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Health, Vaccinations, and Deworming

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Ringworm ... What Ringworm Looks Like ... Ringworm should be treated to prevent spreading to humans and other animals. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Health, Vaccinations, and Deworming


1
Health, Vaccinations, and Deworming
  • Shannon Irwin
  • 2006-2007 GJCA Officer
  • Chapter Relations Director

2
Health
3
  • When raising cattle for show, meat, or to sell,
    your cattles health is important whether its
    mild or life threatening.
  • To ensure good cattle health
  • Provide proper nutrition
  • Keep clean cattle facilities / spaces

4
Signs of Healthy Cattle
  • Usually alert to their surroundings.
  • Eager to eat when feeding time.
  • Enjoys attention.

5
Signs of Unhealthy Cattle
  • Less interest in their surroundings.
  • Poor eating habits.
  • Attitude and behavior are different.

6
Two Ways to Check if Your Cattle are Healthy or
Unhealthy
  • Respiration
  • Temperature

7
Checking The Respiration And Temperature In Cattle
  • In healthy cattle the respiration is about 20
    breaths per minute. Between 10 and 30 is also
    normal. On a hot day the breathing may be
    heavier.
  • In healthy cattle the temperature is 101.5F. If
    the animals temperature is 102.5F, its above
    normal and considered a fever. If it is 100.5F,
    its subnormal and also a serious condition.

8
Vaccinations
9
  • Vaccinations should be given to young calves,
    calves at weaning, and adult cattle (including
    cows).
  • Yearlings and cows should be vaccinated annually
    or semi-annually.

10
Proper Use Of Vaccines
  • Make sure it has been refrigerated.
  • Check the expiration date (if kept too long they
    may lose potency).
  • Follow the directions on the label (dosage).
  • Do no combine Vaccines.

11
Injecting
  • For adult cattle
  • Use a 16ga needle at least 2 inches long
  • For calves
  • Use an 18ga needle at least 1-1.5 inches long
  • Subcutaneous Injection (SQ)
  • Injection given under or between the skin
  • Intravenous Injection (IM)
  • Injection given into a large vein
  • Consult a vet to either give the injection or
    demonstrate
  • The neck and rump muscles are the primary
    injection sites

12
Giving an IM or SQ injection
The IM INJECTION
THE SQ INJECTION
  • Needle needs to go in with a forceful thrust so
    it goes to the muscle. Into either the neck or
    rump. (A sharper needle can go in with less
    effort and pain).
  • Find a place where the skin is loosest. Either
    the loosest part of the neck or shoulder. Make
    sure the shot goes into the part youve pulled
    up, not the muscle.

13
REACTIONS
  • Reactions to vaccinations may include
  • Temporary swelling at site of injection
  • Not a serious problem.
  • Anaphylactic Shock
  • Difficultly breathing and then collapsing
  • SEVERE! Treat Immediately!

14
How To Treat Anaphylactic Shock
  • Inject antihistamine
  • Should be in a first aid kit
  • Use epinephrine (adrenaline) and dexamethasone
  • Usually reverses the reaction allowing the animal
    to recover quickly
  • If an animal has a reaction to a vaccine, DO NOT
    ever give the same one again. It may kill the
    animal.

15
First Aid Kit
  • Needles and syringes of different sizes
  • Animal thermometer
  • Injectable antibiotics
  • Topical pinkeye
  • Epsom salt
  • Nitrofurazone (solution or ointment)
  • Nolvason disinfectant solution
  • Iodine (7 Tincture)
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Mineral oil
  • DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide)

16
Several Vaccinations for Your Cattle
  • IBR - Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (Red
    Nose)
  • Caused by respiratory problems can lead to
    pneumonia
  • BVD - Bovine Viral Diarrhea
  • Common disease of the digestive/respiratory
    system severe diarrhea
  • PI3 Parainfluenza
  • Causes respiratory problems can be completed if
    IBR and BVD occur all at the same time
  • Brucellosis (done by Vet)
  • Causes abortions and has no cure
  • Do no vaccinate bulls
  • Try to maintain closed herd, raising all of your
    own replacement heifers
  • Tetanus - caused by bacteria
  • Big Head (feedlot cattle) - No symptoms
  • Dead animals have had swelling in throat
  • Vibrio
  • Causes abortions is spread from bull to heifer

17
Deworming
18
Where Worms Infest
  • Worms can infest
  • Digestive Tract
  • Lungs
  • On the skin
  • Found mainly in animals grazing irrigated pasture
    and young cattle that have no resistance

19
Symptoms of Worms
  • Loss of weight
  • Rough hair
  • Poor appetite
  • Diarrhea
  • Coughing
  • Loss of hair
  • Respiratory distress

20
TYPES OF WORMS
21
Round Worms (Ostertagia)
  • Brown Stomach Worms-Most common internal parasite
    found in cattle.
  • Grazing cattle ingest 3rd stage larvae.
  • Type 1 - eggs appear in manure 18-60 days after
    larval ingestion. Effects calves from 7-15
    months. Seen early in temperate regions and late
    cool regions.
  • Type 2- Larvae may hibernate for up to 6 months
    in the gastric glands caused by unusual
    conditions, nutritional or climatic conditions.
    Occur in 12-20 month old cattle. Seen in late
    summer - autumn in warmer temperature regions or
    late winter to early spring in colder regions.

22
Lungworms (Dictyocalus Viviparous)
  • Occurs where pastures are normally wet or swampy.
  • Ingested through grazing.
  • Larvae migrated to lungs to lymphatic system the
    arterial blood supply.
  • Emerge into alveoli to the bronchioles and to the
    bronchi where they mature.
  • Leads to emphysema or pneumonia.
  • All ages of cattle are infected.

23
Large Stomach Worms andTape Worms
Large Stomach Worms - Haemonchus
Tape Worms
  • Affect young cattle.
  • Live in soil and grass.
  • Ingested by feeding oribatid mites.
  • After 6 weeks the eggs convert to an infective
    form which is cysticercoids.
  • Infected by ingesting mites.
  • In the abomasums, punctures small blood vessels,
    then feeds on blood.
  • Called-Barber pole or wire worm.
  • Seen most frequently in young animals. Older
    animals that havent been exposed can be
    seriously infected.

24
Ringworm
  • Even though this is not an internal or serious
    disease it is still important to get rid of.
  • It is a fungal disease found in many animals
    including cattle.
  • It is transmitted by direct contact with the
    animal that was previously infected.

25
What Ringworm Looks Like
  • It is a circular patch where there is broken
    stubby hair, it may be crusting, and have a
    redness to it.
  • Will appear to be spreading in an outward
    position.
  • There may be one or more on the animals body.

26
How to treat Ringworm andWhy Treat!
  • The spot can be treated with a topical
    anti-fungal cream. There are also oral
    medications to give if the ringworms are more
    severe.
  • Ringworm should be treated to prevent spreading
    to humans and other animals.
  • Remember, it spreads easily. So you should treat
    the infected animal as soon as possible. Also
    keep infected animal away from others so it will
    not spread.
  • You can use Iodine on ringworm.

27
Types of Dewormers for the Worms That were listed
  • Privermectin (Pour On)
  • 1mL per 22lb of body weight
  • Used for the control or treatment of roundworms
    and lungworms
  • Apply to backline from the withers to the tail
    head
  • Ivomec Eprinex (Pour On)
  • 1mL per 22lb of body weight
  • Used for the treatment or control of roundworms
    and lungworms
  • For use on cattle 8 weeks or older
  • Apply to backline from the withers to the tail
    head.
  • Dectomex (Pour On)
  • 1mL per 22lb of body weight
  • Used for the treatment or control of internal as
    well as external parasites
  • Such as roundworm and lungworms
  • Apply to backline from the withers to the tail
    head
  • Agri-Mectin (Pour On)
  • 1mL per 22lb of body weight
  • Used for the control or treatment of roundworms
    and lungworms
  • Apply to backline from the withers to the tail
    head

These wormers are also used for the control and
treatment of lice, grubs, horn flies, and mites.
28
Things To Remember
29
  • Nutrition
  • Proper nutrition is key to keeping your cattle
    healthy. How they are fed and what you feed has
    an impact on their health.
  • Vaccinations
  • Consult with your vet on which vaccinations are
    needed, when, and how much to administer.
    Remember that some states require certain
    vaccinations against certain diseases.
  • When using a live-virus make sure it is not
    exposed to heat and chemically disinfected
    syringes can inactivate them.

30
  • SQ IM INJECTIONS
  • When giving an IM injection in the neck or rump
    make sure you choose a large, thick muscle so you
    wont hit a bone. When giving the IM injection to
    a small calf a shot remember the neck muscle is
    not large enough to absorb different types of
    antibiotics or shots.
  • When giving the IM injection, make sure you dont
    hit a vein. If you do hit a vein remove the
    needle slowly and find a different place.
  • When giving the SQ injection, hold the loose skin
    to make sure the needle doesnt poke the tissue.
  • Helpful Hints
  • If the animal is resisting, wait until it settles
    down.
  • Always be sure you give the injection in a clean,
    dry area on the calf.
  • Remember that vaccinating calves too soon may
    cause them not to gain adequate immunity due to
    the fact that their immune system is still
    immature.
  • If you have any questions on age of proper
    administration consult with your vet.

31
The End!
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