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Health, Vaccinations, and Deworming


Ringworm ... What Ringworm Looks Like ... Ringworm should be treated to prevent spreading to humans and other animals. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Health, Vaccinations, and Deworming

Health, Vaccinations, and Deworming
  • Shannon Irwin
  • 2006-2007 GJCA Officer
  • Chapter Relations Director

  • When raising cattle for show, meat, or to sell,
    your cattles health is important whether its
    mild or life threatening.
  • To ensure good cattle health
  • Provide proper nutrition
  • Keep clean cattle facilities / spaces

Signs of Healthy Cattle
  • Usually alert to their surroundings.
  • Eager to eat when feeding time.
  • Enjoys attention.

Signs of Unhealthy Cattle
  • Less interest in their surroundings.
  • Poor eating habits.
  • Attitude and behavior are different.

Two Ways to Check if Your Cattle are Healthy or
  • Respiration
  • Temperature

Checking The Respiration And Temperature In Cattle
  • In healthy cattle the respiration is about 20
    breaths per minute. Between 10 and 30 is also
    normal. On a hot day the breathing may be
  • In healthy cattle the temperature is 101.5F. If
    the animals temperature is 102.5F, its above
    normal and considered a fever. If it is 100.5F,
    its subnormal and also a serious condition.

  • Vaccinations should be given to young calves,
    calves at weaning, and adult cattle (including
  • Yearlings and cows should be vaccinated annually
    or semi-annually.

Proper Use Of Vaccines
  • Make sure it has been refrigerated.
  • Check the expiration date (if kept too long they
    may lose potency).
  • Follow the directions on the label (dosage).
  • Do no combine Vaccines.

  • For adult cattle
  • Use a 16ga needle at least 2 inches long
  • For calves
  • Use an 18ga needle at least 1-1.5 inches long
  • Subcutaneous Injection (SQ)
  • Injection given under or between the skin
  • Intravenous Injection (IM)
  • Injection given into a large vein
  • Consult a vet to either give the injection or
  • The neck and rump muscles are the primary
    injection sites

Giving an IM or SQ injection
  • Needle needs to go in with a forceful thrust so
    it goes to the muscle. Into either the neck or
    rump. (A sharper needle can go in with less
    effort and pain).
  • Find a place where the skin is loosest. Either
    the loosest part of the neck or shoulder. Make
    sure the shot goes into the part youve pulled
    up, not the muscle.

  • Reactions to vaccinations may include
  • Temporary swelling at site of injection
  • Not a serious problem.
  • Anaphylactic Shock
  • Difficultly breathing and then collapsing
  • SEVERE! Treat Immediately!

How To Treat Anaphylactic Shock
  • Inject antihistamine
  • Should be in a first aid kit
  • Use epinephrine (adrenaline) and dexamethasone
  • Usually reverses the reaction allowing the animal
    to recover quickly
  • If an animal has a reaction to a vaccine, DO NOT
    ever give the same one again. It may kill the

First Aid Kit
  • Needles and syringes of different sizes
  • Animal thermometer
  • Injectable antibiotics
  • Topical pinkeye
  • Epsom salt
  • Nitrofurazone (solution or ointment)
  • Nolvason disinfectant solution
  • Iodine (7 Tincture)
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Mineral oil
  • DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide)

Several Vaccinations for Your Cattle
  • IBR - Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (Red
  • Caused by respiratory problems can lead to
  • BVD - Bovine Viral Diarrhea
  • Common disease of the digestive/respiratory
    system severe diarrhea
  • PI3 Parainfluenza
  • Causes respiratory problems can be completed if
    IBR and BVD occur all at the same time
  • Brucellosis (done by Vet)
  • Causes abortions and has no cure
  • Do no vaccinate bulls
  • Try to maintain closed herd, raising all of your
    own replacement heifers
  • Tetanus - caused by bacteria
  • Big Head (feedlot cattle) - No symptoms
  • Dead animals have had swelling in throat
  • Vibrio
  • Causes abortions is spread from bull to heifer

Where Worms Infest
  • Worms can infest
  • Digestive Tract
  • Lungs
  • On the skin
  • Found mainly in animals grazing irrigated pasture
    and young cattle that have no resistance

Symptoms of Worms
  • Loss of weight
  • Rough hair
  • Poor appetite
  • Diarrhea
  • Coughing
  • Loss of hair
  • Respiratory distress

Round Worms (Ostertagia)
  • Brown Stomach Worms-Most common internal parasite
    found in cattle.
  • Grazing cattle ingest 3rd stage larvae.
  • Type 1 - eggs appear in manure 18-60 days after
    larval ingestion. Effects calves from 7-15
    months. Seen early in temperate regions and late
    cool regions.
  • Type 2- Larvae may hibernate for up to 6 months
    in the gastric glands caused by unusual
    conditions, nutritional or climatic conditions.
    Occur in 12-20 month old cattle. Seen in late
    summer - autumn in warmer temperature regions or
    late winter to early spring in colder regions.

Lungworms (Dictyocalus Viviparous)
  • Occurs where pastures are normally wet or swampy.
  • Ingested through grazing.
  • Larvae migrated to lungs to lymphatic system the
    arterial blood supply.
  • Emerge into alveoli to the bronchioles and to the
    bronchi where they mature.
  • Leads to emphysema or pneumonia.
  • All ages of cattle are infected.

Large Stomach Worms andTape Worms
Large Stomach Worms - Haemonchus
Tape Worms
  • Affect young cattle.
  • Live in soil and grass.
  • Ingested by feeding oribatid mites.
  • After 6 weeks the eggs convert to an infective
    form which is cysticercoids.
  • Infected by ingesting mites.
  • In the abomasums, punctures small blood vessels,
    then feeds on blood.
  • Called-Barber pole or wire worm.
  • Seen most frequently in young animals. Older
    animals that havent been exposed can be
    seriously infected.

  • Even though this is not an internal or serious
    disease it is still important to get rid of.
  • It is a fungal disease found in many animals
    including cattle.
  • It is transmitted by direct contact with the
    animal that was previously infected.

What Ringworm Looks Like
  • It is a circular patch where there is broken
    stubby hair, it may be crusting, and have a
    redness to it.
  • Will appear to be spreading in an outward
  • There may be one or more on the animals body.

How to treat Ringworm andWhy Treat!
  • The spot can be treated with a topical
    anti-fungal cream. There are also oral
    medications to give if the ringworms are more
  • Ringworm should be treated to prevent spreading
    to humans and other animals.
  • Remember, it spreads easily. So you should treat
    the infected animal as soon as possible. Also
    keep infected animal away from others so it will
    not spread.
  • You can use Iodine on ringworm.

Types of Dewormers for the Worms That were listed
  • Privermectin (Pour On)
  • 1mL per 22lb of body weight
  • Used for the control or treatment of roundworms
    and lungworms
  • Apply to backline from the withers to the tail
  • Ivomec Eprinex (Pour On)
  • 1mL per 22lb of body weight
  • Used for the treatment or control of roundworms
    and lungworms
  • For use on cattle 8 weeks or older
  • Apply to backline from the withers to the tail
  • Dectomex (Pour On)
  • 1mL per 22lb of body weight
  • Used for the treatment or control of internal as
    well as external parasites
  • Such as roundworm and lungworms
  • Apply to backline from the withers to the tail
  • Agri-Mectin (Pour On)
  • 1mL per 22lb of body weight
  • Used for the control or treatment of roundworms
    and lungworms
  • Apply to backline from the withers to the tail

These wormers are also used for the control and
treatment of lice, grubs, horn flies, and mites.
Things To Remember
  • Nutrition
  • Proper nutrition is key to keeping your cattle
    healthy. How they are fed and what you feed has
    an impact on their health.
  • Vaccinations
  • Consult with your vet on which vaccinations are
    needed, when, and how much to administer.
    Remember that some states require certain
    vaccinations against certain diseases.
  • When using a live-virus make sure it is not
    exposed to heat and chemically disinfected
    syringes can inactivate them.

  • When giving an IM injection in the neck or rump
    make sure you choose a large, thick muscle so you
    wont hit a bone. When giving the IM injection to
    a small calf a shot remember the neck muscle is
    not large enough to absorb different types of
    antibiotics or shots.
  • When giving the IM injection, make sure you dont
    hit a vein. If you do hit a vein remove the
    needle slowly and find a different place.
  • When giving the SQ injection, hold the loose skin
    to make sure the needle doesnt poke the tissue.
  • Helpful Hints
  • If the animal is resisting, wait until it settles
  • Always be sure you give the injection in a clean,
    dry area on the calf.
  • Remember that vaccinating calves too soon may
    cause them not to gain adequate immunity due to
    the fact that their immune system is still
  • If you have any questions on age of proper
    administration consult with your vet.

The End!