for
use across content areas or teams
53
ANCHOR ACTIVITIES
  • Work best
  • when expectations are clear and the tasks are
    taught and practiced prior to use.
  • when students are held accountable for on task
    behavior and/or task completion.

54
Planning for Anchor Activities
Subject/Content Area
Name and description of anchor activity
How will activity be introduced to students?
How will the activity be managed and monitored?
- Points - Percentage of Final Grade -
Rubric - Portfolio Check - Checklist -
Teacher/Student Conference - Random Check - Peer
Review - On Task Behaviors - Other _______________
55
Some Anchor Activities
  • Brain Busters
  • Learning Packets
  • Activity Box
  • Learning/Interest Centers
  • Vocabulary Work
  • Accelerated Reader
  • Investigations
  • MSPAP or CRT Practice Activities
  • Magazine Articles with Generic Questions or
    Activities
  • Listening Stations
  • Research Questions or Projects
  • Commercial Kits and Materials
  • Journals or Learning Logs
  • Silent Reading (Content Related?)

56
Examples of Possible Anchor Activities
Skills practice at the computer Reading from
supplementary material Completing math
applications Working on final products Free
reading Journal writing Analyzing cases (or
writing them) Vocabulary extension Learning about
the people behind ideas Learning about key ideas
at work in the world Independent
Studies Orbitals Current events reading Designing
or completing virtual science
experiments Developing or completing relevant
organizers An idea for an improvement, invention,
innovation ETC.
Generally, homework is not an acceptable anchor
activityand anchor activities are typically
completed individually.
57
Beginning Anchor Activities
  • Teach one key anchor activity to the whole class
    very carefully.
  • Later, it can serve as a point of departure for
    other anchors.
  • Explain the rationale.
  • Let students know you intend the activities to
    be helpful
  • and/or interesting to them.
  • Help them understand why its important for them
    to work
  • productively.
  • Make sure directions are clear and accessible,
    materials readily
  • available, and working conditions support
    success.
  • Think about starting with one or two anchor
    options and expanding the
  • options as students become proficient with the
    first ones.
  • Monitor student effectiveness with anchors and
    analyze the way they
  • are working with your students.
  • Encourage your students to propose anchor
    options.
  • Remember that anchor activities need to stem from
    and be part of
  • building a positive community of learners.

58
Directions Complete the chart to show what you
know about ________________ Write as much
as you can.
Description
Description of the Strategy
Steps in Developing It
Useful For
Place to Use It in the Curriculum
Tomlinson - 02
59
Choice Menus
60
CHOICE Menus Learning menus outline a variety
of instructional options targeted
toward important learning goals. Students are
able to select the choices which most appeal to
them. The teacher directs the menu process, but
the student is given control over his/her choice
of options, order of completion, etc.
61
Kinds of Menus ?? MENU Main Dishes, Side
Dishes, and Desserts (for younger learners). ??
THINK TAC TOE Complete a row, column or diagonal
line of activities. All three options can be
differentiated according to interest, learning
profile, or readiness (see enclosed examples).
62
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63
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64
  • Appetizers
  • Something I can always be working on.
  • These are assignments that will reinforce
    concepts.
  • Vocabulary Words/Definitions
  • Word Searches
  • Idea Maps
  • Matching Worksheets
  • Label the Microorganism/Cell
  • Main Course
  • Required
  • These labs must be completed and turned in for
    credit.
  • Enormous E
  • Focus on Scopes
  • Pond Water Culture
  • Your Choice
  • Chapter 8 Test

MicroorganismMenu NameClass AppetizersCan
always work on Soups/SaladsHomework Main
CourseRequired DessertsChallenges
  • Soups/Salads
  • Homework Assignments
  • All homework must be completed and turned in for
    a grade.
  • Transparency 13
  • Transparency 16
  • Study Guide 8.1
  • Study Guide 8.2
  • Study Guide 8.3
  • Desserts
  • Things I can do to challenge myself.
  • These are not required unless you have been given
    specific instructions.
  • Movie Notes
  • Make a Slide
  • Guess the Disease
  • Write a Letter
  • Microbe Mysteries
  • http//www.microbeworld.org

Created by Meri-Lyn StarkElementary Science
Coordinator Park City School District
65
Diner Menu Photosynthesis
  • Appetizer (Everyone Shares)
  • Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis.
  • Entrée (Select One)
  • Draw a picture that shows what happens during
    photosynthesis.
  • Write two paragraphs about what happens during
    photosynthesis.
  • Create a rap that explains what happens during
    photosynthesis.
  • Side Dishes (Select at Least Two)
  • Define respiration, in writing.
  • Compare photosynthesis to respiration using a
    Venn Diagram.
  • Write a journal entry from the point of view of a
    green plant.
  • With a partner, create and perform a skit that
    shows the differences between photosynthesis and
    respiration.
  • Dessert (Optional)
  • Create a test to assess the teachers knowledge
    of photosynthesis.

66
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67
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68
THINK-TAC-TOE Book Report
69
Directions Complete the chart to show what you
know about ________________ Write as much
as you can.
Description
Description of the Strategy
Steps in Developing It
Useful For
Place to Use It in the Curriculum
Tomlinson - 02
70
Cubing Activities
71
What is Cubing
  • Cubing is an instructional strategy that asks
    students to consider a concept from a variety of
    different perspectives.
  • The cubes are six-sided figures that have a
    different activity on each side of the cube.
  • A student rolls the cube and does the activity
    that comes up.

72
Cubing
Connect It
  • Describe ItLook at the subject closely (perhaps
    with your senses in mind).
  • Compare ItWhat is it similar to? What is it
    different from?
  • Associate ItWhat does it make you think of?
    What comes to your mind when you think of it?
    Perhaps people? Places? Things? Feelings? Let
    your mind go and see what feelings you have for
    the subject.
  • Analyze ItTell how it is made. If you cant
    really know, use your imagination.
  • Apply ItTell what you can do with it. How can
    it be used?
  • Argue for It or Against ItTake a stand. Use any
    kind of reasoning you wantlogical, silly,
    anywhere in between.

Illustrate It
Change It
Evaluate It
Solve It
Rearrange It
Question It
Satirize It
Cartoon It
73
Example
diagram
sketch
question
storyboard
timeline
explain
74
Creating a Cubing Exercise
Compare one of the story characters to yourself.
How are you alike and how are you different?
  • Start by deciding which part of your unit lends
    itself to optional activities. Decide which
    concepts in this unit can you create a cube for.
    Is it possible for you to make 3 cubes for 3
    different interests, levels, or topics?
  • First Step (use one of the cubes)
  • Write 6 questions that ask for information on the
    selected unit.
  • Use your 6 levels of Bloom, intelligence levels,
    or any of the cubing statements to design
    questions.
  • Make questions that use these levels that probe
    the specifics of your unit.
  • Keep one question opinion based-no right or
    wrong.
  • Second Step (use other cubes)
  • Use the first cube as your average cube, create
    2 more using one as a lower level and one as a
    higher level.
  • Remember all cubes need to cover the same type of
    questions, just geared to the level, dont water
    down or make too busy!
  • Label your cubes so you know which level of
    readiness you are addressing.
  • Hand your partner the cubes and ask if they can
    tell high, medium, or low. If they cant tell,
    adjust slightly.
  • Third Step
  • Always remember to have an easy problem on each
    cube and a hard one regardless the levels.
  • Color code the cubes for easy identification and
    also if students change cubes for questions.
  • Decide on the rules Will the students be asked
    to do all 6 sides? Roll and do any 4 sides? Do
    any two questions on each of the 3 cubes?
  • Places to get questions
  • Old quizzes, worksheets, textbook-study
    problems, students generated.

75
Ideas for Kinesthetic Cube
  • Arrange _________into a 3-D collage to
    show_________
  • Make a body sculpture to show__________________
  • Create a dance to show_______________________
  • Do a mime to help us understand_________________
  • Present an interior monologue with dramatic
    movement that________________________
  • Build/construct a representation
    of________________
  • Make a living mobile that shows and balances the
    elements of __________________
  • Create authentic sound effects to accompany a
    reading of ________________
  • Show the principle of _____________with a rhythm
    pattern you create. Explain to us how that works.

76
Ideas for Cubing in Math
  • Describe how you would solve_____________
  • Analyze how this problem helps us use
  • mathematical thinking and problem
    solving.
  • Compare this problem to one on p._____
  • Contrast it too.
  • Demonstrate how a professional (or just a regular
  • person) could apply this kind of problem
    to their work
  • or life.
  • Change one or more numbers (elements, signs) in
  • the problem. Give a rule for what that
    change does.
  • Create an interesting and challenging word
  • problem from the number problem. (Show us
    how to
  • solve it too)
  • Diagram or Illustrate the solution to the
    problem.
  • Interpret the visual so we understand.

77
Cubing Fractions
  • Each student at a table rolls two dice a
    designated number of times. The 1st dice/cube
    tells students what to do with a fraction.
  • Order/compare all the fractions from the
    smallest number to the largest.
  • Add 2 rolled fractions together.
  • Subtract 2 rolled fractions.
  • Divide 2 rolled fractions.
  • Multiply 2 rolled fractions.
  • Model 2 rolled fractions using circles or bars
    of paper.
  • The 2nd cube/dice contains the fraction which can
    vary in complexity based on studentnumber
    readiness.

Lynne Beauprey, Illinois
78
The Cube
  • First graders have been studying weather. They
    visit the Review Center at various times
    throughout the week as a way to review what they
    have learned about weather.
  • Draw it Associate it
  • Divide your paper into 4 sections. Choose one
    type of weather.
  • Label each section with a season and Create a
    web with this weather in the
  • draw what the playground might look like. Center.
    Write words in the bubble
  • connecting to the center that describe
  • Compare it how you feel when you see it.
  • Choose 2 seasons. Use a Venn diagram
  • to compare them. Describe it
  • Work with a partner.
  • Draw a card from the jar.
  • Explain it Describe the weather type on the
    card
  • Talk with a partner about your favorite so your
    partner can guess.
  • type of weather.
  • Analyze it
  • Work with a partner.
  • Read a book about rain.
  • Talk about why we need rain.

Jessica Ramsey/2004Adapted slightly
from http//www.mcps.k12.md.us/departments/eii/Cu
bing
79
Third Grade Unit Cubing Example Adapted by Joy
Peters, Nebraska
Compare your favorite picture in the story to a
similar activity in your life. You may use words
and/or pictures.
Describe your favorite picture in the Story
Family Pictures. Tell why you picked that one.
List words that describe your feelings about the
Mexican as you look at each picture in the story.
Using a Venn Diagram, chart your favorite things
and compare them to the favorite things you found
in the story. Find common areas that you and the
story share.
Justify why it is important to meet people who
speak a different language and have a different
culture.
Analyze the favorite things in the story by
understanding why these might be traditions in
the culture. If you were a researcher asked
about the important things in the Mexican
culture, what would you say?
Red Cube Using Family Pictures by Carmen Lomas
Garza
80
Third Grade Unit Cubing Example Adapted by Joy
Peters, Nebraska
Compare, using the compare and contrast graphic
organizer and look at areas of food, shelter,
traditions, family life, and recreational
activities.
Describe the Mexican culture using at least
three sentences with three describing words in
each sentence.
Choreograph a dance or mime to represent the
three main ideas that you learned about the
Mexican culture.
Find and critique another story at the reading
center. Compare it to Family Pictures and
discuss what elements you liked and did not like
of either story.
Pretend that you are a child from Mexico. Tell
me about your day. What would your chores be?
What would you eat? How would you spend your
free time? Tell me why?
Create your own family album by drawing at least
five special activities your family shares.
Orange Cube
81
Cubing with Charlottes Web
  • Basic Cube
  • Draw Charlotte as you think she looks.
  • Use a Venn diagram and compare Charlotte and
    Fern.
  • Use a comic strip to tell what happened in this
    chapter.
  • Shut your eyes and describe the barn. Jot down
    your ideas.
  • Predict what will happen in the next chapter
    using symbols.
  • In your opinion, why is Charlotte a good friend?
  • Abstract Cube
  • Use a graphics program on the computer and create
    a character web for Wilbur.
  • Use symbols on a Venn diagram to compare Wilbur
    and Charlotte.
  • Draw the farm and label the items, people, and
    buildings.
  • Use a storyboard to show the progress of the plot
    to this point.
  • What is the message that you think the writer
    wants people to remember? Draw a symbol that
    illustrates your ideas.
  • When you think of the title, do you agree or
    disagree that it is a good choice? Why or why
    not?

82
Directions Complete the chart to show what you
know about ________________ Write as much
as you can.
Description
Description of the Strategy
Steps in Developing It
Useful For
Place to Use It in the Curriculum
Tomlinson - 02
83
 ThinkDots  
  • An Instructional Strategy for Differentiation by
  • Readiness, Interest or Learning Style
  •  Kay Brimijoin, 1999

84
ThinkDOTs
  •  
  • After a conceptual unit has been presented and
    students are familiar with the ideas and
    associated skills, Think DOTS is an excellent
    activity for students to construct meaning for
    themselves about the concept they are studying.
    The instructor first defines readiness levels,
    interests or learning styles in the class, using
    on-going assessment.
  • Each student is given a set of activity cards on
    a ring, a die, and an activity sheet. Each
    student rolls the die and completes the activity
    on the card that corresponds to the dots thrown
    on the die. Each student then completes the
    activity on the activity sheet.
  • Materials
  • 1.        8 ½ x 11 inch paper
  • 2.        Hole punch
  • 3.        Metal or plastic rings
  • 4.        Dice
  • 5. Scissors
  • 6. Markers or dots
  • 7. Laminating materials

85
ThinkDOTs pg. 2
  •  Construction
  • 1.   For each readiness level, six activities
    should be created.
  • 2.  On an 8 ½ x 11 inch page divided into six
    sections (this can be done easily on the computer
    by creating a 2 x 3 cell table and saving it as a
    template), the activities should be written or
    typed in each section.
  • 3.  On the back of each page, dots corresponding
    to the dots on the faces of a die should be
    either drawn or affixed (you can use Avery
    adhesive dots) on each of the six sections of the
    page.
  • 4. The pages should be laminated for durability.
  • 5. Then each page should be cut into the six
    sections.
  • 6.  Use a hole punch to make holes in one corner
    or in the top of each activity card.
  • 7.  Use a metal or plastic ring to hold each set
    of six cards together (you can get 100 metal
    rings from Office Suppliers in Roanoke for 9.00)
  • 8.   Create an Activity Sheet to correspond to
    the lesson for easy recording and management.

86
ThinkDOTs pg. 3
  • Suggestions
  • 1.  Use colored paper and/or colored dots to
    indicate different readiness levels, interests or
    learning styles.
  • 2.  Have students work in pairs.
  • 3.  Let students choose which activities for
    example roll the die and choose any three
    create complex activities and have students
    choose just one to work on over a number of days.
  • 4.  After students have worked on activity cards
    individually, have them come together in groups
    by levels, interest or learning style to
    synthesize 

87
ThinkDOTs pg. 4
  • Application
  • 1.  Use ThinkDOTS to lead students into deeper
    exploration of a concept.
  • 2.  Use ThinkDOTS for review before assessment.
  • 3.  Use ThinkDOTS as an assessment.

88
Think DotsGrade 2 Math
  • What students should know
  • Count by fives
  • Count up to sixty
  • Tell time to the half hour
  • 4 quarters is equal 1.00
  • 3 fives makes fifteen
  • There is quarter after and a quarter till
  • Clock is divided into 4 parts and is similar to 4
    quarters
  • equaling 1.00
  • What students should understand
  • Time helps people plan their lives better.
  • Time helps people communicate.
  • What students should be able to do
  • Tell time to the quarter hour

89
Think DotsGrade 2 Math
  • Students will tell and write time to the quarter
    hour, using analog and digital clock.
  • Think Dots Version 1 Time

The Think Dots could be used the following
ways Anchor Activity, Pre-assessment, Review,
Post-assessment
Dawn LoCassale
90
Think DotsGrade 2 Math
  • Students will tell and write time to the quarter
    hour, using analog and digital clock.
  • Think Dots Version 2 Time

The Think Dots could be used the following
ways Anchor Activity, Pre-assessment, Review,
Post-assessment
Dawn LoCassale
91
Generic ThinkDOTS for High School Literature
Concept Prejudice
  • Prejudice
  • Discuss how prejudice and discrimination are not
    only harmful to the victim, but also to those who
    practice them.
  • Scapegoating
  • Imagine a group of people that could be
    scapegoats. List and describe stereotypes of this
    group and the treatments they received because of
    them.
  • Articles
  • Read the article. What could be reasons for the
    persecution? How can you justify and minds of
    those responsible? 
  • Photography
  • Photographs tell stories. Write a caption for the
    photo and explain why you chose it.
  • Genetics
  • Certain characteristics are blamed on genetics.
    Do genetics impact the characteristics of your
    group? Explain the reasoning behind your answer.
    Use your science knowledge.
  • Stereotypes
  • Your group was persecuted. Identify a group who
    has been persecuted in more recent years. Compare
    the two and give reasons why.

92
Generic ThinkDOTS for High School Literature
Concept Prejudice
  •  
  • Prejudice
  • Is it possible to grow to adulthood without
    harboring some prejudice? Why or why not?
  • Scapegoating
  • What is scapegoating? Explore the words
    etymology and hypothesize about its present day
    meaning. How was your group scapegoated?
  • Articles
  • Read the article. What is genocide? Did the
    people in your article face genocide? Why?
  • Photography
  • Look at the clothing, hair, setting, body
    language, and objects to help determine social,
    economic, country of origin and so on. Can you
    see the emotions in the people? How? Do you think
    they are related?
  • Genetics
  • Do genetics cause brown hair? How? List one way
    genetics affects your group (in your opinion). If
    genetics dont affect your group explain why.
  • Stereotypes 
  • Identify stereotypes your group faced. Pick a
    clique in the school and discuss the traits of
    that group. Are they stereotyped?

93
Generic ThinkDOTS for High School Literature
Concept Prejudice
  • Prejudice
  • Discuss the following statement Genocide can
    never be eliminated because it is deeply rooted
    in human nature. Do you agree or disagree?
    Provide evidence from your readings for your
    position.
  • Scapegoating
  • Identify and discuss the scapegoating that took
    place in your group. Compare the scapegoating of
    your group to that of a present day group.
  • Articles 
  • Read the article. If you were the person behind
    the persecution and were asked why you did what
    you did, what would you say?
  • Photography 
  • Compare two photographs taken of similar events.
    What are the similarities and differences? What
    might be the significance of these similarities
    and differences?
  • Genetic 
  • Did genetics have an impact on the Aryan race?
    Why? Does it in the group you are studying? Why?
  • Stereotypes 
  • Name a group you stereotype and discuss those
    traits that you stereotype. What were the
    stereotypes your group had? 

94
Directions Complete the chart to show what you
know about ________________ Write as much
as you can.
Description
Description of the Strategy
Steps in Developing It
Useful For
Place to Use It in the Curriculum
Tomlinson - 02
95
RAFT
Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the
Content Areas If Not Me Then Who BillMeyer
Martin, 1998
96
R A F T ING HELPS A STUDENT UNDERSTAND
  • The ROLE of writer, speaker, artist, historian,
    etc.
  • An AUDIENCE of fellow writers, students,
    citizens, characters, etc.
  • How to produce a written, spoken, drawn, acted,
    etc. FORMAT
  • A deeper level of content within the TOPIC
    studied.
  •  

97
RAFT
  • RAFT is an acronym that stands for
  • Role of the writer. What is the writers role
    reporter, observer, eyewitness?
  • Audience. Who will be reading this writing the
    teacher, other students, a parent, people in the
    community, an editor?
  • Format. What is the best way to present this
    writing in a letter, an article, a report, a
    poem?
  • Topic. Who or what is the subject of this
    writing a famous mathematician, a prehistoric
    cave dweller, a reaction to a specific event?

98
RAFT Activities
99
RAFT Activities
Language Arts Literature
Science
History
Math
Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in
Teaching Reading in the Content Areas If Not Me
Then Who? Billmeyer and Martin, 1998
100
Grade 6Social Studies RAFT
  • Students will
  • Know
  • Names and roles of groups in the feudal class
    system.
  • Understand
  • Roles in the feudal system were interdependent.
    A persons role in the feudal system will shape
    his/her perspective on events.
  • Be Able to Do
  • Research
  • See events through varied perspectives
  • Share research perspectives with peers

101
Feudal System Raftcontd
Following the RAFT activity, students will share
their research and perspectives in mixed role
groups of approximately five. Groups will have a
discussion agenda to guide their conversation.

-Kathryn Seaman
102
Self Portrait RAFTHigh School Art
  • Students will
  • Know
  • Characteristics of self portrait
  • Appropriate use of artistic materials
  • Principles of Design
  • Definition of artistic expression
  • Understand
  • Each artist has a personal style
  • Personal style reflects the individuals
    culture, time, and personal experiences.
  • Use of materials and style are related
  • Be Able to Do
  • Analyze an artists personal style and use of
    materials
  • Create a facsimile of an artists personal
    style and use of materials

103
Self Portrait RAFT
104
Technology Safety R.A.F.T.
Directions
Select one of the following prompts, The Role
is the character you will become, and from those
perspective that you will write. The
Audience is to whom that character will be
writing. The Format is the form in which the
opinion will be expressed. The Topic is just
that -- your topic! Points of Discussion are
those things that you should be sure to
include in your project. All products must
...1) Include all necessary Points of
Discussion, 2) Use a combination of words and
pictures, Communicate the topic clearly and
forcefully, and 4) Be of Professional quality -
fit for publication for next years class.
Role Audience Format
Topic Points
of Discussion
Double-page Magazine spread
Heres whats IN in Technology-Education Fashio
n
Middle school Students
Teen magazines Fashion Editor
Eye wear ear-wear long hair baggy clothes
jewelry long sleeves
Instant Replay Out-takes Fouls in the
Technology Lab
Running horseplay injuries anchor activities
Referee
Wanted Students Caught In the Act of
Breaking Clean-up Laws
Your three primary clean-up in your work area
The Technology
The Public
Wanted Posters
Undercover in the TMS Tech Lab What
Materials Talk About at Night
Fauquier Times Democrat Reader
Proper handling of hand tools, heavy items,
materials
Newspaper Writer
Expose Cover Story
Drill Press speed, chuck keylong end of
Board Scroll Saw cut line fingers when the
blade binds hold-down upper guide
adjustment Both brush holding work flat on table
What We Wish Middle School Students Knew
About  How to Handle Us...
Scroll Saw And Drill Press
Each Other
Comic Strip
A New Computer on his 1st day at work
All items on Technology Computer Rules handout
These Are Your Rights!
Kristina Doubet - University of Virginia - 2003

105
Technology Safety R.A.F.T.
Circle the ROLE that you plan to pursue. Decide
what materials youll need (digital camera,
computer, poster, etc.) Plan your presentation,
and clear. It with your teacher before you begin
working. You may use your notes to help you.
Directions As your classmates present their
RAFTS, take notes on what
you learn about lab safety from their projects.
SUBJECT CLASSMATE
NOTES
PRESENTING
KRISTINA DOUBET -- UNIVERSITY OF
VIRGINIA -- 2003
106
RAFT Assignments Grade 10 English
  • Know Voice, Tone, Style
  • Understand
  • Each writer has a voice.
  • Voice is shaped by life experiences
  • reflects the writer.
  • Voice shapes expression.
  • Voice affects communication.
  • Voice and style are related.
  • Be Able to Do
  • Describe a writers voice and style.
  • Mimic a writers voice and style.
  • Create a piece of writing that reflects a
    writers voice style.

107
Tom Sawyers R.A.F.T. (Page 1)
  • Overview
  • This RAFT is designed for use by students when
    they have finished reading the novel, Tom Sawyer,
    by Mark Twain. The RAFT synthesizes the units
    exploration of characterization and allows
    students to step into the skin of one of the
    supporting characters to get a look at the
    protagonist from his/her perspective. A final
    jigsaw activity allows students to view Tom form
    multiple perspectives in order to reinforce the
    units essential understandings (students share
    their RAFTs in mixed groups and complete a
    synthesis writing piece in which they draw
    conclusions about Tom based on all perspectives
    aired in the group).
  • Raft Goals
  • Students should KNOW
  • The definition of characterization
  • The six supporting characters relationships with
    Tom Sawyer
  • Students should UNDERSTAND that
  • Individuals have their own unique perspectives
    determined by their experiences and
    relationships.
  • In order to gain a true understanding of a person
    or event, multiple perspectives must be
    considered.
  • Students should BE ABLE TO
  • Assume the voice of a supporting character
  • Characterize Tom Sawyer using the methods
    discussed in class
  • Draw conclusions synthesizing multiple and varied
    perspectives

108
Tom Sawyers R.A.F.T. (Page 2)
  • Differentiation This RAFT is differentiated
    according to readiness and interest.
  • Readiness
  • The first three strips should be given to more
    advanced students, as these three options are
    more conceptual.
  • The roles and topics represent less accessible
    points of view and are designed for student who
    are ready to tackle the novel at a more abstract
    level and/or
  • The formats are designed for students who are
    reading and writing on or above grade level (and
    are thus able to handle more complex modes of
    expression).
  • The second three strips offer options that are
    simpler and more straightforward.
  • The roles and topics represent more accessible
    views and are designed for students who
    understand the novel at a more basic level,
    and/or
  • The formats are accessible for students who are
    struggling readers/writers.
  • Interest Each student has three options from
    which to choose, so he/she can select a strip
    that appeals to them in some way (affinity with a
    character, interest/talent in the formats
    expression, interest in the topic, etc.)

109
Tom Sawyers R.A.F.T.
  • Directions
  • Select one of the following prompts. The Role
    refers to the characters perspective that you
    will assume. The Audience refers to whom that
    character will be addressing his/her opinion The
    Format refers to the form in which the opinion
    will be expressed The Topic is just that -
    your topic!
  • Circle the ROLE that you plan to pursue, and
    clear it with your teacher before you begin
    working. Use your text to help you.

Authors Kristina Doubet, Marla Capper, and
Christie Reed - 2003
110
Primary RAFT Example
  • RAFT EXAMPLE
  • This RAFT is designed to be used by student in a
    second grade class as they are learning about
    endangered and extinct animals in science and
    natural resources in social studies. Students
    have been studying both topics for a number of
    days before they do the RAFT. The activity
    serves as a culmination to this period of study.
  • Know
  • Basic needs of plants and animals
  • The role of natural resources in lives of people
    and animals
  • Understand
  • Our actions affect the balance of life on Earth.
  • Animals become endangered or extinct when natural
  • resources they need are damaged or limited.
  • Natural resources are not unlimited and must be
  • used wisely.
  • Be Able To
  • Identify causes of problems with misuse of
  • natural resources.
  • Propose a useful solution to the problems.

Directions Pick one of theserows to help you
showwhat you know and why taking care of
natural resources is important to thebalance of
life in our world.
111
AP Statistics RAFT Characteristics of Discrete
and Continuous Random Variables Know
Definitions of discrete and continuous random
variables What graphs of discrete and continuous
random variables look like Understand Discrete
and continuous random variables have distinct,
identifiable attributes. Be
Able to Do Look at a graph and identify whether
it represents discrete or continuous
random variables Interpret a word
problem to determine whether it involves discrete
or continuous random
variables Draw a probability histogram of
discrete and continuous
random variables
112
Directions for the RAFT ACTIVITY Students will
pick one of four RAFT groups located in the four
corners of the room, with the understanding that
the groups must have equal numbers of
participants. Students will work with their
groups for 30 minutes to develop their RAFT
assignment. During the last 15 minutes of
class, students will meet in groups of 4 that
contain a representative of each of the RAFT
strips to present their work and see the other
formats (2-3 minutes each). The teacher will
move around the class and may select one example
of each strip for presentation at the beginning
of the next days class.
113
The RAFT Activity
Kathie Emerson, Timberline High School, Boise, ID
114
High School Biology RAFT Know (See terms below
the RAFT) Understand Plants and animals have a
symbiotic relationship with
photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthesis
and respiration are essential to human life. Be
Able to Do Explain the relationship between
photosynthesis in plants and
respiration in humans Explain and connect the
equations for photosynthesis and
respiration Explain the nature of human
dependence on plants
115
Important Terms photosynthesis, respiration,
carbon dioxide, sunlight, blue light or green
light (or other colors), sugar, water,
mitochondria, chloroplast, stoma (stomata),
lactic acid, aerobic respiration, anaerobic
respiration, autotroph, heterotroph, sunny,
cloudy, cool, warm, long sunny days, short days,
lungs, light energy, food energy Annette Hanson,
Timberline High School, Boise, Idaho
116
RAFT Planning Sheet
  • Know
  • Understand
  • Do
  • How to Differentiate
  • Tiered? (See Equalizer)
  • Profile? (Differentiate Format)
  • Interest? (Keep options equivalent in learning)
  • Other?

117
Directions Complete the chart to show what you
know about ________________ Write as much
as you can.
Description
Description of the Strategy
Steps in Developing It
Useful For
Place to Use It in the Curriculum
Tomlinson - 02
118
Six Thinking Hats
119
Procedures for Thinking Hats Analysis
  • Explain that the purpose of this activity is to
    practice analyzing a topic as a class using
    multiple Thinking Hats.
  • Present the topic to analyze.
  • One by one, go through each Thinking Hat and ask
    students to call out ideas or suggestions for
    analysis of the topic using the specific hat.
  • Record student input on the presentation
    material.
  • Provide feedback throughout.
  • Lead the class in a discussion of the points made
    from all of the different Thinking Hats.
  • Summarize the results of the activity.

120
Procedures for Thinking Hats Jigsaw
  • Explain that the purpose of this activity is to
    practice analyzing a topic in groups using a
    specific Thinking Hat.
  • Divide students into small groups.
  • Provide each group with the handout of the topic
    to analyze.
  • Assign each group a Thinking Hat with which to
    analyze the topic.
  • Have students analyze the topic from the
    perspective of their assigned Thinking Hat.
  • Have each group present the results of their
    analysis.
  • Provide feedback.
  • Summarize the results of the activity.

121
Procedures for Changing Hats
  • Explain that the purpose of this activity is to
    practice analyzing a topic in groups using
    multiple Thinking Hats.
  • Divide students into small groups.
  • Provide each group with the handout of the topic
    to analyze.
  • Assign each group a Thinking Hat with which to
    analyze the topic.
  • Have students analyze the topic from the
    perspective of their assigned Thinking Hat within
    a specific time frame.
  • When time is up, assign each group a new Thinking
    Hat to analyze the topic within a specific time
    frame. Continue this until all of the groups have
    analyzed the topic with all of the Thinking Hats.
  • Have a few groups present their analysis.
  • Provide feedback throughout.
  • Summarize the results of the activity.

122
Directions Complete the chart to show what you
know about ________________ Write as much
as you can.
Description
Description of the Strategy
Steps in Developing It
Useful For
Place to Use It in the Curriculum
Tomlinson - 02
123
Structured Academic Controvery
124
SAC promotes
  • Consensus-building
  • Expansion of content knowledge
  • Expansion of students' world views
  • Motivation (Mead Scharmann)

125
SAC promotes
  • Sense of learning community
  • Respect for multiple perspectives
  • Acceptance that an individual can use multiple
    ways of knowing the world

126
SAC Does NOT
  • Present right or wrong
  • Ask students personal beliefs
  • Marginalize unique views
  • Accept all types of knowledge as equivalent
  • Allow Debate

127
1. Assign each pair of students the following
tasks
  • a.) Learning their position and its supporting
    arguments and information
  • b.) Researching all information relevant to their
    position
  • c.) Giving the opposing pair any information
    found supporting the opposing position
  • d.) Preparing a persuasive presentation to be
    given to the other pair
  • e.) Preparing a series of persuasive arguments to
    be used in the discussion with the opposing
  • pair

128
2. Have each pair PRESENT ITS POSITION to the
other.
  • Presentations should involve more
  • than one medium and persuasively advocate the
    best case for the position. There is no arguing
  • during this time. Students should listen
    carefully to the opposing position. Students are
    told
  • As a pair, present your position forcefully and
    persuasively. Listen carefully and learn the
  • opposing position. Take notes, and clarify
    anything that you do not understand.

129
3. Have students openly DISCUSS THE ISSUE by
freely exchanging their information and ideas.
  • For higher-level reasoning and critical thinking
    to occur, it is necessary to prove and push each
    others statements, clarify rationales, and show
    why their position is a rationale one.
  • Students refute the claims being made by the
    opposing pair and rebut the attacks o
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